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raised lies, slanders, and an evill report upon those that heare the Word, and pray unto God, and also upon the English that indeavour to reclaime them and instruct them, that so they might discourage others from praying unto God, for that they account as a principall signe of a good man, and call all religion by that name, praying to God; and beside they mock and scoffe at those Indians which pray, and blaspheme God when they pray; as this is one instance. A sober Indian going up into the countrey with two of his sons, did pray (as his manner was at home) and talked to them of God and . Jesus Christ but they mocked, & called one of his sons Jehovah, and the other Jesus Christ: so that they are not without opposition raised by the Powwaws, and other wicked Indians.

Againe as they have forsaken their former Religion, and manner of worship, so they doe pray unto God constantly in their families, morning and evening, and that with great affection, as hath been seen and heard by sundry that have gone to their Wigwams at such times; as also when they goe to meat they solemnly pray and give thanks to God, as they see the English to doe: so that that curse which God threatens to poure out upon the families that call not on his name, is through his grace, and tender mercy stayed from breaking forth against them, and when they come to English houses, they desire to be taught; and if meat bee given them, they pray and give thanks to God: and usually expresse their great joy, that they are taught to know God, and their great affection to them that teach them. Furthermore they are carefull to instruct their children, that so when I come they might be ready to answer their Catechize, [p. 19.] which by the often repeating of it to the children, the men and women can readily answer to.

Likewise they are carefull to sanctifie the Sabbath, but at first they could not tell how to doe it, and they asked of mee how they should doe it, propounding it as a question whether they should come to the English meetings or meet among themselves; they said, if they come to the English meetings they understand nothing, or to no purpose, and if they met together among themselves, they had none that could teach them. I told them that it was not pleasing to God, nor profitable to themselves, to hear and understand nothing, nor having any that could interpret to them. Therefore I counselled them to meet together, and desire those that were the wisest and best men to pray, and then to teach the rest such things as I had taught them from Gods Word, as well as they could; and when one hath done, then let another do the like, and then a third, and when that was done aske questions, and if they could not answer them, then remember to aske me, &c. and to pray unto God to help them therein and this is the manner how they spend their Sabbaths.

They are also strict against any prophanation of the Sabbath, by working, fishing, hunting, &c. and have a Law to punish such as are

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delinquents therein by a fine of 10 s. and sundry cases they have had, wherein they have very strictly prosecuted such as have any way prophaned the Sabbath. As for example, upon a Sabbath morning Cutchamaquin the Sachim his wife going to fetch water met with other women, and she began to talk of worldly matters, and so held on their discourse a while, which evill came to Nabantons eare, who was to teach that day (this Nabanton is a sober good man, and a true friend to the English ever since our comming) so he bent his discourse to shew the sanctification of the Sabbath, & reproved such evils as did violate the same; & among other things worldly talk, and thereupon reproved that which he heard of that morning. After hee had done, they fell to discourse about it, and spent much time therein, hee standing to prove that it was a sinne, and she doubting of it, seeing it was early in the morning, and in private; and alledging that he was more to blame then she, because he had occasioned so much discourse in the publick meeting: but in conclusion they determined [p. 20.] to refer the case to me, and accordingly they did come to my house on the second day morning and opened all the matter, and I gave them such direction as the Lord directed me unto, according to his holy Word.

Another case was this, upon a Lords day towards night two strangers came to Wabans Wigwam (it being usuall with them to travaile on that day, as on any other;) and when they came in, they told him that at a place about a mile off they had chased a Rackoone, and he betook himself into an hollow tree, and if they would goe with them, they might fell the tree and take him: at which tidings, Waban being willing to be so well provided to entertain those strangers (a common practise among them, freely to entertain travailers and strangers) he sent his two servants with them, who felled the tree, and took the beast. But this act of his was an offence to the rest, who judged it a violation of the Sabbath, and moved agitation among them but the conclusion was, it was to bee moved as a question upon the next Lecture day; which was accordingly done, and received such answer as the Lord guided unto by his Word.

Another case was this, upon a Lords day their publick meetting holding long, and somewhat late, when they came at home, in one Wigwam the fire was almost out, and therefore the man of the house, as he sate by the fire side took his Hatchet and split a little dry peece of wood, which they reserve on purpose for such use, and so kindled his fire, which being taken notice of, it was thought to bee such a worke as might not lawfully be done upon the Sabbath day, and therefore the case was propounded the Lecture following for their better information.

These instances may serve to shew their care of the externall observation of the Sabbath day.

In my exercise among them (as you know) wee attend foure

things, besides prayer unto God, for his presence and blessing upon all we doe..

First, I catechize the children and youth; wherein some are very ready & expert, they can readily say all the Commandements, so far as I have communicated them, and all other principles about the creation, the fall, the redemption by Christ, &c. wherein also the aged people are pretty expert, by the frequent repetition [p. 21.] thereof to the children, and are able to teach it to their children at home, and do so.

Secondly, I Preach unto them out of some texts of Scripture, wherein I study all plainnesse, and brevity, unto which many are very attentive.

Thirdly, if there be any occasion, we in the next place go to admonition and censure; unto which they submit themselves reverently, and obediently, and some of them penitently confessing their sins with much plainnesse, and without shiftings, and excuses: I will instance in two or three particulars; this was one case, a man named Wampoowas, being in a passion upon some light occasion did beat his wife, which was a very great offence among them now (though in former times it was very usuall) and they had made a Law against it, and set a fine upon it; whereupon he was publikly brought forth before the Assembly, which was great that day, for our Governor and many other English were then present: the man wholly condemned himself without any excuse: and when he was asked what provocation his wife gave him? he did not in the least measure blame her but himself, and when the quality of the sinne was opened, that it was cruelty to his own body, and against Gods Commandement, and that passion was a sinne, and much aggravated by such effects, yet God was ready to pardon it in Christ, &c. he turned his face to the wall and wept, though with modest indeavor to hide it; and such was the modest, penitent, and melting behavior of the man, that it much affected all to see it in a Barbarian, and all did forgive him, onely this remained, that they executed their Law notwithstanding his repentance, and required his fine, to which he willingly submitted, and paid it.

Another case of admonition was this, Cutshamaquin the Sachim having a son of about 14. or 15. yeers old, he had bin drunk, & had behaved himself disobediently, and rebelliously against his father and mother, for which sinne they did blame him, but he despised their admonition. And before I knew of it, I did observe when I catechized him, when he should say the fift Commandement, he did not freely say, Honor thy father, but wholly left out mother, and so he did the Lecture day before, but when this sinne of his was produced, he was called forth before the Assembly, [p. 22.] and hee confessed that what was said against him was true, but hee fell to accuse his father of sundry evils, as that hee would have killed him in his anger, and that he forced him to drink Sack, and I know not

what else which behavior wee greatly disliked, shewed him the evill of it, and Mr. Wilson being present laboured much with him, for hee understood the English, but all in vaine, his heart was hard and hopelesse for that time, therefore using due loving perswasions, wee did sharply admonish him of his sinne, and required him to answer further the next Lecture day, and so left him; and so stout he was, that when his father offered to pay his fine of 10 s. for his drunkennesse according to their Law, he would not except it at his hand. When the next day was come, and other exercises finished, I called him forth, and he willingly came, but still in the same mind as before. Then wee turned to his father, and exhorted him to remove that stumbling block out of his sonnes way, by confessing his own sinnes whereby hee had given occasion of hardnesse of heart to his sonne; which thing was not suddain to him, for I had formerly in private prepared him thereunto, and hee was very willing to hearken to that counsell, because his conscience told him he was blameworthy; and accordingly he did, he confessed his maine and principall evils of his own accord and upon this advantage I took occasion to put him upon confession of sundry other vices which I knew hee had in former times been guilty of, and all the Indians knew it likewise; and put it after this manner, Are you now sorry for your drunkennesse, filthines, false dealing, lying, &c. which sinnes you committed before you knew God? unto all which cases, he expressed himself sorrowfull, and condemned himself for them: which example of the Sachim was profitable for all the Indians. And when he had thus confessed his sinnes, we turned againe to his sonne and laboured with him, requiring him to confesse his sinne, and intreat God to forgive him for Christ his sake, and to confesse his offence against his father and mother, and intreat them to forgive him, but he still refused; and now the other Indians spake unto him soberly, and affectionatly, to put him on, and divers spake one after another, and some severall times. Mr. Wilson againe did much labour with him, and at last he did humble himself, confessed all, [p. 23.] and intreated his father to forgive him, and took him by the hand, at which his father burst forth into great weeping: hee did the same also to his mother, who wept also, and so did divers others; and many English being present, they fell a weeping, so that the house was filled with weeping on every side; and then we went to prayer, in all which time Cutshamaquin wept, in so much that when wee had done the board he stood upon was all dropped with his teares.

Another case of admonition was this, a hopefull young man who is my servant, being upon a journey, and drinking Sack at their setting forth, he drank too much, and was disguised; which when I heard I reproved him, and he humbled himself, with confession of his sinne, and teares. And the next Lecture day I called him forth before the Assembly, where he did confesse his sinne with many


Before I leave this point of admonition, if I thought it would not bee two tedious to you, I would mention one particular more, where we saw the power of God awing a wicked wretch by this ordinance of admonition. It was George that wicked Indian, who as you know, at our first beginnings sought to cast aspersions upon Religion, by laying slanderous accusations against godly men, and who asked that captious question, who made Suck? and this fellow having kild a young Cow at your Towne, and sold it at the Colledge instead of Moose, covered it with many lies, insomuch as Mr. Dunster was loath he should be directly charged with it when we called him forth, but that wee should rather inquire. But when he was called before the Assembly, and charged with it, he had not power to deny it, but presently confessed, onely hee added one thing which wee think was an excuse; thus God hath honored this ordinance among them.

Fourthly, the last exercise, you know, we have among them, is their asking us questions, and very many they have asked, which I have forgotten, but some few that come to my present remembrance I will briefly touch.

One was Wabbakoxets question, who is reputed an old Powwow, it was to this purpose, seeing the English had been 27. yeers (some of them) in this land, why did wee never teach them to know [p. 24.] God till now? had you done it sooner, said hee, wee might have known much of God by this time, and much sin might have been prevented, but now some of us are grown old in sin, &c. To whom we answered, that we doe repent that wee did not long agoe, as now we doe, yet withall wee told them, that they were never willing to hear till now, and that seeing God hath bowed their hearts to be willing to hear, we are desirous to take all the paines we can now to teach them.

Another question was, that of Cutshamaquin, to this purpose, Before I knew God, said he, I thought I was well, but since I have known God and sin, I find my heart full of sin, and more sinfull then ever it was before, and this hath been a great trouble to mee; and at this day my heart is but very little better then it was, and I am afraid it will be as bad againe as it was before, and therefore I sometime wish I might die before I be so bad again as I have been. Now my question is, whether is this a sin or not? This question could not be learned from the English, nor did it seem a coyned feigned thing, but a reall matter gathered from the experience of his own heart, and from an inward observation of himself.

Another question was about their children, Whither their little children goe when they dye, seeing they have not sinned?

Which question gave occasion more fully to teach them originall sin, and the damned state of all men: And also, and especially it gave occasion to teach them the Covenant of God, which he hath made with all his people, and with their children, so that when God

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