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dreds of brave English Souldiers, Captaines and Gentlemen, that have taught the Hollanders to doe the like: Those would never stand upon a demurre who should give the first blow, when they see peace was onely but an empty name, and no sure league, but impuissance to doe hurt, found it better to buy peace by warre, than take it up at interest of those could better guide penknives than use swords; and there is no misery worse than be conducted by a foole, or commanded by a coward; for who can indure to be assaulted by any, see his men and selfe imbrued in their owne bloud, for feare of a checke, [p. 40.] when it is so contrary to nature and necessity, and yet as obedient to government and their Soveraigne, as duty required. Now your best plea is to stand upon your guard, and provide to defend as they did offend, especially at landing if you be forced to retire, you have the advantage five for one in your retreat, wherein there is more discipline, than in a brave charge; and though it seeme lesse in fortune, it is as much in valour to defend as to get, but it is more easie to defend than assault, especially in woods where an enemy is ignorant. Lastly, remember as faction, pride, and security, produces nothing but confusion, miserie and dissolution; so the contraries well practised will in short time make you happy, and the most admired people of all our plantations for your

time in the world.

John Smith writ this with his owne hand.



Page 3. The Company in England say 7. or 8. thousand: the Counsell in

Virginia say but 2200. or thereabouts.





(Vivat Rex Anglia Carolus,
Vivat Anglia,

Vivantq: eorum Amici omnes.)

A short view of NEW-ENGLANDS present Government, both Ecclesiasticall and Civil, compared with the anciently-received and established Government of E N GLAND, in some materiall points; fit for the gravest consideration in these times.

By THOMAS LECHFORD of Clements Inne, in the County of Middlesex, Gent.

Levis est dolor, qui capere consilium potest,
Et clepere sese; "Magna non latitant mala. Sen.


Printed by W. E. and I. G. for Nath: Butter, at the signe of the pyde Bull neere S. Austins gate. 1642.

[On the back of the title-leaf are the royal arms, with the legend "Honi soit qui mal y pense."]


Very man is to approve himselfe, and answer to God for his actions his conscience leads him to; and next, to good men, as much as in him lyeth. I have thus presumed to enter into publique, for these reasons:

First, because it is well knowne unto many, that heretofore I suffered imprisonment, and a kind of banishment out of this good Land, for some acts construed to oppose, and as tending to subvert Episcopacie, and the setled Ecclesiasticall government of England: therefore now I desired to purge my selfe of so great a scandall; and wherein I have offended, to intreat all my Superiours, and others, to impute it rather to my ignorance, for the time, then any wilfull stubbornnesse.

Secondly, seeing that since my comming home, I find that multitudes are corrupted with an opinion of the unlawfullnesse of the Church-government by Diocesan Bishops, which opinion I beleeve is the root of much mischiefe; having now had experience of divers governments, I see not how I could with faithfulnesse to God, my King and Countrey, be any longer silent, especially considering some of these late troubles occasioned, among other sins, I fear, much through this evill opinion. Happy shall I be, if any be made wiser by my harmes; I wish all men to take heed, how they shake hands with the Church of God, upon any such heedlesse grounds as I almost had done.

Thirdly, that I might (though unworthy) in a fit season, acquaint the learned and pious Divines of England with these my slender observations, quæres, and experiments, to the end they may come the better pre



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