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and parties are advising with me about it as an owner, and not as a patentee.
Mr. LEIGH. Mr. President, in regard to doubling the strength
yarns, I notice on your board, there, two mills that I think I have seen in England. In one case, they have six sets of drawing-frames. They are making from 80 to 110; and the peculiarity is, they have only one doubling in the spinning; no doubling in the roving-frame. The last one is the one I refer to. They both belong to the same firm. They have two mills fitted up with the usual number of doublings, and double in roving-frames; only three sets of drawing-frames. I saw them both, but the last mill is peculiar. In the first place, they double three in the picker ; they double six on the two drawingframes; the carding is single. They double fourteen on the comber. They then take it to a drawing-frame, and double eight. They then take it to another drawing-frame, and double six; and so on until it has passed through six drawing-frames. It goes single to the slubber, and single to the roving-frame, and double in the mule ; and by that means they got 74,317,824 doublings. The mills are about 60,000 spindles each. They make yarns for thread which have to be very carefully made, as they are liable to be rejected. In the latter mill, with all the doublings, and with so many drawing-frames. and so very few roving-frames, they make a superior quality of yarn. There has never been any of it returned on their hands, whereas in the other mills they have frequent cause of complaint. In regard to the cost, I think the cost is two cents a pound less for the carding-room; that is to say, it costs less to put it through six drawing-frames and two speeders, than four drawing-frames and four speeders. The machinery costs less money: there is less waste; less room and power are taken, and the plan in every way is satisfactory; so much so that they are altering the other mills on the same principle; and that follows out your suggestion, that doublings are very essential to good work.
The PRESIDENT. Mr. Leigh is right in regard to the last mill, but the other is not an English mill. There may be a similarity between them.
Mr. Kent. Mr. President, I notice Mr. O. S. Brown is here, who is running very successfully indeed without any drawing whatever. I know he is a very modest sort of a man: but still, when you get him harnessed in, he can handle a cotton-mill as well as anybody; and I would like to hear from him.
Mr. BROWN. Gentlemen, I am not a member of your Association, I am sorry to say; and I have not come prepared to say any thing about the use of drawing. I did not expect to be called upon at all. All I can say is, we have taken the drawing out of the Salmon Falls Mill, and make yarn from 27 to 50; and it works very nicely with us.
The PRESIDENT. The Board of Government invited Mr. Brown to address the meeting on the subject; but he declined, I am sorry to say. I hope at a future time he will do so.
A gentleman asked Mr. Brown how many doubles he got on 50 yarn. Mr. Brown gave the various doublings he used, and the President stated that they amounted to 4,968.
Mr. HIGGINS. Twenty-nine years ago this coming season I started a small cotton-mill. I started it with double carding; afterwards, finding my cards not sufficient for the amount of work required, I changed to single carding. I ran ten cards together. I had one operation of drawing, giving a total doubling of forty. I made print goods, with No. 25 warp, and 33 filling, and obtained excellent results for several years. Several years later I ran a much larger mill on No. 33 warp and 40 filling, having only two hundred and eight doublings, with single carding. I simply state the facts.
The PRESIDENT. I will say to the gentlemen present, I do not consider weaving yarns a test of their quality. When you make goods, say 96 by 112 or 120, you begin to test the qualities of fine yarn very seriously; and this larger number of doublings is undoubtedly designed for work of that sort, and also for thread-making. My first mill in the city of Providence was a single-carding mill, running on 34 warp and 36 filling. It ran well, and what little reputation I have acquired as a manufacturer is due to my success there ; but it did not run as smoothly with me as double carding. We made three widths of clothi, — twenty-eight, thirty-four, and thirty-eight inches. If I had attempted to weave this same yarn into close goods, which I deem difficult to weave, I think my mission ould have been a failure.
ATKINSON. I had the audacity, Mr. President, some o, in the early days of my membership, to ask some questhis point, not knowing any thing about it myself. I eived the impression, which is confirmed to-day, that not clear up this question until the remedy for the grievous fault in the cotton-mill is discovered, and that is, the true covering of the top-roll, either of the drawing-frame, railwayhead, or spinning-frame. I submit, as a theorist, knowing nothing practically about it, whether these are not the conditions. Every inch of carding which you use, more than which is necessary to straighten the fibre, does some harm to each particular fibre of the cotton that you use: it may be little, and it may be much; but to some extent it impairs the quality of that fibre. You then draw the strand through certain machines before you begin to gain the twist. In order to draw in those machines in which there is no twist that helps hold fibre to fibre, you must put a heavy weight upon your top-roll, in order that you may draw the selvedge. In doing that, you impair the quality of the centre. You crush part in order to draw the whole ; and that was admitted in previous discussions, that you
; could draw cotton through a drawing-frame so many times that the fibres would fall apart, and you could no longer spin it. I think that was admitted. I think it has been done. When you begin to draw them, and have gained a twist, you may lighten up your weight because you have no selvedge, and the twist helps hold the strands together. You may, therefore, lighten the weight on the top-roll, and still gain extension of your strand. I had the satisfaction, after that discussion, of having one practical spinner, who is not here today, a thoroughly skilful man, come to me at the next meeting, and state, as the result of that discussion, he had thrown out one-half of his drawing, and was making a great deal stronger yarn. Now, do you not work (I will put it in the form of an inquiry, so as not to appear to know any thing), do you not work under serious difficulties, owing to the imperfection of your top-roll? It is not the rib where your leather cot is joined that makes it necessary for you to put twice the weight upon your top-roll that is needed. Whenever you come to that rib, your top-roll is retarded in very slight degree; and, in order to overcome that retardation of the rotation of the toproll, caused as it is by friction, you have to put on a heavy weight instead of a light one. We thought we had discovered a substitute for leather in the form of chrome-gelatine rolls, which worked in the cold weather. We did run spinningframes at the Indian Orchard Mills at six pounds on the front roll, where we had ordinarily worked eighteen; and we made
eight per cent stronger yarn continuously by that change, and as even as it had been made before. That was the two hundred and forty-first patent on a substitute for leather; and it was as worthless as all the rest, because it would not work in dog-days. When the original leather top is displaced by an elastic homogeneous substance without a rib, will you not then be in a condition, as you are not now, to determine whether more carding is best, or whether you had better gain your extension on your twisted strand, rather than use a drawing-frame, delivering a flat or untwisted strand? The result of all my questioning,. without any practical experience or knowledge, was to bring the conviction to my mind that a greater elimination of the drawing would be an improvement, that you would gain your doubling on the card and on the rovings, reducing the drawing to the lowest possible point, in order to avoid that excessive weight on the top-roll. I simply submit these questions; for, of course, I have no practical knowledge on the subject. Theoretically, it seems to me that the cotton-fibre must be more injured by drawing the fibres apart, under the crushing effect of heavy weights on the top-roll, than by any other treatment. Hence, the strongest yarn will be had from small strands worked under very light weights, the evenness of the strand being secured by the greatest number of doublings. Heavy grists and heavy weights must take all the life out of the cotton.
Mr. E. M. SHAW. I have had no practical experience in this matter of no drawing, but I have given a good deal of attention to it. I have watched with a good deal of interest the mill Mr. Brown speaks of. I have seen some of his work running with 96 picks of warp and 100 picks of filling made by the process he speaks of. It is something different on those 56-60's. I have been through the mill many times, and I do not know a mill that runs prettier from carding-room to weaving-room than this. Whether his success is to be attributed to no drawing, or double or single drawing, I do not know. Mr. Greene is here from Brunswick, Me., who has remodelled part of his mill, and now runs only one head of drawing; and I would like to have the result of his experience. In conversation with me yesterday, he made some statements which I think are important; and I would like to have him state to us how he works in his mill.
Mr. GREENE. We started our new card-room about four weeks since, with double carding and seven cards to a railwayhead, with the sliver about eighty grains to the yard at the railway-head and one process of drawing, which we think makes stronger yarn than to have ten or twelve cards to a railway-head and have two processes of drawing, with sliver from railway-head 100 to 115 grains per yard.
Mr. DRAPER. I rise to say that the mill which I spoke of up at Kinderhook is owned by Mr. Handy, who is the agent of the Manville Mills, where they spin yarn up to 80's; and quite a large portion of his work up to 80 is running without any drawing at all, and running somewhat on the same principle of the mill I mentioned. It was his experience on the Manville Mill, after experimenting on this matter, that led him to reject the drawing, and then double the roving in all cases; drawing excessively at the spinning-frame, so as to keep up the size of the roving. The great advantage to come from this impending revolution I spoke of, is in the fact that you are going to save a very large expense in roving machinery. If you can use roving twice as coarse, it will cost you very much less to make it; because on coarse roving you use machines that will do a great deal more work, and make larger bobbins, and all that sort of thing. In a comparatively small yarn-mill, with a capital of one hundred and seventy-five thousand or two hundred thousand dollars, they told me that they are going to make fine yarn, and for the fine process it would cost twenty-two thousand dollars for roving-frames for the last operation, to start with. Now, if it should be found that they can take that roving as coarse as it is before it comes to this last process, and by this excessive draught can draw it down, it is going to make an immense saving. In regard to the matter of weaving, I assume
I that the yarn I speak of can be made good yarn for weaving on 96 square, or 96 to 100, as the case may be, by adding to the amount of twist. For this slack weaving, they twist the yarn very little: it requires but little of it. By twisting the yarn more, I have no doubt that it would break, not being so strong; and I understand that is the process that is necessary for thick cloth, in a measure. When you have got yarn strong, and it is slack twisted, twist it more, and it will stand the strain of this close weaving. That is my opinion about it.
I may be mistaken, but I think that will be found to be the result.