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Neither ought it to be omitted, that milk of all kinds, when it can be had, and its whey, which may be clarefied with some of the herbs now named, is an antiicorbutic food and phyfic.

But, as the defign of this discourse is to demonstrate the usefulness of the preceding machine, it will be right to add some illustrations and observations to those I formerly made in my paper read before the Royal Society, and reprinted in Mr Sutton's book *.

I have already taken notice, that the reason why the writers upon this disease have not ascribed it more to the air, than they have done, muft be, because they were more acquainted with it at land than at fca. Now, it is very plain, that as the hurtful qualities of the sea-air must be heightened by its being closely confined, without due circulation, particularly when it is also faturated with effluvia from the breath of many persons almost ftified up together ; so the continual shifting and changing of this element, most of course be attended with great advantages ; nay fuch perhaps, as one unacquainted with the nature of things, would hardly be brought to believe. But I refer to my mentioned paper, and Mr Sutton's additions.

I must lastly remark, that it is almost incredible how foon the sick, even though just dying, begin, when brought alhore, to feel the falutary effects of the land : for whereas the Commodore had buried twentyone men in two days, before his arrival at the island of Tinian, yet he did not lose above ten, during his two months stay there t. For so healing, and.. contrary to the malignity and bad qualities of the fea

* Above, p. 220. + See voyage, f: 307.

air, was that of the land, that the patients, even upon their being exposed upon the ground, immediately recovered.

But it may seem still more marvellous, that the vapour of the cold earth itself hould also contribute to their speedy recovery. Lord Anfon told me, that one of his men, who rowed the boat afhore, was so weak, that he fell down at the oar almost dead : when landed, the poor man desired his mates that they would cut a piece of turf out of the soft ground, and put his mouth to the hole : upon doing this, he came to himself, and grew afterwards quite well. This puts me in mind of what I have formerly seen done by the boys on Shrove-Tuesday, the too cruel anniversary martyrdom of cocks; when one of these creatures was knocked down and expiring, it was sometimes brought to life again, by instantly putting its head, for a short time, into a.fresh-made hole in the earth,

This sudden good effect of fresh air affords a plain proof of what we have before faid, that, besides the blood, the animal spirits themselves are very much affected in this disease : for such immediate relief could only be given by the means of this active fluid, the main instrument of all vital motions. And as the protracting this advantage in the open air is the cure at hand ; fo the making a constant circulation even of that which is not so wholesome, in the ship, must do a great deal towards the prevention of the distemper.

R. M.

The End of the SECOND VOLUME.

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