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the skin, and the other is absorbed by the lymphatics back into the body.

It is always a difficult task, and sometimes a needless one, to investigate the true causes of things. But as the public may perhaps expect, that I should account for the above-mentioned differences in this difease ; I shall say, that the principal reasons of these differences, which have occurred to me upon mature consideration, are, the almost infinițe variety of temperaments in various individuals; the seasons of the year and their changes, and in fine, many accidents which befal the body, between the time of catching the infection and the appearance of the disease. For inoculation Thews, that the finall-pox does not break forth before the eighth or pinth day from receiving the infection.

Poffibly it may be thought strange, that, in enu. merating these caufes, I have not mentioned a word of the nature of the infecting particles. But, besides that the knowledge of this is not attainable by us, it seems to have no great influence on the production of this or that particular sort of the distemper. For we'frequently observe, in the same family, where one person catches it from another, that some have a favourable, and others a bad fort.

But such is the power of temperaments of body, that they defcend to those of the fame blood by a fort of hereditary right : whence fome diseases are found to be familiar and fatal to certain families.

As to the seasons of the year, we find, by daily experience, that some of them are fitter to produce certain diseases than others; that they are the causes of cpidemic fevers; and that those chiefly, in which fome fluid is to be thrown off by the skin, are the most remarkably liable to be affected by their changes.

fome

But numberless are the things comprehended in the third article, to wit, all those accidents which happen to the body from the time of taking the infection to the eruption of the puftules. For the poison is far from lying quiet all this while, but is constantly and gradually exerting its maligrity, by first corrupting the animal spirits, and then the whole mass of blood and humours. Wherefore, if bodily exercise, dier, or the affections of the mind (which have great power in this case), should happen to make any particular alteration in the fermenting Auids, they may eafily occasion various forts of pustules, possibly in the manner I am going to explain.

The simple small-pox are suppurations made, while the blood is not so far vitiated, but that the derivations of the humours into the proper parts may be effected tolerably well, and the natural functions are not entirely hurt. But in the malignant fort the case is quite different. For the whole mass of humours is corrupted more or less, according to the nature of the disease; and the blood is in fuch confufion, that the purulent matter cannot be thrown upon the skin. Now, in this case, sometimes a thin Auid is thrown out, which, when watery, makes crystalline pustules ; when thick and viscid, warty; and filiquose, in fine, when the Auid has been reforbed by the lymphatics into the blood, and has left the pustules quite empty. Besides, the texture of the blood is too frequently broken to that degree, that it is obstructed, and stagnates in the small vessels : whereupon, the

Ikin

fkin is strewed with black spots, which are so many real gangrenes, and hæmorrhages ensue through all the outlets of the body; whence this is called the bloody fort. That these horrid symptoms are the effects of an acrid poison, aj pears plainly ; becaule the fame happen to those who have been bit by the hæ. morrhois, a Lybian ferpent, according to Lucan's beautiful description :

A fiercé hæmorrhois struck both his fangs
Deep into Tullus ; á brave valiant youth,
And fond admirer of great Cato's worth.
And as Corycian faffron, when 'tis squeez’d,
Pours forth its yellow juice through all the holes
Of the hard presling boards; fo from the pores
Of all the parts flowd ruddy venom'd gore.
His tears were bloody; nature's passages,
For their own humours, were all fill’d with blood.
His mouth, his nose, chok'd up with filthy clots :
Red sweats transpir'd from all the skin inflam'd.

His body feem'd one universal wound *. But from these objects of terrour, it is time to pafs to those which may afford comfort,

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of the methods of cure in the small-fox. T is most evident, that all pestilential diseases are

accompanied with the highest inflammation of the blood and humours, and therefore they all require emptying and cooling. I begin with the fimple small. Libix. ver. 8c6.

pox, and shall afterwards descend to the treatment of the malignant fort in its several varieties.

But in this place it seems proper to clear up two material points. The one regards the management of the sick, and the other, the diet proper for him.

With respect to the first, ferious attention should be given both to the season of the year, and to the strength of the pacient. For the fame things that are done with safety in fummer, may be attended with danger in winter ; and young lads or robust men easily bear what might deflroy infants, or weakly women. But let this be a general rule, to keep the patient in bed during the first days of the distemper, taking care to defend him from the inclemency of the winter by proper means, and to moderate the exceffive heat in summer by cool air. But to chill and as it were to freeze up the sick in winter, is not the part of a prudent physician, but that of a fool-hardy empiric, trying experiments at the expense of unhappy people's lives. Wherefore a mean is to be obferved herein, by managing the patient in such a man. ner, as neither to stille him with heat or cloaths, for check the eruption and perfpiration by cold. However, great care ought to be taken in general, to supply him with pure and cool air, which he may take in plentifully: because a hot air causes dishculty of breathing, checks the fecretion of urine, and increases the number of pustules on the internal organs of the body; the consequences whereof we may justly apprehend to be inflammations, and, towards the end of the disease, gangrenes.

With regard to diet, it ought to be very flender, ; moistening, and cooling ; such as oatmeal or barley

gruci,

gruel, &c. Nevertheless, as the food is to be adapted to the several stages of the disease, the best regimen in the beginning is that which will keep the body open, and promote urine. These advantages are obtained by boiling preserved fruits with their food, especially figs, damascene plums, and tamarinds ; nd giving them subacid liquors for drink; as fmall beer acidulated with orange or lemon juice ; whey turned with apples boiled in the milk, or with wine; emulfions made with barley-water and almonds; Moselle or Rhenish wine plentifully diluted with water ; or any other things of this kind.

When this fort of diet did not keep the body open, the Arabian physicians added manna to it; but this they did sparingly, and with caution. “ For it is quite “ necessary," says Avicen, “ that the body be open in " the beginning *." Which is one of the most important advices that can be given in this disease, if to it be added, that urine must be made plentifully. For there is a wonderful correspondence between the skin and the kidneys; whereby, whatever fluid is wont to be fecreted by the cuticular glands, may with great ease be evacuated by the urinary passages. Wherefore ir is very proper to draw off as much of the matter of the diseafe as can be done, by these passages, in order to prevent the overloading of the internal parts.

Now let us pass on to medicines ; and, in the first place, blood-letting is necessary. But as dissensions frequently arise on this subject, fome rules are to be laid down concerning it.

It is agreed on all hands, that this remedy is not very suitable to the tenderest age. But yet, as the * De variolis & morbillis.

blood

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