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heat, and greater anxiety than the other does. Therefore Rhazes observed, that the inflammation of the whole body, the inquietude, and anxiety of mind, are much more terrible in the mealles, than in the small-pox *.

I have therefore often wondered, why that sagacious and experienced physician, whom I have so often mentioned with praise, did not prescribe bleeding in the very beginning of the disease ; but neglected this material part of the cure so far, that he only ordered it at the end, when a hot regimen, and too warm medicines, had brought upon the patient a cough and shortness of breath. Especially since he himself takes notice, that the loosenels, which often follows this fever, and which, he says, proceeds from hot vapours from the inflamed blood falling upon the bowels, is only to be cured by blood-ietting t. But the great man deserves pardon upon this account, that, in those times, physicians never attempted to take away blood in those fevers which were attended with any eruptions, particularly in children, who are the most liable to this kind of illness. Their reason was, left that emptying of the vessels fhould hinder the coming out of what was to be discharged by the skin. But daily experience thews, that this fear is vain, and that the event is quite contrary to what they imagined.

To come therefore to the cure : As this pestilen. tial disease is of kin to the small-pox, it requires a management not very different from the fame, which we have recommended in that distemper. Blood must be taken away in the beginning, according to the age

* See his book, at the end of thischap. i. + De morbillis, cap. v. p. 207. edit. 168;.

and

him what method I followed in this disease. I asked him, whether or not he used to take away blood ? He answering, No, because Sydenham very feldom did it; I advised him to open a vein in the beginning of the distemper, or, if he was called in later, as foon however as he possibly could : for, said I, this disease always brings with it a peripneumony, which he very well knew ever required bleeding. Not long after, he met me again, returning me hearty thanks for my counsel, assuring me, that he had not lost one patient whom he had treated in this manner.

Since that time, this practice grew so common, that it is now followed even by our apothecaries.

In the last place, it is proper to take notice, that, as was observed concerning the small-pox *, that the disease is more or less rife, according as the season of the year and state of the air conspire with the infection; so the like happens in the measles. And Dr Morton relates, that, in the year 1672, this distemper was so terrible, that in London there died of it three hundred every week t.

But I have at last finished this little work; which though it may perhaps, to contentious and malevolent perfons, give matter for calumny and finding fault ; yet will, I hope, prove beneficial to mankind, especially to our own countrymen, This is all I desire; for the conscioufness of having done right is beyond all praise, carrying with it its own reward: and this he always enjoys, who consults the public good, and by his actions shews, that he thinks he is

Not for himself, but for the whole world born $. * Chap. ij. + Append. ad exer, de morbis acutis, pag. 427:

I Non fibi, fed toti genitum le credere mundo. Lucan. 1. ii. ver. 383.

RHAZES'S

155

RHAZES'S TREATISE on the SMALL

POX and MEASLES,

P R E F A А с C E.

In the name of God, merciful and gracious.

A

Bu-Beker MOHAMMED, the son of Zacharias,

faith thus : On a certain night, at a meeting in the house of a nobleman, of great goodness and virtue, and very fond of the explanation of useful sciences, that they might be made plain and intelligible for the public benefit ; the conversation having turned on the small-pox, I then spoke what came into my mind on that subject. Which when that great man (whom may God long preserve for the good of mankind) had heard, he desired, that I would write a discourse on that diseafe with fufficient aptness, folidity, and clearness; because there had never yet been published, either by the ancients or moderns, a satisfactory account of it.

I therefore composed this treatise, hoping to receive my reward from the almighty and glorious God, as the effect of his good-will.

Now, this is the sum of its contents, and the heads

of the chapters.

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Of the causes of the small-pox ; and how it comes to

pafs, that no mortal, except by chance here and there one, escapes free from this disease.

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What bodies are most disposed to the small-pox ; also

of the seasons of the year, in which they most frequently happen.

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Of the prognostic signs of the eruption of the small

pox and measles.

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Of the regimen or cure of the small pox, in general.

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Of preservation from the small-pox before the signs of

them appear ; and the way to hinder the multiplying of them after the signs have appeared.

CH A P. VI.

Of those things which hasten the eruption of the

small-pox: also how nature is to be assisted therein,

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Of taking care of the eyes, throat, cars, and joints,

as

as soon as the signs of the small-pox have appearcd.

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Of taking away the dry scabs of the small-pox, and the

efchars from the eyes, and the rest of the body.

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Of destroying the marks of the small-pox,

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Of the food and diet in the small-pox.

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Of managing the discharges of the belly, in the small. pox.

сн А Р. XIV,

Of the curable and incurable small-pox and measles.

RHAZES'S

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