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set under a Bushell, but in the open Sunne, that what Thomas would not beleeve by the reports of others, he might be forced to beleeve, by seeing with his own eyes and feeling Christ Jesus thus risen among them with his own hands.

I have done with what I have observed my self; I shall therefore proceed to give you a true relation of what I have heard from others, and many faithfull witnesses have seene: and first I shall speake a little more of the old man who is mentioned in the story now in print; this old man hath much affection stirred up by the Word, and comming to Mr. Eliots house (for of him I had this story) Mr. Eliot told him that because he brought his wife & all his children constantly to the Lecture, that he would therefore bestow some Cloths upon him, (it being now winter & the old man naked :) which promise he not certainly understanding the meaning of, asked therefore of another Indian (who is Mr. Eliots servant and very hopefull) what it was that Mr. Eliot promised him? he told him that hee said hee would give him some Cloths; which when hee understood, hee affectionately brake out into these expressions, God I see is mercifull: a blessed, because a plain hearted affectionate speech, and worthy English mens thoughts when they put on their Cloths; to thinke that a poor blind Indian that scarce ever heard of God before, that he should see not only God in his Cloths, but mercy also in a promise of a cast off worne sute of Cloths, which were then given him, and which now he daily weares. But to proceed;

This same old man, (as I think a little before hee had these Cloths) after an Indian Leoture, when they usually come to propound questions; instead of asking a question, began to speak to the rest of the Indians, and brake out into many expressions of wondring at Gods goodnesse unto them, that the Lord should at last look upon them and send his Word as a light unto them [p. 13.] that had been in darknesse and such grosse ignorance so long; me wonder (saith he) at God that he should thus deale with us. This speech expressed in many words in the Indian Language, and with strong actings of his eyes and hands, being interpreted afterward to the English, did much also affect all of them that were present this Lecture also.

There were this winter many other questions propounded, which were writ down by Mr. Edward Jackson one of our Town, constantly present at these Lectures, to take notes both of the questions made by the Indians and returned by Mr. Eliot to them; this man having sent me in his notes, I shall send you a tast of some of them. 1 Why some men were so bad, that they hate those men that would teach them good things?

2 Whether the devill or man were made first?

3 Whether if a father prayes to God to teach his sons to know him, and he doth teach them himself and they will not learn to know

God, what should such fathers doe? (this was propounded by an old man that had rude children.)

* Indian wo

4 A* Squaw propounded this question, Whether she might not go & pray in some private place in the woods, when her husband was not at home, because she was ashamed to pray in the Wigwam before company?



5 How may one know wicked men, who are good and who are bad?

6 To what Nation Jesus Christ came first unto, and when?

7 If a man should be inclosed in Iron a foot thick and thrown into the fire, what would become of his soule, whether could the soule come forth thence or not?

8 Why did not God give all men good hearts that they might bee good?

9 If one should be taken among strange Indians that know not God, and they would make him to fight against some * They hold that he should not, and he refuse, and for his refusall that all their they kill him, what would become of his soule in such a case? This was propounded by a stout fellow who

was affected.


stout and valiant men have

a reward after


10 How long it is before men beleeve that have the Word of God made known to them?

11 How they should know when their faith is good, and their prayers good prayers? [p. 14.]

12 Why did not God kill the Devill that made all men so bad, God having all power?

13 If we be made weak by sinne in our hearts, how can we come before God to sanctifie a Sabbath?

There were many more questions of this kind, as also many Philosophicall about the Sunne, Moon, Stars, Earth and Seas, Thunder, Lightning, Earthquakes, &c. which I forbear to make mention of, lest I should clog your time with reading, together with the various answers to them: by these you may perceive in what streame their minds are carried, and that the Lord Jesus hath at last an enquiring people among these poor naked men, that formerly never so much as thought of him; which questionings and enquiries are accounted of by some as part of the whitenings of the harvest toward, wherever they are found among any people, the good and benefit that comes to them hereby is and will be exceeding great.

We had this year a malignant drunken Indian, that (to cast some reproach, as wee feared, upon this way) boldly propounded this question, Mr. Eliot (said he) Who made Sack? who made Sack? but he was soon snib'd by the other Indians, calling it *a Papoose question, and seriously and gravely answered (not so much to his question, as to his spirit) by Mr. Eliot, which hath cooled his boldnesse ever since,

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That is a

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while others have gone on comfortably in this profitable and pleas

ant way.


The man who sent me these and the like questions with their severall answers in writing, concluded his letter with this story, which I shall here insert, that you may see the more of God among these poore people: "Upon the 25. of Aprill last (saith he) * An Indian "I had some occasion to go to speak with * Wabun "about Sun-rising in the morning, and staying some half "an hours time, as I came back by one of the Wigwams, the man "of that Wigwam was at prayer; at which I was so much affected, "that I could not but stand under a Tree within hearing, though I "could not understand but little of his words, and consider that God "was fulfilling his Word, viz. The ends of the earth shall remember "themselves and turne unto him; and that Scripture, Thou art the "God that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come.


Also this present September I have observed one of them to "[p. 15.] call his children to him from their gathering of Corne in "the field, and to crave a blessing, with much affection, having but a homely dinner to eate.


These things me thinkes should move bowels, and awaken English hearts to be thankfull, it is no small part of Religion to awaken with God in family prayer, (as it seemes these doe it early) and to crave a blessing with affectionate hearts upon a homely dinner, perhaps parcht Corne or Indian stalks: I wish the like hearts and wayes were seen in many English who professe themselves Christians, and that herein and many the like excellencies they were become Indians, excepting that name, as he did in another case, except his bonds: and that you may see not only how farre Religion, but civility hath taken place among them, you may be pleased therefore to peruse this Court Order, which is here inserted.

The order made last Generall Court at Boston the 26. of May, 1647. concerning the Indians, &c.

Pon information that the Indians dwelling among us, and submitted to our government, being by the Ministry of the Word brought to some civility, are desirous to have a course of ordinary Judicature set up among them: It is therefore ordered by authority of this Court, that some one or more of the Magistrates, as they shall agree amongst themselves, shall once every quarter keep a Court at such place, where the Indians ordinarily assemble to hear the Word of God, and may then hear and determine all causes both civill and criminall, not being capitall, concerning the Indians only, and that the Indian Sachims shall have libertie to take order in the

nature of Summons or Attachments, to bring any of their own people to the said Courts, and to keep a Court of themselves, every moneth if they see occasion, to determine small causes of a civill nature, and such smaller criminall causes, as the said Magistrates shall referre to them; and the said Sachims shall appoint Officers to serve Warrants, and to [p. 16.] execute the Orders and Judgements of either of the said Courts, which Officers shall from time to time bee allowed by the said Magistrates in the quarter Courts or by the Governour: And that all fines to bee imposed upon any Indian in any of the said Courts, shall goe and bee bestowed towards the building of some meeting houses, for education of their poorer children in learning, or other publick use, by the advice of the said Magistrates and of Master Eliot, or of such other Elder, as shall ordinarily instruct them in the true Religion. And it is the desire of this Court, that these Magistrates and Mr. Eliot or such other Elders as shall attend the keeping of the said Courts will carefully indeavour to make the Indians understand our most usefull Lawes, and the principles of reason, justice and equity whereupon they are grounded, & it is desired that some care may be taken of the Indians on the Lords dayes.

Thus having had a desire to acquaint you with these proceedings among the Indians, and being desirous that you might more fully understand, especially from him who is best able to judge, I did therefore intreat my brother Eliot after some conference about these things, to set down under his own hand what he hath observed lately among them: which I do therefore herein send unto you in his owne hand writing as he sent it unto mee, which I think is worthy all Christian thankfull eares to heare, and wherein they may see a little of the Spirit of this man of God, whom in other respects, but especially for his unweariednesse in this work of God, going up and down among them and doing them good, I think we can never love nor honour enough.

The Letter of Mr. Eliot to T. S. concerning the late work of God among the Indians.

Deare Brother,

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T your desire I have wrote a few things touching the Indians

passages which took principall impression in my heart, [p. 17.] wherein I thought I saw the Lord, and said the finger of God is


That which I first aymed at was to declare & deliver unto them

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the Law of God, to civilize them, wch course the Lord took by Moses, to give the Law to that rude company because of transgression, Gal. 3. 19. to convince, bridle, restrain, and civilize them, and also to humble them. But when I first attempted it, they gave no heed unto it, but were weary, and rather despised what I said. A while after God stirred up in some of them a desire to come into the English fashions, and live after their manner, but knew not how to attain unto it, yea despaired that ever it should come to passe in their dayes, but thought that in 40. yeers more, some Indians would be all one English, and in an hundred yeers, all Indians here about, would so bee: which when I heard, (for some of them told me they thought so, and that some wise Indians said so) my heart moved within mee, abhorring that wee should sit still and let that work alone, and hoping that this motion in them was of the Lord, and that this mind in them was a preparative to imbrace the Law and Word of God; and therefore I told them that they and wee were already all one save in two things, which make the only difference betwixt them and us: First, we know, serve, and pray unto God, and they doe not: Secondly, we labour and work in building, planting, clothing our selves, &c. and they doe not and would they but doe as wee doe in these things, they would be all one with English men they said they did not know God, and therefore could not tell how to pray to him, nor serve him. I told them if they would learn to know God, I would teach them: unto which they being very willing, I then taught them (as I sundry times had indeavored afore) but never found them so forward; attentive and desirous to learn till this time, and then I told them I would come to their Wigwams, and teach them, their wives and children, which they seemed very glad of; and from that day forward I have not failed to doe that poore little which you know I doe.

I first began with the Indians of Noonanetum, as you know; those of Dorchester mill not regarding any such thing but the better sort of them perceiving how acceptable this was to the English, both to Magistrates, and all the good people, it pleased God to step in and bow their hearts to desire to be taught to know God, [p. 18.] and pray unto him likewise, and had not I gone unto them also, and taught them when I did, they had prevented me, and desired me so to do, as I afterward heard.

The effect of the Word which appears among them, and the change that is among them is this: First, they have utterly forsaken all their Powwaws, and given over that diabolicall exercise, being convinced that it is quite contrary to praying unto God; yea sundry of their Powwaws have renounced their wicked imployment, have condemned it as evill, and resolved never to use it any more; others of them, seeing their imployment and gaines were utterly gone here, have fled to other places, where they are still entertained, and have

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