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CHAP. were taken; the garrisons, making but a show of defence, either surrendered or retired. Meanwhile the Porto Rican people everywhere welcomed the American troops, looking upon them as deliverers from oppression. The Spanish forces at several places on the island held out for a time, but finally gave up the cause, as they had heard the rumors of peace and its conditions, and they surrendered in great numbers.








Affairs in the Philippines.-Aguinaldo.-His proclamation.-Manila occupied. The French Minister at Washington speaks in behalf of Spain.-Peace Commissioners.-Cuban Debt.-Spain cedes Territory.-Adjustment of Railroad Debts.-The Gold Standard. -Porto Rican Tariff. -Hawaii annexed.-Alaska.-McKinley and Roosevelt nominated by the Republicans.—Wm. J. Bryan by the Democrats.—Several Platforms.-Re-election of McKinley.


We now return to the affairs in the Philippine Islands. CHAP. Commodore Dewey-or, as he was now promoted to be, Rear-Admiral-was cramped in his efforts to secure what his victory had gained, because he had not sufficient land forces to occupy important places on shore. At first the Filipinos who were in insurrection against the Spanish authorities were universally willing to act in concert with the Americans, but afterward a comparatively small portion of them were induced to become hostile to the rule of the United States.

One Emilio Aguinaldo, who had been a leader among the insurgents against Spain, had previously left the islands at the close of the former insurrection, and was in China, and when Dewey's fleet sailed for Manila he was permitted to go on board one of the vessels, as both the U. S. Consul at Hong Kong and Dewey thought he would be useful in securing the aid of the insurgent natives against the Spaniards. After the battle in Manila Harbor Aguinaldo went ashore, and ere long was in command of the army gathered by the insurgents, and

CHAP. at first acted in concert with the American forces as effiLXXVII. cient allies. But as the Spanish losses continued, the hopes of the Filipinos for the independence they had fought for in both insurrections grew more confident. Admiral Dewey reported early in June that they had taken 1,800 prisoners, and by the 20th this number was increased to 4,000. Finally, without consultation with the American authorities, Aguinaldo came out with a 1898. proclamation announcing a provisional government for the Philippine Islands, and a declaration of independence of Spanish authority. There is no evidence that he was elected by his followers, but there is that he assumed the Presidency of the improvised provisional government-doubtless, however, by general consent. as he was their recognized leader. He announced that he would not oppose an American protectorate for his government. The insurgents continued to harass the Spanish.






At length Gen. Merritt, who had been appointed July Military Governor of the Philippines, arrived at Manila on the warship Monterey, which was accompanied by transports on board of which were United States troops. Admiral Dewey was prepared to act in connection with these land forces, and accordingly he and Gen. Merritt demanded the surrender of Manila, which was refused. 1898. The fleet opened fire upon the fortifications at 9.30 A. M., and at once the land forces opened from their trenches under Gen. E. V. Greene. This occurred the day after the signature of the peace negotiations between Spain and the United States, unknown to the forces in the Philippines. At 1 P.M. the Spanish forces surrendered, and Manila was occupied by the Americans. The intense hatred of the Filipinos toward the Spaniards was well known, as well as their love of plunder, and for that reason they could not be trusted within the city, lest they should pillage it indiscriminately. This ex




clusion from what they had long coveted made them CHAP. exceedingly angry and revengeful.



Both Spain and the United States, however, were ready before this to enter upon negotiations for peace. The first overture on the subject was in behalf of Spain and was presented by M. Jules Cambon, the 1898. French Minister at Washington. It was of course well received by the President. Then commenced a series of correspondence. In the meantime an armistice was proclaimed by the President, and word was sent as soon as possible to the respective commanding officers.

Aug. 12.

A protocol or preliminary document was drawn up 1898. in which was defined in general terms the basis of the Treaty of Peace about to be concluded. It was signed on the part of the United States by William R. Day, Secretary of State, and on behalf of Spain by his Excellency Jules Cambon, Minister to the United States from the Republic of France. The protocol was adopted (September 10th) by the Spanish Senate, and was signed the following day by the Queen Regent.

According to the agreement, each party was to appoint five Commissioners to the Peace Convention, which was to meet in Paris on the first day of the following October. On the part of the United States five Commissioners were appointed, consisting of the Hon. William R. Day of Ohio, United States Senators Cushman K. Davis of Minnesota, William P. Frye of Maine, George Gray of Delaware, and Whitelaw Reid of New York. The Spanish government also appointed five Commissioners, of whom as chief was Señor Montero Rios, president of the Spanish Senate.


The first joint session of the Convention was held in Paris October 1st, in apartments assigned for the pur- 1898. pose at the French Foreign Office. The Convention was 1. guided by and limited to the consideration of the items recorded in the protocol. But incidentally came up


CHAP. what was called the Cuban debt, which was said to have been contracted in the form of bonds issued for the benefit of Spain alone, but credited as if belonging to Cuba, whose people derived no advantage from them. The American Commissioners refused to consider the matter, first, because it was outside the protocol, and secondly, this debt was a matter for Spain alone. In this view of the case the Spanish Commissioners temporarily acquiesced, and the subject was left to future negotiation. The Convention continued its sessions, carefully discussing every point at issue, and after two months and ten days the Treaty of Peace was signed by all the Commissioners; this was six months and sixteen days after the war was declared.




The leading features of the treaty were the relinquishment by Spain of all sovereignty over Cuba, the cession to the United States of Porto Rico, and in the East Indies of the Philippine Islands and also the island of Guam in the Ladrones-the latter a waystation on the route from Manila to Honolulu. The United States agreed to pay for the Philippines $20,000,000.

On March 17, 1899, the Queen Regent of Spain signed the treaty, which was transmitted to M. Cambon, who communicated with our Secretary of State, Mr. 1899. John Hay. The formal exchange of ratifications took place at Washington April 11, 1899.



The United States Government entered at once upon redeeming the pledges given the world, that by intervention it would relieve the people of Cuba and Porto Rico, who were struggling to be free from oppression, and also, incidentally, the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands, who were in a similar condition. The American people have thus secured for the inhabitants of these farseparated islands the opportunity to prepare themselves

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