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the extension of a straight band, to the conditions of a spindleband and give the results for what they are worth.
I would like to call attention to this drawing of a lubricating machine, or frictional machine, that has been designed by our Mr. William B. Whiting, and drawn by Mr. William H. H. Whiting, to meet some of the alleged requirements, and to get nearer the scientific points than we have yet reached with the other machines. The object of this machine is to get a cone-bearing with a groove under it, as drawn by Professor Ordway; it being the intention to rifle the cone in such grooves as will secure an even distribution of the oil that may be placed in the cup. And attached thereto is a dynamometer to measure the power, and a place for a thermometer to be inserted where there will be no air-chamber, and nothing but a thin film of metal between the surfaces that are revolving and the parts of the machine itself. This machine, if constructed at all, will be constructed as nearly as possible in an isolated way, so that we may get as near to the scientific necessity of isolating the machine, or the parts of the machine, as possible. That will be rather an expensive machine to build, and we are now coming to a pause to see where we stand on the money question. I think we can carry it out.
I would also say, that the dynamometers that have been tried have not been sufficiently accurate for the very small force required for a twenty-four spindle-frame. We have also had a machine designed of that sort, which Brown and Sharpe will build, if we ask them to, for about three hundred dollars. But we hesitate yet, in order to get the absolute conditions of the problem, before we proceed to expend quite so much money. We want suggestions on that.
Mr. DRAPER. In listening this morning to the remarks of Professor Ordway in regard to the nature of the metals to be used, it occurred to me although I am not personally familiar with it that what is called phosphor bronze would be the very best thing that could be obtained. It is claimed for it that it has been used for boxes for cars in England for years; and when the sediment was washed off, the dirt, &c., they could not see that it had lost any thing: it seemed to be absolutely impervious to wear. There is an agent for it in Philadelphia with whom I am acquainted, and it is being used in certain places on machinery in England, where they tell almost fabulous stories about it in that respect.
Mr. ATKINSON. That subject has not escaped us, and one of our students at the Institute was requested to investigate it on a late visit to Europe. We have been considering the question of the use of phosphor bronze, not only in this, but in many other important places; for we think we are behind the old country in the application of phosphor bronze for many important purposes.
Mr. GOULDING. I would like to inquire of Mr. Atkinson, if, in order to test the lubricating qualities of oil, it is necessary that we should have metallic bearings on both sides.
Mr. ATKINSON. I am not competent to answer that question, sir.
Mr. GOULDING. I asked the question in view of a suggestion that occurred to me this morning, when we were talking about this matter of means for testing the lubricating qualities of oil. An idea ran through my head, which I would like to put upon the blackboard, in regard to a method of getting at the lubricating qualities of oil without the use of expensive machinery. The disposition of the Yankee nation is to get things simply, and without great cost. Suppose this to represent a pan or dish filled with oil up to a certain point. Above here we will put a bearing, properly supported, and driven from above by any apparatus that will effect the purpose; and we will have a dynamometer to test the power necessary. On this oil let us place a metal disk, if you please, that floats upon the surface. We put a certain quantity of oil in here, and let that disk lie on there, with a certain weight attached to it, and that weight is uniform. Now, the application of power there, with a dynamometer apparatus to test the power necessary to run that disk on the surface of the oil, is what occurred to me as being a method of testing the frictional qualities of oil.
Mr. ATKINSON. You mean, a contact of the metal surfaces on the oil alone?
Mr. GOULDING. On the oil only.
Mr. ATKINSON. I do not know, sir.
Mr. GOULDING. It is quite possible that this disk, instead of being metal, should be wood, so that it would float. The floating qualities would be uniform.
Mr. DRAPER. How are you going to keep the other bearings uniform?
Mr. GOULDING. The same as you do with the Sawyer spin
dle. There can be no more difficulty in keeping the friction uniform on that bearing, than on the other bearings in the machinery.
Mr. DRAPER. That is the very difficulty they have.
Mr. GOULDING. If there is nothing further to be said upon. this subject, I would like to say that I regretted this morning, when the subject of legislation in New York in respect to tare on cotton was mentioned, that more was not said upon that subject. I was waiting for some one older, and better posted on these matters than myself, to say more upon it. I think that the subject of tare on cotton is one of great importance. The State of New York, through its Legislature, has seen fit to take the matter up, and, as I understand the position of the thing, a bill to regulate it passed to its third reading with very little opposition; but whether it finally passed, or not, I do not know.
To my mind, now that the margin for profit in manufacturing cotton goods especially has been reduced to so narrow a limit, and will probably continue so, this matter of the tare on cotton is an important subject to us; and men like yourself, Mr. President, and myself, who are lying awake nights to find some cheaper method of manufacture, and to reduce expenses in every possible direction, are interested especially in not paying from ten to twelve cents a pound for bagging and hoops. Even if in the outset - which would probably be the natural result of such a change there should be an advance in the price of cotton, to cover the deficiency which would arise on account of the planter not getting twelve cents a pound for his bags and hoops, it is a thing which would ultimately rectify itself, and must in the end result in the advantage to us of buying cotton, and not bagging and hoops, at ten or twelve cents a pound; and I wish as many gentlemen here present as are interested in this subject would express their views upon it. When this matter has been up before, it has been urged, and it struck me very forcibly, that it was not, perhaps, in our line, as agents of mills, to move in this matter, because, as a rule, the treasurers, I believe, buy the cotton,-mine does, any way. mine does, anyway. But at present I am instructed by my treasurer to introduce this subject, and urge it to some conclusion; and it has occurred to me that a committee should be appointed at this meeting, perhaps, who would report at our next meeting some method by which effi
cient steps can be taken to change the present method of buying cotton in relation to the tare, with a view, after our next meeting in October, perhaps, if it is within the province of the Massachusetts Legislature to regulate these things, to move on the Legislature at its next session. And, in order to bring the matter before the meeting for discussion in proper form, I would move that a committee of three be appointed, with a view to report at our next meeting upon some method of action in this
Mr. DRAPER. I make the inquiry whether this matter has been before the National Board of Trade or not, or whether you cannot get it there.
The PRESIDENT. I see Mr. B. F. Nourse present, who is a large cotton-buyer, and who perhaps can give us some information on the subject.
Mr. NOURSE. A few years ago there was an association called the National Association of Cotton Manufacturers and Planters, which existed from about 1866 to 1870. That body had this subject of tare on cotton before them at several successive sessions. One report was made in favor of asking the Legislatures of the several States, through whom alone action could be had upon it practically, to pass laws regulating this matter. That report, after discussion, was referred back to the same committee for further consideration; but the committee made no further report.
I think the inherent difficulty in dealing with the subject here is, that it is impossible for the Legislature of the State of New York, although containing within its jurisdiction the largest cotton-market we have in the country, in extent of transactions, nor the Legislature of the State of Massachusetts, to pass laws that shall have any influence whatsoever upon the price or cost of cotton. Indeed, I am inclined to think, after examination of this subject for a good many years, that, as a matter of dollars and cents to American spinners, the present position is better for them than it would be if they bought their cotton at net weight, with the consent, approval, and under the authority of the Legislatures of every one of the cotton-growing States; and I will try to give briefly the reasons why it is so.
All the gentlemen here present know this fact, and it needs no illustration of itself, that if two-thirds of the production of
the looms of the United States was exported, as in England, the price of the exported portion would most surely control the price of the one-third that remained in the country for domestic consumption and use. In other words, it is the exported portion, in such case, that will make the home price for the whole. Now, apply the same to the cotton. The cotton-crop this year is in the neighborhood of 5,100,000 bales. A little more than two-thirds of that will have been exported at the end of the season. Supposing we retain from 1,550,000 to 1,600,000 bales in this country: to a merchant, it is evident that on any given day, or range of days, the price at which the exported portion of middling cotton is fixed will be the price, controlled by the export, of that which remains. That is, in the export of that portion, the price will be fixed for that which remains. If the Legislature of New York should pass the act, as demanded by the petitioners to the Legislature, establishing a law of actual or an arbitrary tare (and an arbitrary tare should be that which is the usual and customary tare allowed on exported cotton, say six per cent), the Southern markets retaining their present custom of selling at gross weights, the customer has his choice then to buy in Savannah, or to buy the upland cotton in New York. In Savannah, the price, we will say, is sixpence farthing per pound free on board, with freight and six per cent; that six per cent being deducted from cost for the present custom of gross weights. The limit at New York would be sixpence farthing per pound free on board, with freight, without the six per cent, because the cost is identically the same. In either case it is the cost at Liverpool, to which only insurance is to be added; every thing else included in the limit. That is precisely the custom to-day. Now, it is very evident, that if all the markets North and South should fix an arbitrary tare of six per cent for bagging and bands, and the cotton should be bought in that way, the price would rise in this country just so much—that is, six per cent as the tare was taken off. The cost to the consumer in Liverpool would be exactly as it is now, only the tare would be taken off on this side instead of on the other.
The common impression is that the European spinner gets his cotton, less tare. So he does, but it is with so much price added; for, if the tare was deducted here, he would have to pay just so much more price for it. As the English spinner