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new colleges were added both to Oxford and Cambridge. In the former university, Lincoln College was founded in 1430, by Richard Flemyng, Bishop of Lincoln, though only completed about 1475, by his successor, Thomas Rotherham. All Souls was founded in 1437 by Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury, with the design of providing a perpetual service of prayers and masses for the souls of all the faithful departed, and especially of those who had fallen or should fall in the French wars; and Magdalen, which soon became one of the wealthiest academical establishments in Europe, was founded by William Pattyn, or De Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor of England, who began the erection of the fabric in 1458, and lived to witness its completion in 1479. Cambridge received the additions, of King's College, founded in 1441, on a scale of great liberality and magnificence, by Henry VI., who established, about the same time, the celebrated school of Eton, to be a nursery for his college; of Queen's College, founded in 1446, by Henry's consort, Margaret of Anjou; and of Catherine Hall, founded in 1475, by Robert Woodlark, the third provost of King's College. Extensive public buildings, which came to be known by the name of the New Schools, were also erected at Oxford in 1439, by Thomas Hokenorton, Abbot of Osney, for the delivery of lectures in metaphysics, natural philosophy, moral philosophy, astronomy, geometry, music, arithmetic, logic, rhetoric, and grammar. The foundation of a divinity school and of a public library was laid in the same university about 1427; and, although the building was often interrupted, it was, at length, through the liberal donations of Humphrey Duke of Gloucester,

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Cardinal John Kemp, Archbishop of York, his nephew Thomas Kemp, Bishop of London, and other benefactors, completed in 1480, when it formed the most magnificent structure of which the university yet had to boast. The building of public schools was also begun at Cambridge, in 1443, at the expense of the university, and finished by the aid of various contributors, about 1475.

More interesting, however, than these extensions of former establishments, is the founding of a temple to Learning in a part of the island in which no permanent abode had ever before been built for her. The first of the Scotish universities, that of St. Andrew's, rose a few years after the commencement of the fifteenth century, out of the scheme of a few men of letters in that city, who, probably on the suggestion of the Bishop, Henry Wardlaw, formed themselves into an association for giving instruction in the sciences then usually taught in universities to all who chose to attend their lectures, and are supposed to have begun teaching about the year 1410. Their names, as recorded by the father of Scotish history, and eminently worthy to be preserved, were Lawrence Lindores, who undertook to explain the Fourth Book of the Master of the Sentences; Richard Cornel, Archdeacon of Lothian; John Litster, canon of St. Andrew's; John Shevez, official of St. Andrew's, and William Stephen, who lectured on the civil and canon laws; and John Gyll, William Fowler, and William Crosier, who taught logic and philosophy.* The institution, with this apparatus of professors, was already, in everything but in form, a university-and such it is styled in the charter or grant of privileges which Wardlaw *Fordun, Scotichronicon.

hastened to bestow upon it. In that instrument, which is dated the 27th of February, 1411, the bishop speaks of the university as having been already actually instituted and founded by himself, saving the authority of the apostolic see, and laudably begun by those to whom he addresses himself, the venerable doctors, masters, bachelors, and scholars dwelling in his city of St. Andrew's. He now proceeded more formally to endow the new seminary, in so far as his jurisdiction extended, with all the rights and liberties of a university. Two years afterwards, bulls of confirmation, &c., in the usual terms, were obtained from Benedict XIII., the one of the three contending popes who was acknowledged by the kingdom of Scotland. Benedict's bulls are six in number, all dated the same day, the 25th of August, 1413, at Paniscola, in Aragon, where that pope kept his court. They profess to be granted at the request of the Scotish king (though James I. was then a prisoner in England), and of the bishop, prior, and chapter of St. Andrew's, whose project of establishing a university, or studium generale, in that city, is expressly stated to have been formed with the counsel, consent, and common participation of the three estates of the realm of Scotland.* The bishop and his associates, it is declared, had been stirred up to the undertaking by the consideration of the many dangers and inconveniences to which the clergy of that kingdom, who desired to be instructed in theology, the

* Quod olim de consilio, consensu, et communi tractatu trium statuum personarum regni Scotia are the words of the bull of foundation.-See Evidence taken by the Commissioners for visiting the Universities of Scotland, vol. iii. p. 171.

canon and civil laws, medicine, and the liberal arts, were exposed, from wars and other impediments in their journeys to foreign studia generalia, in consequence of there being no such institution to which they might resort in their own country. The several papal bulls were brought to St. Andrew's by Henry de Ogilby, M.A., on the 3rd of February, 1414, when they were received with processions and ringing of bells, and every demonstration of public joy. When King James returned ten years after this from England, he found the new seminary already firmly established, and still flourishing under the protection of its founder, Wardlaw, who had also been the instructor of his own boyhood. James granted it a charter confirming all its privileges and immunities, dated at Perth, the 31st of March, 1432; and, if we may believe the historian Hector Boecius, it flourished so greatly under his patronage, that it soon came to have among its teachers no fewer than thirteen doctors of divinity, and eight doctors of laws, as well as a prodigious multitude of students. The good and enlightened Bishop Wardlaw presided over the see of St. Andrew's till the year 1444, when the university found in James Kennedy a worthy successor to his virtues and public spirit, as well as to his place. As yet the institution was little more than an incorporated association, without any permanent endowments, and with scarcely any buildings except a few public lecturing rooms; it was a university, therefore, but as yet without a college. Its first college— that of St. Salvator-was built and endowed by Kennedy, whose original foundation charter was confirmed, in a bull no longer extant, by Pope Nicholas V., who died in 1455. A second charter was granted by Kennedy, at


his castle of St. Andrew's, on the 4th of April, 1458, and confirmed by Pope Pius II., in a bull dated at Rome, the 13th of September, in the same year. In this the whole scheme of the establishment is minutely detailed, and a complete body of rules is laid down for its government. One of the bishop's ordinances is curiously illustrative of the lax morality of the times. Having given some solemn directions as to the hours at which masses were to be said in all time coming by the members of the college, who were all to be clergymen, he proceeds to enjoin that all the members of the said college shall live decently as becomes ecclesiastics, so as not," it is added, "to keep concubines publicly, nor to be common nightwalkers or robbers, or habitually guilty of other notorious crimes; and if any of them is so (which it is earnestly hoped may not be the case) let him be corrected by his superior; if he prove incorrigible, let him be deprived and another put in his place.' By another bull, dated the 25th of February, 1468, Pope Paul II. granted to the principal and masters of the college of St. Salvator the right of bestowing degrees in theology and the arts, "in consideration," as it is expressed, "of its high and well-known reputation among the other colleges of the realm of Scotland."† The other colleges here


* Ordinamus insuper, quod omnes dicti collegii honestè vivant, ut decet ecclesiasticos, ita quod non habeant publicas concubinas, nec sint communes noctivagi seu brigantes, aut aliis notoriis criminibus intenti: et si talis sit (quod absit) per superiorem suum, &c.-See Evidence taken by the Commissioners for visiting the Universities of Scotland, vol. iii.


+ Quod inter alia collegia regni Scotia collegium ejusdem ecclesiæ egregium ac notabile reputatur.-Ibid, 273.



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