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In diffected bodies, the blood in the veins was so entirely broken, that by cutting any considerable branch, you might empty the part, to which it belonged, of its black and yellow liquor. When found extravasated, it was of the fame kind. And lastly, as all other kinds of hæmorrhages are frequent at the latter end of the calamity, the fluid had the fame appearance, as to colour and conGiftence, whether it was discharged from the mouth, nose, stomach, inteftines, or any other part.
The effects we mentioned of the violence of the scorbutic humour being fo malignant as to open the scars of old wounds, and dissolve the calli of fractured bones, which had for a long time been formed, appear to many to be quite incredible; the rather, because, as they commonly fay, a bone thus reunited is stronger in that part than in any other of the same joint. This indeed, I dare venture to affirm, is not true in fact. The case is thus: A callus is no more than a kind of cementation made by filling up the space between the broken ends of the bone, with the nutritious juice from the part. This, when nicely examined, is found to be more porous, and to have lefs folidity, though the bone often appears bigger than the part above and below it; the fibres are smaller, shorter, and not so regularly disposed as in the natural texture. In short, a callus is an imperfect offification. For this reafon, when the nutritious particles themselves have acquired a corrosive acrimony, they may, like a menstruum, work upon and break the texture of this fuperadded cement. Which is indeed a most surpri*fing phænomenon.
It is proper after all to observe, as a confirmation
of this reasoning, that although the callus is dissolved by the disease, yet, upon the patient's recovery, it is gradually forined again, in proportion to his coming to a right habit of body. I have before me a remarkable instance of this kind. A failor had one of his clavicles fractured in December, which was immediately reduced, and foon united. The dreslings were taken off in January, and he made use of his arm as before. In the following April, as he was suspending bi's body by the arms, the fame clavicle was disunited, and the callus gave way as at first.
He at that iime complained of some symptoms of the scurvy ; which daily increased till June following. At that time he was carried ashore at the illand of Juan Fer nandez. The bandages being removed, the fracture appeared in the same condition as when the accident first bappened, without the least remains of a callus : notwithstanding the proper applications, he could not ule his arm until the middle of October; the callus having continued more than three months in a flexible ftate. From that time, by the use of a vegetable diet, and living on shore, he gradually recovered from the distemper ; the callus was confirmed, and his ufual strength returned.
But it is time to come to the cure ;, which will be, first to prevent the attacks; and in the next place, to remove the effects of this virulent evil..
The first care to be taken is of the diet. And here I must take the liberty to make some observations upon the manner of victualling our ships. The trials already made, as I have been informed, of Mr Lowndes's falt made from brine, prove it to be much preferable, for falting provilons, both flesh and fish,
to that made from sea-water, even to the bay.falt. Some experiments of its use I have made myself ; and our college, being consulted by the Lords of the Admiralty, gave their opinion in its favour. There is in this nothing of that noxious quality, whatever it be, which is always found in the marine falt, and cannot, by any known methods, be feparated from it; and which, as we fee, makes the fea-air, as well as its water, unwholesome.' And I cannot but fay, that I am sorry to see fome of our physicians, of late years, fo fond of prescribing the drinking of it to their patients, particularly in fcrophulous distempers. well assured, that it has fometimes brought on fcorbutic symptoms, besides other mischiefs..
I must add, that if, inftead of our falt-fifh, ftockfish, which is dried without any fült, were provided, it would be more wholesome. The Dutcir do fo ; and also, in lieu of oatmeal, they put on board gort, which is, as I have been informed, a kind of barley ground; and is not so hot and drying as oatmeal.
I will here relate what that experienced and brave admiral, Sir Charles Wager, once told me in a difcourse I had with himn concerning the health of our seamen. He said, that one year, when he commanded our fleet in the Baltic, his failors were terribly afflicted with the fourvy: but he observed that the Dutch ships, then in company with ours, were much more free from this disease. He could impute this to nothing but their different food, which was ftock-fil and gort; whereas ours was falt-filh and oatmeal. He was then come last from the Mediterranean, and had, at Leghorn, taken in a great quantity of lemons and oranges. Recollecting, from what he had often K k 2
hcard, how effectual these fruits were in the cure of this distemper, he ordered a cheft of each to be brought upon deck, and opened every day. The men, befides eating what they would, mixed the juice in their beer. It was also their constant diversion to pelt one another with the rinds; so that the deck was always strewed and wet with the fragrant-liquor. The happy effect was, that he brought his failors home in good health.
It is very commonly known, that, in our East-India ships returning home, the men are very much af, fected this way, and that upon their very approach to the island of St Helena, they are strangely relieved by the fresh odoriferous air ; and perfectly recovered, af: ter fome days, by eating the fruits we have mentioned, and living chiefly upon the vegetables, which kind nature has supplied that place with in profuse plenty.
What has been said may serve for a very good proof of the reasonableness of the advice given fome years ago, by our college, to the Lords of the Admiralty, viz. that a quantity of: wine-vinegar should he allowed to the company of every ship. This qualifies the falt of the food, and makes: fome amends for the want of fub-acid fruits. But I must remark, that the vinegar of strong beer has neither the flavour nor the virtue of that from wine ; and ought indeed to be forbidden our tables,
I shall conclude what I have to say with regard to feeding on herbs, in the scurvy, with a remarkable relation, contained in a book published, not many years since, by a Dutch physician, on this subject *.
* Observationes circa fcorbutam, auctore Johanne Pred. Bachitrom. Lugduni Pitavor. 1734. 12mo. p. 8.
A failor, in one of the Greenland ships, was fo entirely. broken and disabled by this disease, that his companions, when the fishing was over, put him into a boat, and sent him ashore ; leaving him there to perish, without the least expectation of a recovery. The poor wretch had quite lost the use of his limbs; he could only crawl about upon the ground: this he found covered with a plant, which, having nothing else to support life, he, continually grasing like a beast of the field, plucked up with his teeth. Every country is, by the bounty of Providence, provided with antidotes against the diseases to which its inhabitants are chiefly liable. In a short time, he was by this means perfectly recovered to his strength, and, after his return home, related the fact to this writer. It was soon after observed, that this herb was cochlearia, or fcurvy-grass, Some of it was, for inquiry's fake, brought over hither in pots, and was found to be fomewhat different from that of our country, being more mild, and not fo pungent and sharp.
Thus much for the vegetable diet. I must add, that besides the herbs and fruits mentioned, there are many others very wholesome in this disease : fome like cochlearia, of a subtile and volatile juice, as the nafturtium, beccabunga, or brooklime ; others more cooling, and therefore more proper in hot constitutions, or feverish heats, as forrel, endive, lettuce, purslain, &c. And, indeed, I think it will be best to join in use the hotter with the colder, that they may qualify each other ; especially, because the acid fruits were found, in Lord Anfou's voyage, to be of most extraordinary benefit *. * See voyage, p. 117. and also 3c8.