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..General Nicolás Bravo, October 26, 1842, to March 5, 1843.

.General Antonio López de Santa Anna, March 5, 1843, to October 4, 1843.

General Valentin Canalizo, October 4, 1843, to February 1, 1844.

General Valentin Canalizo, February 1, 1844, to June 4, 1844.

(Canalizo during this period was acting in lieu of Santa Anna, who had been elected Constitutional President, under the law of June 12, 1843.)



.General Antonio López de Santa Anna, June 4, 1844, to September 12, 1844.

Acting President... General José Joaquin de Herrera, September 12, 1844, to September 21, 1844.

Acting President... General Valentin Canalizo, September 21, 1844, to December 6, 1844.




.General José Joaquin de Herrera, December 6, 1844,

to December 30, 1845.

General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, January 4, 1843. to July 28, 1846.

.General Nicolás Bravo, July 28, 1844, to August 4, 1846.

Acting President....General José Mariano Salas, August 5, 1846, to December 24, 1846. By decree of August 22, 1846, the Constitution of 1824 was reestablished.

Vice-President and


Acting President..Don Valentin Gomez Farías, December 24, 1846, to March 21, 1847.






...General Antonio López de Santa Anna, March 22, 1847, to April 1, 1847.

General Pedro M. Anaya, April 1, 1847, to May 20, 1847.

.General Antonio López de Santa Anna, May 20, 1847, to September 16, 1847.

Licentiate Manuel de la Peña y Peña, September 16, 1847, to November 14, 1847.

Acting President....General Pedro M. Anaya, November 14, 1847, to January 8, 1848.

President and

Acting President..Don Manuel de la Peña y Peña, January 8, 1848, to



June 2, 1848.

General José Joaquin de Herrera, June 2, 1848, to
January 15, 1851.

General Mariano Arista, January 15, 1851, to January
5, 1853.

Acting President.... Don Juan B. Ceballos, January 5, 1853, to February

7, 1853.

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General Antonio López de Santa Anna, April 20, 1853, to August 11, 1855.


Acting President....General Martin Carrera, August 14, 1855, to September 12, 1855.

In charge of

Federal District...General Romulo Diaz de la Vega, September 12, 1855, to October 4, 1855.

Acting President....General Juan Alvarez, October 4, 1855, to December 9, 1855.














In charge of the

General Ignacio Comonfort, December 11, 1855, to December 1, 1857.

...General Ignacio Comonfort, December 1, 1857, to December 19, 1857.

.Benito Juárez, December 19, 1857, to June 15, 1861. .Benito Juárez, June 15, 1861, to November 8, 1865. 1861-1867, period of French Intervention and of Maximilian.

.Benito Juárez, November 8, 1865, to December 25, 1867.

.Benito Juárez, December 25, 1867, to December 1, 1871.

....Benito Juárez, December 1, 1871, to July 18, 1872. (Died in office.)

....Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, July 18, 1872, to December 1, 1872.

.Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, December 1, 1872, to November 21, 1876.

General Porfirio Diaz, November 28, 1876, to December 6, 1876.

Executive Power.. General Juan N. Mendez, December 6, 1876, to February 16, 1877.








General Porfirio Diaz, February 16, 1877, to May 5, 1877.

.General Porfirio Diaz, May 5, 1877, to November 30, 1880.

.General Manuel González, December 1, 1880, to November 30, 1884.

General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1884, to November 30, 1888.

. General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1888, to November 30, 1892.

..General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1892, to November 30, 1896.






General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1896, to November 30, 1900.

.General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1900, to November, 1904.

..General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1904, to November 30, 1910.

General Porfirio Diaz, December 1, 1910, to May 25, 1911.

Since the overthrow of Diaz, the following exercised executive power, though frequently their claims to the office have not been admitted by the country generally or recognized by other nations.

Francisco Leon de la Barra, May 25, 1911, to November 10, 1911.

Francisco I. Madero, November 10, 1911, to February 19, 1913.

Pedro Lascurain, from 7 p.m. to 7:46 p.m., February 19, 1913.

Victoriano Huerta, February 19, 1913, to August 13, 1914.

Eulalio Gutierrez, December 13, 1914, to January 25, 1915.

Roque González Garza, January 30, 1915, to May, 1915.
Francisco Lagos Cházaro, July 31, 1915, to October,

Venustiano Carranza, March 11, 1917; assassinated
May 21, 1920.

Adolfo de la Huerta, President ad interim, June 1 to
November 30, 1920.

Alvaro Obregón, December 1, 1920.



In the Republic of Mexico there are twenty-nine states, two territories, and a federal district. A brief description of each of these is given below. AGUAS CALIENTES

Area: 2,969 square miles.

Population: 124,497 (average density, 40.6).

Location: A central Mexican state bounded on the north, west, and east by Zacatecas and on the south and southeast by Jalisco.

Physical Characteristics: The state, situated on the high central plateau, consists mostly of mountainous or rolling land. Its climate is temperate and the average annual rainfall about eighteen inches. There are no rivers of importance.

Chief Industries: Agriculture, mining, and manufacturing.

Principal Cities: Aguas Calientes, the capital, has a population of about 60,000, and is one of the important cities of the Republic. The shops of the National Railways of Mexico and one of the large smelters of the American Smelting and Refining Co. are located here. The city also supports a number of small manufacturing plants and serves as a distributing center for the surrounding territory.

Towns of minor importance are: Asientos, a mining center (population 2,500); Rincon De Ramos (2,800); and Calvillo (2,500).

Transportation: The state is an important railway center, and has excellent connections by the National Railways of Mexico with the City of Mexico, Tampico, and the American border.

Area: 18,089 square miles.


Population: 86,685 (average density 4.7).

Location: A Gulf state on the Peninsula of Yucatán. To the east it is bounded by Yucatán and Quintana Roo; to the south by Guatemala; and to the west by Tabasco.

Physical Characteristics: The state lies in the hot Gulf lowlands of the Tierra Caliente. The land is level and much of it heavily wooded. The rainfall averages nearly two hundred inches a year in certain sections.

Chief Industries: The state is distinguished for its agricultural and mineral wealth and for its manufactures. Cereals, chick peas, green peppers, beans, sweet potatoes and fruits are grown both for local use and outside markets, and live stock are raised on a large scale.

The mineral production is chiefly made up of gold, silver, copper, lead and tin. The oldest and largest of the mining districts is that of Asientos de Ibarra, 30 miles northeast of the capital.

Chief Industries: Agriculture and the production of logwood are almost the sole industries of the state. Cattle, henequen, sugar-cane, cotton, chicle, and indigo are the chief products.

Principal Cities: Campeche, the capital, has a population of about 20,000. It is located on the Gulf and serves as the chief port of entry for the state. Carmen, situated on an island not far from the Tabasco boundary, is also a commercial center of some importance.

Transportation: The United Railways of Yucatán connect the city of Campeche with Merida and Progreso. Aside from this one line and the steamship connections through its two ports, the state is very deficient in trans portation facilities.

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Population: 456,371 (average density 16.1).

Location: A state lying in the extreme south of Mexico, fronting on the Pacific. On the west and north it is bounded by Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, and Tabasco, and on the east and south by Guatemala.

Physical Characteristics: The state is divided into two distinct regions by the Sierra Madre Mountains. Its soil is extremely fertile and the climate conducive to the production of almost all tropical products. Much of the state is still covered by heavy forests and almost unexplored jungle. The rainfall in many sections is excessive, often running as high as two hundred inches a year. Many rivers flow through the state or along its borders. Chief of these are the Grijalva and Usumacinta.

Chief Industries: Agriculture and the production of mahogany and dye woods are almost the sole industries. Coffee, rubber, cocoa, and tropical fruits are the distinctive agricultural products. From the standpoint of undeveloped agricultural possibilities, Chiapas probably surpasses any other state in the Republic.

Principal Cities: The cities are neither numerous nor of great importance. The capital and chief city, Tuxtla Gutierrez, has a population of 22,000 and ranks as a fairly important business center. It has no rail connection with the outside world, however, and can be reached only by wagon road from Jalisco, eighty-seven miles distant. San Cristobal, population 13,500, is situated sixty-four miles east of the capital. Soconusco, or San Benito was formerly an important port of entry whose trade has greatly diminished in recent years. Tonala is a town of about 5,000 inhabitants on the Pan American Railway. It lies some twelve miles from Arista, a small port on the Pacific, with which it is connected by rail. Palenque, the lost city of the jungles, enjoys world-wide fame because of its remarkable ruins.

Transportation: Modern transportation facilities throughout the larger part of the state are non-existent. On the west the Pan American Railway runs parallel to the coast from Oaxaca to the Guatemala border. In addition, the Grijalva, Usumacinta, and a number of other rivers furnish highways for water transportation.

Area: 90,036 square miles.


Population: 423,387 (average density 4.6).

Location: One of the northern border states, across the international boundary line from New Mexico and Texas. Bounded on the east by Coahuila, on the south by Durango, and on the southwest and west by Sinaloa and Sonora.

Physical Characteristics: An arid plateau state, much of the surface of which is mountainous or desert. The average annual rainfall is less than twelve inches; and aside from the Rio Grande, which forms its northern boundary, the state has only one river of much importance, the Rio Conchos.

Chief Industries: Chihuahua has long been among the most famous of the mining states of Mexico. Silver, gold, lead and copper are the principal metals. In 1921 the mining claims in the state covered approximately 55,000 hectares-an area only exceeded by the mining properties of Sonora. Cattle raising is another distinctive industry; and of late years the development of irrigation has given a material stimulus to general agriculture. Corn, wheat, beans, and fruits are the most important agricultural products.

In the Sierra Madre Mountains of western Chihuahua are large forests of pine and oak, and here a valuable lumber industry has been established. Important hydroelectric developments have been carried out on the Conchos River; and in the cities there is some manufacturing.

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