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1836 harajah Runjeet Sing's permission will therefore be res quested for your passage up the Indus to Attock; whence you will proceed to Peshiawur ad Cabool. i mode

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On proceeding to Peshawur and. Cabool, you will make inquiry into the present state of the commerce of those countries; inform the merchants of that quar ter, of the measures concerted, and officers employed, for the purpose of affording security on the Indus ; encourage them, by all means in your power to conduct their trade by the new route, and invite them, when that plan shall be sufficiently matured, to resort to the contemplated entrepôt and fair. You will hereafter be furnished with a letter to Dost Mahomed Khan, stating generally the objects for which you are deputed, and soliciting for you friendly protection.

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of From Cabool you will proceed to Candahar, where you will make the same inquiries, and invite the same co-operation in the plans in progress for the revival of trade. A flourishing commerce is supposed to have been formerly carried on between the Indus and Candaharj by several mountain routes, which are now shut and it is requested that you will make inquiry regarding these routes, and the practicability of re-ope ning them both while you are on your way up the Indus, and while you are on your road from Cabool and Candahar. The direct route from Candahar to the Sea, by Kelat and Sonmeanee, will also engage your attention.

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You will return from Candahar to Hyderabad, by way of the Bolan pass, and Shikarpore.

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Your salary has been fixed at 1,500 rupees per mensem; besides which, you are authorized to charge all the expenses which it may be necessary to incur on account of the Mission. It will, perhaps, be desirable, that you should immediately procure from Bom bay such articles as will be required to be given in presents to the different Chiefs on your route. They ought not to be of a costly nature; but should be chosen particularly with a view to exhibit the superiority of British manufactures.

It is requested that you will have a strict regard to economy in all your arrangements, which you will easily be able to do, as parade would be unsuitable to the character of a commercial mission.

In conclusion, I am directed to state, that his 1836 Lordship the Right Honourable the Governor-General in Council confidently relies on your already wellknown industry and intelligence.

The Secretary to the Governor-General of India in council. W. H. MACNAGHTEN.


Convention générale de Paix, d'Amitié, de commerce et de Navigation, conclue entre les Etats-unis de l'Amérique septentrionale et la Confédération Pérou-Bolivienne, et signée à Lima le 13 Novembre 1836.

(Acts and Resolutions passed at the third Session of the 25 Congress of the United States. Washingt. 1839. Append. p. 14).

The United States of America and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, desiring to make firm and permanent the peace and friendship which happily subsist between them, have resolved to fix, in a clear, distinct and positive manner, the rules which shall in future be religously observed between the one and the other, by means of a Treaty or general convention of peace, friendship, commerce and navigation.

For this desirable purpose, the President of the United States of America has conferred full powers on Samuel Larned, Chargé d'Affaires of the said States near the government of Peru; and

the Supreme Protector of the north and south Peruvian States, President of the Republic of Bolivia, encharged with the direction of the foreign relations of the Peru - Bolivian Confederation, has conferred like powers on John Garcia del Rio Minister of State in the Department of Finance of the North-Peruvian State;

who, after having exhibited to each other their respective full powers, found to be in due and proper form, Nouv. Série. Tome VI.


1836 and exchanged certified copies thereof, have agreed to the following articles, to wit:

Art. 1. There shall be a perfect and inviolable peace and sincere friendship between the United States of America and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, in all the extent of their respective territories and possessions, and between their people and citizens respectively, without distinction of persons or places.

Art. 2. The United States of America and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, desiring to live in peace. and harmony as well with each other as with all the nations of the earth, by means of a policy frank and equally friendly with all, engage mutually, not to concede any particular favor to other nations, in respect of commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party to this Treaty ; who shall enjoy the same freely, if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional.

Art. 3. The two high contracting parties being likewise desirous of placing, the commerce and navigation of their respective countries on the liberal basis of perfect equality with the most favored nation, mutually agree, that the citizens of each may frequent with their vessels, all the coasts and countries of the other, and may reside and trade there in all kinds of produce, manufactures and merchandise, not prohibited to all; and shall pay no other or higher duties, charges or fees whatsoever, either on their vessels or cargoes, than the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation are or shall be obliged to pay on their vessels or cargoes; and they shall enjoy respectively all the rights, privileges and exemptions in navigation and commerce, which the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation do or shall enjoy; they submitting themselves to the laws, decrees and usages, there established, to which such citizens or subjects are of right subjected.

But it is understood that the stipulations contained in this article, do not include the coasting trade of either of the two countries; the regulation of this trade being reserved by the parties respectively according to their own separate laws.

Art. 4. It is likewise agreed, that it shall be wholly free for all merchants, commanders of ships

and other citizens of both countries, to manage themselves 1836 their own business in all the ports and places subject to the jurisdiction of each other, as well with respect to the consignment and sale of their goods and merchandise, as to the purchase of their returns, unloading, loading and ordering off their vessels. The citizens of neither of the contracting parties shall be liable to any embargo, nor to be detained with their vessels cargoes, merchandise or effects, for any military expedition, nor for any public or private purpose whatever, without being allowed there for a sufficient indemnification. Neither shall they be called upon for any forced loan or occasional contributions; nor be subject to military service on land or sea.

Art. 5. Whenever the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be forced to seek refuge, shelter or relief in the rivers, bays, ports and dominions of the other, with their vessels, whether of war (public or private), of trade, or employed in the fisheries, through stress of weather, want of water or provisions, pursuit of pirates or ennemies, they shall be received and treated with humanity; and all favor and protection shall be given to them, in the repairing of their vessels, procuring of supplies and placing of themselves in a condition to pursue their voyage, without obstacle or hinderance.

Art. 6. All ships, merchandise and effects belonging to citizens of one of the contracting parties, which may be captured by pirates whether on the high seas or within the limits of its jurisdiction, and may be carried or found in the rivers, roads, bays, ports or dominions of the other, shall be delivered up to the owners, they proving, in due and proper form, their rights before the competent tribunals; it being understood that the claim should be made within the term of two years, by the parties themselves, their attorneys or the agents of the respective governments.

Art. 7. Whenever any vessel belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be wrecked, founder or suffer domage, on the coasts or within the dominions of the other, all assistance and protection shall be given to the said vessel, her crew and the merchandise on board, in the same manner as is usual and customary with vessels of the nation

1836 where the accident happens in like cases; and it shall be permitted to her, if necessary, to unload the merchandise and effects on board with the proper precautions to prevent their illicit introduction, without exacting in this case any duty, impost or contribution whatever, provided the same be exported.

Art. 8. The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal effects, within the jurisdiction of the other, by sale, donation, testament, or other wise; and their representatives, being citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal effects, whether by testament or ab intestato, and may take possession thereof, either themselves, or by others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such dues only as the inhabitans of the country wherein said effects are, shall be subject to pay in like cases. And if in the case of real estate the said heirs should be prevented from entering of the possession of the inheritance on account of their character as aliens, there shall be granted to them the term of three years in which to dispose of the same as they may think proper, and to withdraw the proceeds, which they may do without obstacle, and exempt from all charges, save those which are imposed by the laws of the country.

Art. 9. Both the contracting parties solemnly promise and engage to give their special protection to the persons and property of the citizens of each other, of all classes and occupations, who may be in the territories subject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, transient or dwelling therein, leaving open and free to them the tribunals of justice, for their judicial recourse, on the same terms as are usual and customary with the natives or citizens of the country, in which they may be; for which purpose they may employ, in defence of their rights, such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents and factors, as they may judge proper, in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall have free opportunity to be present at the decisions and sentences of the tribunals, in all cases that may concern them; and likewise at the taking of all evidence and examinations that may be exhibited in the said trials...

And to render more explicit and make more ef

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