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provisions. Exhaustive and thorough commentaries will no doubt soon appear from the pens of scholars both in Europe and America, and could not enter into the plan of this volume.

The author has freely used the admirable reports made to the Conference by the reporters of the various Committees: Chevalier Descamps, M. Rolin, Professor Renault, Jonkheer van Karnebeek, Count Soltyk, M. Asser, and General Den Beer Poortugael, and it is a pleasure to acknowledge his obligation to these gentlemen. By the courtesy of the Honorable John Hay, Secretary of State, the author was also permitted to make unrestricted use of the files of the State Department with reference to the Conference, and the reports of the American Commission, notably those of its distinguished military and naval experts, Captain Crozier, of the army, and Captain Mahan, of the navy, have been freely drawn upon, especially in the discussion of the work of the First and Second Committees.

As this book is written primarily for American and English readers, particular attention has been paid to the action of the American and British governments, and their representatives at the Conference. It is believed, however, that nothing of importance, bearing upon the attitude and actions of the other Powers, has been omitted.

The translation of the various treaties has been carefully revised by the author, from the British Blue Book, and will, it is hoped, be found to be accurate, while, on the other hand, a free rendering of speeches and debates is given.

In the appendix will be found the complete text of the Final Act, the Treaties and Declarations of the Conference, as well as the Reports of the American Commission. The story of the Peace Conference would not have been complete without an account of the Hugo Grotius celebration, on July 4, at Delft. Accordingly a complete record of the proceedings, containing the admirable oration of Ambassador White, and the other addresses given on that occasion, is also included.

The author acknowledges with sincere thanks the encouragement and valuable suggestions, with reference to the preparation of the present volume, received by him from Ambassador White, Lord Pauncefote, and the Honorable David Jayne Hill, Assistant Secretary of State. The same is especially true of his friends, Albert Shaw and Nicholas Murray Butler, who have also kindly assisted in reading proofs and revising the text.



October, 1900.

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