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it appears to be again in a course Lords by earl Manvers, and seof progressive improvement. conded by lord Churchill, Earl . . Some depression still conti- Grey rose to address the House. nues to exist in certain branches He said, that had he not been of our manufactures, and I deeply aware of the state of the country, lament the distress which is in the speech from the throne, the consequence felt by those who address moved in reply, and the more immediately depend upon language of the noble mover and them; but this depression is in a seconder, would be sufficient to great measure to be ascribed to convince him that parliament the embarrassed situation of other had never assembled at a more countries; and I earnestly hope important crisis, or when greater that it will be found to be of a difficulties and dangers were to temporary nature.

be overcome. He did not how. “ My Lords and Gentlemen ; ever think the line of policy

I continue to receive from pointed out in the speech such as foreign powers the strongest as- ought to be adopted in the presurances of their friendly dispo- sent state of the country, to which sition towards this country.

he had attended with the greatest “ It is my most anxious wish, He had heard strong obthat advantage should be taken servations on the progress of seof this season of peace to secure dition and treason, and the neand advance our internal pros- cessity of adopting measures of perity; but the successful prose- coercion, but no recommendation cution of this object must essen- to avert the danger by relieving tially depend on the preservation the people from the heavy burof domestic tranquillity.

thens that pressed upon them. It “ Upon the loyalty of the great was by a timely system of ecobody of the people I have the nomy and reform that the threatmost confident reliance; but it will ened dangers would most effecrequire your utmost vigilance and tually be met. exertion, collectively and indivi- His lordship fully allowed the dually, to check the dissemina- necessity of resisting plans of intion of the doctrines of treason novation described as destructive and impiety, and to impress upon of the laws and constitution ; but the minds of all classes of his while opposing one danger, let Majesty's subjects, that it is from care be taken not to incur anothe cultivation of the principles ther. The noble mover of the of religion, and from a just sub- address had warned the House ordination to lawful authority, not to let an anxiety for the sethat we can alone expect the curity of liberty lead to a comcontinuance of that Divine favour promise of the safety of the state. and protection which have hither- He, for his part, could not seto been so signally experienced parate those things. The safety in this kingdom."

of the state could only be found After an address in corres- in the protection of the liberties pondence with the speech had of the people ; whatever was been moved in the House of destructive of the latter, de.

stroyed stroyed also the former. He tions were rejected, and their sufwarned their lordships, in sup- ferings aggravated, was it wonporting the authority of govern. derful that at last public disconment, not to sanction any prece- tent should assume a menacing dent hostile to public liberty, and aspect? therefore to the safety of the The noble lord then adverted state. Where discontent generally to the transactions at Manchester; prevailed, there must be much he was willing, he said, to susdistress, and it was an axiom no pend his judgment on the conless true, that there never was an duct of the magistrates till fur. extensive discontent without mis- ther information should be laid government. Two years ago, before parliament, but he conwhen a similar subject was under demned severely the precipitation their lordships' consideration, with which their behaviour had noble friend of his (marquis been approved by those very perWellesley) had quoted the opi- sons who deprecated the prepion of lord Bacon, that the judging of the question in the surest way to prevent seditions Aippant and impertinent answer is, to take away the matter of which had been given to the city them, and in the spirit of this of London. He next adverted maxim had recommended the re- to the removal of earl Fitzwilliam, duction of public expenditure, a man who had been distinand especially of our great and guished by his public and conunnecessary military establish, stant support of the crown on ment. Had this recommendation every trying difficulty-a man of been attended to ? No; profusion high rank, extensive influence, was obstinately maintained, as if and princely possessionsma man the continuance of every abuse beloved and esteemed a man so were necessary to the safety of properly described in resolutions the state. Not only was no effi- which had lately been passed, cient

of reduction from his particular situation, as adopted, but additions were made affording security to the governto the expenditure, which no ment and firmness and confi. public principle justified. He dence to the people ; when such had in vain opposed some of those was peculiarly marked measures which had proved most out and devoted, in a season of injurious to the character of par- such difficulty as the present, liament, and to that of the family what confidence pould exist in on the throne. After this denial the ministers by whom such conof justice- for to refuse a relief so duct could be sanctioned, and necessary to the country was a what hope remained for the dedenial of justice—the session was luded people of this country? He closed, in a manner most insulting would now call the attention of to the distresses of the country, their lordships to that part of the by the imposition of 3,000,000l. speech from the throne which reof new taxes. When no atten- ferred to the addition of from tion was paid to the calls of the 10,000 to 11,000 men to the repeople for relief, when their peti- gular troops. He certainly had



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doubts of the legality of this liarly necessary at this period, in step without the sanction of par- order to create a confidence in liament; but he would neither the public mind, that they have a dwell on this nor on the prudence sufficient safeguard in the laws of of adding to the national bur- the land against all encroachthens an expense of from 2 to ment on their just rights. 300,0001, : he would simply ob- “ That we have seen with deep serve, that this was another of regret the events which took place that series of measures which had at Manchester on the 16th of marked the progress of the exist- August; and without pronouncing ing government, and which was any opinion on the circumstances unaccompanied with a single which occurred on that melanmeasure of concession to keep choly occasion, that we feel it down the spirit of discontent that demands our most serious attenunfortunately prevailed. After tion and deliberate inquiry, in a variety of other remarks, the order to dispel all those feelings noble lord moved an amendment, to which it has given birth, and which was in substance as fol. to show that the measures then lows:

resorted to, were the result of To assure his royal highness urgent and unavoidable necessity the Prince Regent, that while we that they were justified by the deeply lament the unexampled constitution, and that the lives of distress which exists, we shall take his Majesty's subjects cannot be into our most serious considera- sacrificed with impunity.” tion the various matters contained Lord Sidmouth regarded himin his Royal Highness's most self as peculiarly called upon to gracious speech. That it is im- advert to the manner in which possible to express approbation the noble earl had alluded to late of the attempts which were made events involving the responsibility to persuade the people to seek which chiefly attached to himself. relief from the distresses under Respecting the transactions at which they labour by means dan- Manchester, he said, that never gerous to the public tranquillity, was there an event publicly inand inconsistent with the security teresting respecting which of the community ; and that it is much misrepresentation, falseour duty, as well as our deter- hood, and exaggeration had gone mination, to adopt measures for forth. He contended that all prethe prevention of those attempts. sumptions ought to be in favour

« That we humbly represent to both of the magistrates and yeohis Royal Highness, while we manry. The meeting, he would thus declare our determination to boldly take upon him to assert, give full vigour to the law, we feel was not only illegal, but treasoncalled on by a sense of duty to able. The magistrates would satisfy the people that their com- have acted not only unwisely, but plaints shall at all times receive unjustly and basely, had they that just attention which is indis- done otherwise than they did; pensable to their safety.

the letter of approbation was “ That this seems to us pecu- sanctioned by a cabinet council,



and he, for his part, did not strongly urged the necessity of shrink from any part of the re

conciliation on the part of governsponsibility incurred. He entered ment, and of parliamentary inshortly into the transactions of quiry into the conduct of the the 16th, and described the hos- magistrates of Manchester; and tile conduct of the populace to- he firmly maintained the legawards the constables and autho- lity of the meeting, and the oprities both before and after. posite character of the means Campbell a consable had been taken to disperse it. He was stoned to death in open day in ready, he said, to admit, that the streets of Manchester, and there might be meetings whose the constable of the town thought avowed object, being the destruchis life in danger. This system tion of property or the execution of hostility was not confined to of some other illegal purpose, Manchester; it appeared at New- rendered every man a magistrate castle and in other places. He

He for its dispersion. But the meetaffirmed that not a single life was ing at Manchester was not of this lost in conseqưence of the blows complexion. It had met to petiof the military. On this subject' tion; and to show that it had no he would dwell no longer at pre- intention of violence, those who sent: the danger with which we attended it brought their wives were threatened from the dis. and children along with them, contented state of the public which they would not have done, mind was generally admitted, had they conceived any danger, and its magnitude should induce or imagined they were exposing their lordships to unite in vigorous themselves to punishment, by a measures to avert it. If, in the breach of the laws. The assemcharacter of that danger, there bly might have become tumulwas any feature more alarming tuous; what then? why the mathan another, it was the conduct gistrates might have read the of some persons who encouraged Riot Act, and dispersed it. The and emboldened the disaffected, Riot Act might have been read, by standing between the govern- but the House had not heard so; ment they assailed and the party nor had their lordships heard that assailing. Respecting the dis- the hour had elapsed before the missal of earl Fitzwilliam, his military were employed. If such lordship remarked, that the dif- had been the case, every man ferent view taken by that noble that remained on the field would lord, and his majesty's ministers have been a felon; but even then of the state of the country, and he was not to be cut down by the the public declaration which he military, or condemned to death signed in opposition to their without a trial. Had even miliwishes, showed that all confidence tary execution been justified on between them and him had the refractory, ought women and ceased, and that a separation had children to have been trampled become indispensable.

upon, wounded, or killed ? The Several other lords delivered House, after such transactions, their opinions. Lord Erskine ought to grant inquiry to convince




the country that their lordships The Lord Chancellor opposed were determined to support the any parliamentary inquiry rerights and privileges of the peo- specting the late affairs, as in

This was the object of the consistent with the spirit of the amendment. Government might laws. When he read in his law use force to restrain the discon- books that numbers constituted tents which they did not try to force, and force terror, and terror remove, but such an employment illegality, he felt that no man of the military against the people could say that the Manchester would only render it unpopular, meeting was not an illegal one. and less efficient for the purposes It was complained, he said, that for which it was intended. In- not only had the grand jury restead of being supported in the jected bills, but that the magispublic affections, and enjoying trates had refused to receive in. that strength which arose from a formation on oath. This latter well regulated liberty, we should conduct was either right or wrong. soon see nothing around us but If right, why complain about it? force and military despotism. To if wrong, why interfere with meadestroy any necessity for such eures already under consideration extreme

Parliament in the court of King's-bench ? should convince the people that Another ground of complaint was it did not overlook their distresses the conduct of the coroner in and grievances. Would the House adjourning an inquest. But what do its duty by refraining from in- was the fact? The coroner alquiry, on the mere declaration of leges that the jury have been ministers that they possessed par- tampered with, and that there is ticular information hitherto un- a fear that the jury might give disclosed ? His noble friend (lord their verdict on evidence not beGrey) had shown, that inquiry fore them on oath. He, therefore, was not a prejudging of the guilt adjourned in order to have the or innocence of any individuals; opinion of the court of King'sbut he remembered a time when bench in a matter of such high parliament was less scrupulous on importance. What was there this subject of prejudging. He

wrong in this ? alluded to the State Trials in The Marquis of Lansdown ear1794, when the very case against nestly pleaded for an inquiry, for the prisoners was made out of hich, he said, he should move, if the reports of the two Houses of no such motion should emanate Parliament. Now, therefore, it from government; in the mean could not be said that we had no time he should support the preauthority for inquiry. But it sent amendment. might be said, that there was Lord Liverpool replied to the danger in making any concessions noble marquis. to the demands of the people. The Marquis of Buckingham The very reverse would happen supported the original motion. in this case-inquiry would re- On a division, the numbers move danger by leading to con

Not-contents-Present, ciliation.

121 ; Proxies, 38—159. Con


were :

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