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BETWEEN HER MAJESTY AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE CONVENTION OF MAY 13, 1870,
FEBRUARY 23, 1871.
(Ratifications exchanged at Washington, May 4, 1871.)
Whereas by the second article of the Convention between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States of America, for regulating the citizenship of subjects and citizens of the contracting parties who have emigrated or may emigrate from the dominions of the one to those of the other party, signed at London on the 13th of May, 1870, it was stipulated that the manner in which the renunciation by such subjects and citizens of their naturalization, and the resumption of their native allegiance, may be made and publicly declared, should be agreed upon by the governments of the respective countries; Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the President of the United States of America, for the purpose of effecting such agreement, have resolved to conclude a Supplemental Convention, and have named as their plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
Any person being originally a citizen of the United States, who had, previously to May 13, 1870, been naturalized as a British subject, may at any time before August 10, 1872, and any British subject who, at the date first aforesaid, had been naturalized as a citizen within the United States, may, at any time before May 12, 1872, publicly declare his renunciation of such naturalization by subscribing an instrument in writing, substantially in the form hereunto appended, and designated as Annex A.
Such renunciation, by an original citizen of the United States, of British nationality, shall, within the territories and jurisdiction of the United States, be made in duplicate, in the presence of any court authorized by law for the time being to admit aliens to naturalization, or before the clerk or prothonotary of any such court; if the declarant be beyond the territories of the United States, it shall be made in duplicate, before any diplomatic or consular officer of the United States. One of such duplicates shall remain of record in
the custody of the court or officer in whose presence it was made; the other shall be, without delay, transmitted to the Department of State.
Such renunciation, if declared by an original British subject, of his acquired nationality as a citizen of the United States, shall, if the declarant be in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, be made in duplicate, in the presence of a justice of the peace; if elsewhere in Her Britannic Majesty's dominions, in triplicate, in the presence of any judge of civil or criminal jurisdiction, of any justice of the peace, or of any other officer for the time being authorized by law, in the place in which the declarant is, to administer an oath for any judicial or other legal purpose; if out of Her Majesty's dominions, in triplicate, in the presence of any officer in the diplomatic and consular service of Her Majesty.
The contracting parties hereby engage to communicate each to the other, from time to time, lists of the persons who, within their respective dominions and territories, or before their diplomatic and consular officers, have declared their renunciation of naturalization, with the dates and places of making such declarations, and such information as to the abode of the declarants, and the times and places of their naturalization, as they may have furnished.
I, A. B., of (insert abode), being originally a citizen of the United States of America (or a British subject), and having become naturalized within the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty as a British subject (or as a citizen within the United States of America), do hereby renounce my naturalization as a British subject (or citizen of the United States); and declare that it is my desire to resume my naturalization as a citizen of the United States (or British subject).
Made and subscribed before me,
A. B. in
(insert country or subdivision, and state, province, colony, legation, or consulate), this
day of E. F.,
Justice of the Peace (or other title).
(These conventions are printed from British official documents. They will also be found in Treaties United States, 1870-1, p. 399; ib. 1871, p. 15.)
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE AUSTROHUNGARIAN MONARCHY.-NATURALIZATION. SIGNED SEPTEM
BER 20, 1870; RATIFIED MARCH 24, 1871; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED JULY 14, 1871; PROCLAIMED AUGUST 1, 1871.
The President of the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary, led by the wish to regulate the citizenship of those persons who emigrate from the United States of America to the territories of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and from the AustroHungarian Monarchy to the United States of America, have resolved to treat on this subject, and have for that purpose appointed Plenipo. tentiaries to conclude a Convention, that is to say,
Citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy who have resided in the United States of America uninterruptedly at least five years, and during such residence have become naturalized citizens of the United States, shall be held by the government of Austria and Hungary to be American citizens, and shall be treated as such.
Reciprocally citizens of the United States of America who have resided in the territories of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy uninterruptedly at least five years, and during such residence have become naturalized citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, shall be held by the United States to be citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and shall be treated as such.
The declaration of an intention to become a citizen of the one or the other country has not for either party the effect of naturalization.
A naturalized citizen of the one party, on return to the territory of the other party, remains liable to trial and punishment for an action punishable by the laws of his original country committed before his emigration, saving always the limitation established by the laws of his original country, and any other remission of liability to punishment.
In particular, a former citizen of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, who, under the first article, is to be held as an American citizen, is liable to trial and punishment, according to the laws of AustroHungary, for non-fulfillment of military duty:
1st. If he has emigrated, after having been drafted at the time of conscription, and thus having become enrolled as a recruit for service in the standing army.
2d. If he has emigrated whilst he stood in service under the flag, or had a leave of absence only for a limited time.
3d. If, having a leave of absence for an unlimited time, or belonging to the reserve or to the militia, he has emigrated after having received a call into service, or after a public proclamation requiring his appearance, or after war has broken out.
On the other hand, a former citizen of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy naturalized in the United States, who by or after his emigration has transgressed the legal provisions on military duty by any acts or omissions other than those above enumerated in the clauses numbered one, two, and three, can, on his return to his original country, neither be held subsequently to military service, nor remain liable to trial and punishment for the non-fulfillment of his military duty.
The convention for the mutual delivery of criminals, fugitives from justice, concluded on the 3d July, 1856, between the government of the United States of America, on the one part, and the AustroHungarian Monarchy, on the other part, as well as the additional convention, signed on the 8th May, 1848, to the treaty of commerce and navigation concluded between the said governments on the 27th of August, 1829, and especially the stipulations of Article IV of the said additional convention concerning the delivery of the deserters from the ships of war and merchant vessels, remain in force without change.
The emigrant from the one State, who, according to Article I, is to be held as a citizen of the other State, shall not, on his return to his original country, be constrained to resume his former citizenship; yet if he shall of his own accord reacquire it, and re-nounce the citizen
ship obtained by naturalization, such a renunciation is allowable, and no fixed period of residence shall be required for the recognition of his recovery of citizenship in his original country.
The present convention shall go into effect immediately on the exchange of ratifications, and shall continue in force ten years. If neither party shall have given to the other six months' previous notice of its intention then to terminate the same, it shall further remain in force until the end of twelve months after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of such intention.
The present convention shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the consent of the Senate of the United States, and by His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, etc., King of Hungary, with the constitutional consent of the two legislatures of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Vienna within twelve months from the date hereof. (Printed from treaty, accompanying President's proclamation.)
The following is a Synopsis of the Laws of the different States, respecting the holding of Real Estate by Aliens, as far as we are enabled to state them from the most recent publications within our reach:
In Vermont, there being no statutory provision, the common law remains. (See General Statutes, Vermont, 1870.)
In New Hampshire, alien residents may take, purchase, hold, convey, or devise real estate, and the same may descend in the same way as if they were native citizens. (Statutes, 1853, c. 135, § 1, p. 252; Statutes, 1867, p. 253.)
In Massachusetts, aliens may take, hold, convey, and transmit real estate. (General Statutes, 1860, chap. 91, § 38.)