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others dispersed in the field; Cheshire also thought good to cutting to right and left to get at return thanks to the commanders, them. The people began running officers, and men of all the corps in all directions; and from this who had taken part in the actions moment the yeomanry lost all of the day; particularly expresscommand of temper: numbers ing their gratification at “ the were trampled under the feet of extreme forbearance exercised men and horses ; many, both men by the yeomanry when insulted and women were cut down by and defied by the rioters.". sabres ; several, and a peace Coroners' inquests were held on officer and a female in the number, the bodies of those who lost their slain on the spot. The whole lives by the furious assault of the number of persons

persons injured cavalry; but the verdicts of the amounted to between three and juries were such as could lead four hundred. The populace to no judicial proceedings. threw a few stones and brick bats Some were, “ accidental death;" in their retreat; but in less than another, on a child, “ died by ten minutes the ground was ena a fall from his mother's arms, tirely cleared of its former occu- a third, “ died by the pressure of pants, and filled by various bodies the military, being under the civil of military, both horse and foot. power.Mr. Hunt was led to prison, not The return of a dispatch sent without incurring considerable to London, brought to sir John danger, and some injury on his Byng, commander of the district, way from the swords of yeomanry a letter from viscount Sidmouth, and the bludgeons of police stating that his lordship had laid officers; the broken staves of before the prince regent a letter two of his banners were carried addressed to himself (lord S.), in mock procession before him. and that it was with great satisThe magistrates directed him to faction he obeyed the commands be locked up in a solitary cell, of his royal highness by requestand the other prisoners were ing that he would express to confined with the same pre- lieut. col. L'Estrange, and to the caution.

officers, non-commissioned offiThe town was brought into a cers, and privates, who served tolerably quiet state before night, under his command at Manmilitary patroles being stationed chester, on the 16th of August, at the end of almost every street. his royal highness's high appro

The next day the Manchester bation of the exemplary manner magistrates published a placard, in which they assisted and supdenouncing as illegal the practice ported the civil power of the of military training, which they county palatine of Lancaster on affirmed to have been carried on that day. On August 27th, Hunt by large bodies of men within and his fellow-prisoners were the hundred of Salford, in con, brought up for final examination, nection with seditious and trea. when they were thus addressed sonable purposes,

The united by Mr. Norris the chairman : magistrates of Lancashire and 'When you were last called up



into this court,


were re- vious to the meeting, yet in the manded on a charge of high eye of the law, all those who commit treason. On remanding you, you separate acts, tending to one ilwere informed that the whole of legal object, are guilty of that the evidence had been sent up to crime. Coupling the two meetLondon, to be laid before the law ings together, taking into consiofficers of the crown, and in the deration the manner in which the mean time you were to be de- last was assembled, with such tained. It was not until this insignia and in such a manner, morning that a communication with the black flag, the bloody

made from government, dagger, with Equal representation stating that the law officers of or death, you came in a threatthe crown had for the present ning manner-you came under abandoned the higher charge. the banners of death, thereby The communication not showing you meant to overturn made to me; but there is a gen- the government. There could tleman present, Mr. Bouchier, be no free discussion where that who has come with orders to flag was unfurled. The charge proceed upon a less charge. The now is that of having conspired charge of high treason is not yet to alter the law by force and abandoned, but government pro- threats.” It is an illegal matter, ceeds against you for a minor and sufficiently made out, and offence."

calls upon us imperatively to After this notification, the ex- commit you for trial by a proper amination of witnesses began, in jury. It is now our painful duty presence of a crowded auditory, by to commit you to Lancasterwhom the most lively interest was castle. On account of the seritaken in the event. We cannot ousness of the charge, we shall follow the detail of these proceed- require you, Henry Hunt and ings, in which however many inci- Joseph Johnson, to give bail dents occurred strikingly indica- yourselves in 1,0001. and two tive of the spirit of party. On its sureties in 5001. each; and all the conclusion, the chairman dismissed others, themselves in 500l. and the prisoners, saying, “ You may two sureties in 250l. each. all have bail.” They were after- The prisoners then left the bar. wards again summoned into court, Hunt, after consulting his soliwhen he thus again addressed citor, Mr. Pearson, and saying them: “ Henry Hunt and you that he would not give bail, even all : we sent for Mr. Bouchier in though no more than a farthing order that we might again care- was required, was sent off to Lanfully peruse the depositions. It caster, the assizes for which were is a most painful duty to me to just approaching, at six o'clock commit you for a conspiracy. in the evening, in a coach, under We can, however, lay our hands the guard of a troop of thirty of on our hearts and say, We have the 15th of Hussars. Presently done our duty.' As to the charge after their departure, bail was of conspiracy, though you might offered for Hunt and another not have been all together pre- person, but the magistrates de



clined to accept it till twelve constituted authorities of Paisley o'clock the next day, when they produced opposite and highly disconceded, and a special mes- graceful results. senger was dispatched to Lan- A meeting on Mickleriggscaster, where he arrived in the muir, near Paisley, having been same evening, and liberated Hunt advertised for September 11th, and Knight. As they approached the sheriff of Renfrew and proManchester, the procession which vost and magistrates of Paisley, attended upon them kept in- issued a proclamation declaring creasing like a rolling snowball, against the avowed intention of and notwithstanding the wetness bands of persons from different of the day, the streets were parts on going to and from such crowded, and thousands of both meeting, to parade the town and sexes accompanied their hero, suburbs of Paisley “ with flags stunning the ear with their ac- and devices of a political and inclam ions.

flammatory nature ;" and warned The tragical event of the Man- all who should take part in such chester meeting, did not put a “ illegal” proceedings, that they stop to similar assemblages, of should be made responsible for which notice had been given their conduct. This notification in the neighbourhood of Leeds was utterly disregarded by the and other manufacturing towns; reformers, who, after the meetwhere the conduct of the yeo- ing, came marching in great force, manry and magistrates of Man- with music sounding and flags chester was commented upon in Aying through the high street of a strain of vehement and fearless Paisley. The magistrates caused invective, and every art was em- the colours to be seized, and in ployed to rouse to the highest consequence a violent disturbance the pity and indignation of the began : lamps and windows were multitude. The orators appeared broken, and special constables in deep mourning; the flags were maltreated. The sheriff, the prosurmounted with crape; one of vost and magistrates, who went them exhibited a yeoman cutting among the mob to advise them at a woman with his sabre, and to disperse, were assaulted with the word " Vengeance” was ob- stones; and it was not till a late served on another. At a meeting hour that order was restored by at Birmingham where sir Charles the reading of the riot act, and Wolseley appeared, a kind of the apprehension of about twenty funeral procession was exhibited. of the ring-leaders. Similar outNot the smallest disposition to rages were renewed during several tumult however appeared on any following days, in which several of these occasions, and the con- houses were gutted, many pergregated multitudes dispersed in sons abused, and some robbed, peace, whilst the magistrates con- by the plunderers, who took adtented themselves with remaining vantage of the occasion. After spectators of these extraordinary considerable forbearance, as well scenes. A very moderate attempt as exertion on the part of the at interference on the part of the civil power, some cavalry were sent for from Glasgow, by whom late transactions at Manchester, the streets were repeatedly clear- and the steps to be taken in coned. By such means the spirit of sequence; when, after warm deoutrage was at length subdued, bates, the following resolutions and fortunately without the loss were carried by a majority of 71 of a single life, though many per- to 45: sons were severely wounded; * Resolved, That under the free some by the mob, and some by principles of the British Constithe soldiers.


tution, it is the undoubted right A subscription was opened in of Englishmen to assemble togeLondon and Liverpool for the ther for the purpose of deliberatpurpose both of relieving the ing upon public grievances, as sufferings of persons wounded well as on the legal and constituand injured at Manchester, and tional means of obtaining redress. of defraying such expenses as That, for the exercise of this might be incurred in obtaining right, a meeting was held at Manlegal redress for the assaults com- chester on the 16th of August mitted, and proper persons were last, and, without entering into sent down by the committee to the policy or prudence of conexamine into the matters of fact vening such assembly, it appears and direct the measures to be to us, from the information which pursued. In consequence of these has transpired, that the said meetinvestigations, several bills were ing was legally assembled; that presented to the grand jury at its proceedings were conducted Lancaster, against individuals be- in an orderly and peaceable manlonging to the Manchester yeo- ner; and that the people commanry, for cutting and maiming posing it were therefore acting with intent to kill in St. Peter's under the sanction of the laws, field on the 16th of August. But and entitled to the protection of all such bills were thrown out by the magistrates. the grand jury, and their example “ That we have, nevertheless, was openly pleaded by the ma- learnt with grief and astonishgistrates of Manchester for re- ment, that while the meeting was fusing to commit on any of the so assembled, and when no act of charges connected with the trans- riot or tumult had taken place, actions of that day, which were the magistrates issued their warafterwards submitted to their rants for the apprehension of cerexamination.

tain persons then present, for the True bills were found by the execution of which, although no grand jury at Manchester against resistance was made on the part Messrs. Hunt, Johnson, Moor- of the people, or those against house, and seven others, for a whom the warrants were issued, conspiracy; the persons accused they immediately resorted to the all traversed to the next assizes. aid of the military; when, without

On September 9th, a meeting any previous warning of their inof the common council of London tention. the Manchester Yeowas holden, pursuant to notice, manry Cavalry, suddenly rushfor the purpose of considering the ing forward, opened a passage


through the multitude, furiously to acts of open violence or secret attacking, by force of arms, peace- revenge. able and unoffending citizens, “ That, in order to avert these whereby great numbers of men, calamities to maintain the auwomen, and children, and even thority of the law and to protect peace-officers, were indiscrimi- the lives and liberties of the subnately and wantonly rode over, ject-an humble and dutiful Adand many inhumanly sabred and dress be presented by this Court killed.

to his royal highness the Prince “ That we feel ourselves called Regent, praying his royal highupon to express our strongest in- ness will be graciously pleased to dignation at these unprovoked institute an immediate and effecand intemperate proceedings, tual inquiry into the outrages that which we cannot but view as have been committed, and to highly disgraceful to the charac- cause the guilty perpetrators ter of Englishmen, and a daring thereof to be brought to signal violation of the British constitu- and condign punishment." tion.

An address founded on these “ That from the known and de- resolutions was accordingly drawn clared attachment of his royal up and presented to the Prince highness the Prince Regent to Regent, to which his royal highthe constitution and the laws, we ness was pleased to return the feel the most decided conviction following answer : that his Royal Highness never “I receive with feelings of could have been induced to ex- deep regret this address and pepress his approval of the conduct tition of the lord-mayor, alderof the abettors and perpetrators men, and commons of the city of of those atrocities, had not his London, in common council asroyal confidence been abused by sembled. interested misrepresented state- « At a time when ill-designing ments of these illegal and fatal and turbulent men are actively transactions.

engaged in inflaming the minds “ That at a time when the great of their fellow-subjects, and enbody of his majesty's subjects are deavouring by means the most suffering under the severest fri- daring and insidious to alienate vations, however erroneous may them from their allegiance to his be their ideas as to the means of majesty and the established conredress, a kind and conciliating stitution of the realm, it is on the attention to their complaints is vigilance and conduct of the maequally called for by policy and gistrates that the preservation of justice: and that depriving them the public tranquillity must in a of the means of expressing their great degree depend, and a firm, grievances, by cruelty and despo- faithful, and active discharge of tism, can only tend to increase their daty cannot but give them the present discontents, destroy the strongest claim to the suppúblic confidence in the pure port and approbation of their soand equal administration of jus. vereign and their country. tice, excite disaffection, and lead “ With the circumstances which


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