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Acknowledgment is due the Board of Control of the Naval Institute, Annapolis, Md., for permission to publish in book form the material which originally appeared as articles in the Proceedings of the Naval Institute, and to the Secretary, Lieutenant Commander Ralph Earle, U. S. Navy, for his unfailing interest in the work.
The annual and special reports of the Isthmian Canal Commission are replete with information and have been a most valuable aid in preparation of parts of this volume.
To Col. George W. Goethals, U. S. Army, formerly Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission and now Governor of the Panama Canal, and to Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseau, U. S. Navy, formerly member of the Isthmian Canal Commission and now engineer of terminals, as well as to many others connected with the work, thankful acknowledgment is made of many courtesies extended in connection with inspection of the canal operations and access to the official records.
The maps and the photographs, where not otherwise noted, are reproduced from official sources.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING PAGE 1. The Canal at Empire under French Control in 1885... 14 2. Culebra Cut at Culebra in January 1912....
20 3. Culebra Cut at Culebra in February 1912, Showing
20 .4. Culebra Cut at Empire in January 1913.
26 5. A Slide in Culebra Cut, February 1913, Showing Shovel at Work...
32 6. A Slide in Culebra Cut, February 1913, Near View.... 32 7. Culebra Cut at Culebra Showing Dredges Making Final Excavation at Cucaracha Slide.
36 8. Gatun Lower Lock under Construction and Sea-level Canal....
40 9. Gatun Upper Lock under Construction and Gatun Lake 46 10. Gatun Spillway Dam...
58 11. Pedro Miguel Lock and Miraflores Lake.
66 12. Miraflores Upper Locks Showing Steam Shovels and Construction Cranes...
74 13. Concrete Handling Cranes at Miraflores.
74 14. A Gatun Lock in Use as a Dry Dock..
80 15. Towing Locomotives Handling Coal Barge at Gatun Locks...
84 16. Operation of Gatun Locks Showing Panama R.R. Steamer Allianca..
90 17. Emergency Dam at Pedro Miguel Locks..
96 18. Pedro Miguel Locks Control House...
100 19. Toro Point Breakwater under Construction..
116 20. American and French Canals at Intersection at Mindi Excavation..