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a kind of laced tawed-leather stockins. They are naturally proud, and idle, given much to singing, dancing, and playes; they are governed by Sachems, Kings; and Saggamores, petie Lords; by an absolute tyrannie. Their women are of comely feature, industrious, and doe most of the labour in planting, and carrying of burdens; their husbands hold them in great slavery, yet never knowing other, it is the lesse grievous to them. They say, Englishman much foole, for spoiling good working creatures, meaning women: And when they see any of our English women sewing with their needles, or working coifes, or such things, they will cry out, Lazie squaes! but they are much the kinder to their wives, by the example of the English. Their children, they will not part with, upon any terms, to be taught. They are of complexion swarthy and tawny; [p. 50.] their children are borne white, but they bedawbe them with oyle, and colours, presently. They have all black haire, that I saw.

In times of mourning, they paint their faces with black lead, black, all about the eye-brows, and part of their cheeks. In time of rejoycing, they paint red, with a kind of vermilion. They cut their haire of divers formes, according to their Nation or people, so that you may know a people by their cut; and ever they have a long lock on one side of their heads, and weare feathers of Peacocks, and such like, and red cloath, or ribbands at their locks; beads of wampompeag about their necks, and a girdle of the same, wrought with blew and white wampom, after the manner of chequer work, two fingers broad, about their loynes: Some of their chiefe men goe so, and pendants of wampom, and such toyes in their ears. And their women, some of the chiefe, have faire bracelets, and chaines of wampom. Men and women, of them, come confidently among the English. Since the Pequid war, they are kept in very good subjec

tion, and held to strict points of Justice, so that the English may travail safely among them. But the French in the East, and the Dutch in the South, sell them guns, powder and shot. They have Powahes, or Priests, which are Witches, and a kind of Chirurgions, but some of them, notwithstanding, are faine to be beholding to the English Chirurgions. They will have their times of powaheing, which they will, of late, have called Prayers, according to the English word. The [p. 51.] Powahe labours himselfe in his incantations, to extreame sweating and wearinesse, even to extacie. The Powahes cannot work their witchcrafts, if any of the English be by; neither can any of their incantations lay hold on, or doe any harme to the English, as I have been credibly informed. The Powahe is next the King, or Sachem, and commonly when he dyes, the Powahe marryes the Squa Sachem, that is, the queene. They have marriages among them; they have many wives; they say, they commit much filthinesse among themselves. But for every marriage, the Saggamore hath a fadome of wampom, which is about seven or eight shillings value. Some of them will diligently attend to any thing they can understand by any of our Religion, and are very willing to teach their language to any English. They live much the better, and peaceably, for the English; and themselves know it, or at least their Sachems, and Saggamores know so much, for before they did nothing but spoile and destroy one another. They live in Wigwams, or houses made of mats like little hutts, the fire in the midst of the house. They cut downe a tree with axes and hatchets, bought of the English, Dutch, or French, & bring in the buttend into the wigwam, upon the hearth, and so burne it by degrees. They live upon parched corne, (of late, they grinde at our English mills.) Venison, Bevers, Otters, Oysters, Clammes, Lobsters, and other fish, Ground-nuts, Akornes, they boyle all to

gether in a kettle. Their riches are their wampom, bolles, trayes, [p. 52.] kettles, and spoones, bever, furres, and canoos. He is a Sachem, whose wife hath her cleane spoons in a chest, for some chief English men, when they come on guest wise to the wigwam. They lye upon a mat, with a stone, or a piece of wood under their heads; they will give the best entertainment they can make to any English comming amongst them. They will not taste sweet things, nor alter their habit willingly; onely they are taken with tobacco, wine, and strong waters; and I have seene some of them in English, or French cloathes. Their ordinary weapons are bowes and arrowes, and long staves, or halfe pykes, with pieces of swords, daggers, or knives in the ends of them: They have Captaines, and are very good at a short mark, and nimble of foot to run away. Their manner of fighting is, most commonly, all in one fyle. They are many in number, and worship Kitan, their good god, or Hobbamocco, their evill god; but more feare Hobbamocco, because he doth them most harme. Some of their Kings names are Canonicus, Meantinomy, Owshamequin, Cushamequin, Webbacowitts, and Squa Sachem his wife She is the Queene, and he is Powahe, and King, in the right of his wife. Among some of these Nations, their policie is to have two Kings at a time; but, I thinke, of one family; the one aged for counsell, the other younger for action. Their Kings succeed by inheritance.

hopefull School

Master Henry Dunster, Schoolmaster of Cambridge, deserves commendations above many; he [p. 53.] hath the plat-forme M. Dunster a and way of conversion of the Natives, master. indifferent right, and much studies the same, wherein yet he wants not opposition, as some other also have met with: He will, without doubt, prove an instrument of much good in the Countrey, being a good Scholar, and having skil in the Tongues;

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He will make it good, that the way to instruct the Indians, must be in their owne language, not English; and that their language may be perfected.

A Note of some late occurrences touching Episcopacie.

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Ome of the learnedst, and godliest in the Bay, begin to understand Governments; that it is necessary, when Ministers or People fall Some late occur out to send other Ministers, or they voling Episcopacie. untarily to goe among them, to seek by all good wayes and meanes to ap

rences concern

pease them.

And particularly, Master Peter went from Salem on foot to New Dover, alias Pascattaqua, alias Northam, to appease the difference betweene Master Larkham and Master K. when they had been up in Armes this last Winter time. He went by the sending of the Governour, Counsell, and Assistants of the Bay, and of the Church of Salem; and was in much danger of being lost, returning, by losing his way in the woods, and some with him, but God be blessed they returned.

Againe he went a second time, for appeasing [p. 54.] the same difference, and had a Commission to divers Gentlemen, master Humphrey, master Bradstreate, Captaine Wiggon, and master Simons, to assist, and to heare and determine all causes civill and criminall, from the Governour of the Bay, under his hand, and the publique seale, and then master K. went by the worst.

Master Wilson did lately ride to Greens harbour, in Plymouth Patent, to appease a broyle betweene one master Thomas, as I take it, his name is, and master Blindman, where master Blindman went by the worst, and Captaine Keayne and others went with master Wilson on horseback.

Also at another time, master Wilson, master Ma

ther, and some others, going to the ordination of master Hooke and master Streate, to give them the right hand of fellowship, at New Taunton, there heard the difference betweene master Hooke' and master Doughty, where master Doughty was overruled, and the matter carried somewhat partially, as is reported. It may be, it will be said, they did these things by way of love, and friendly advise: Grant that; But were not the counselled bound to receive good counsell? If they would not receive it, was not the Magistrate ready to assist, and in a manner ready, according to duty, to enforce peace and obedience? did not the Magistrates assist? and was not master K. sent away, or compounded with, to seek a new place at Long Island, master Doughty forced to the Island Aquedney, and master Blindman to Con


[p. 55.] Questions to the Elders of Boston, delivered 9. Septemb. 1640.


Whether a people may gather themselves into

a Church, without a Minister sent of God?

2. Whether any People, or Congregation, may ordaine their owne Officers?

3. Whether the Ordination, by the hands of such as are not Ministers, be good?

To the which I received an Answer the same day:

O the first, the Answer is affirmative; for though


the people in this Countrey are not wont to gather themselves into a Church, but (as you would have it) with the presence and advice of sundry Ministers; yet it were lawfull for them to gather into a Church without them. For if it be the priviledge of every Church to choose their owne Ministers, then there may be a Church, before they have Ministers

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