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It may be that other features that are now charged out to be charged to national defense. I don't know. Those are questions of detail. But as a question of policy, it seems to me that when your committee determines what shall be the policy on which the tolls shall be based, then you can work out the details as to what may seem fair to all concerned.

I think that because of this international aspect we have to consider wbat are fair tolls witbin the limits of the law. I am not undertaking to say what are fair tolls, because that is a question of detail, and then, if it appears that an undue burden is imposed on American shipping, personally I would favor some adjustment in other directions to compensate American shipping for that situation.

Those are the general observations that bave occurred to me in the course of the testimony here this morning. Mr. THOMPSON. Thank you very much, Governor.

Mr. THATCHER. If you permit me, I want to expand that just a little in the revision.

Mr. MILLER. I suggest that he be permitted to revise and extend his remarks, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. THOMPSON. That may so be done, and anyone else who has testified here this morning is, of course, accorded that same privilege. You may revise and extend your remarks.

Mr. HADDOCK. I should just like to make one observation for the information of Governor Thatcher and the committee. I think the committee is familar with it. At the present time there are operating in intercoastal service 15 American-owned vessels, owned by private interests, as compared with prewar in the neighborbood of 125 or 126, to be exact, and a $6,000 toll on each trip is one of the reasons why those vessels are not operating today.

Mr. THOMPSON. If there are no further observations, the bearing will stand adjourned, subject to call. Thank you


very much. (Whereupon, at 11:45 a. m., the hearing was recessed, subject to the call of the Chair.)


MONDAY, JUNE 6, 1949


Washington, D. C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, in the committee hearing room, 219 Old House Office Building, at 10 a. m., the Honorable Clark W. Thompson, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.

Mr. THOMPSON. The meeting will please come to order.

I am going to ask Mr. Burdick of the Washington office of the Panama Canal to give us a little background of how the President happened to issue a proclamation raising the tolls. Will you trace the history of that, Mr. Burdick?


PANAMA CANAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mr. BURDICK. I have no prepared statement on this matter, Mr. Chairman. As you know, the subject in general has been covered rather fully in the testimony of the Governor of the Panama Canal.

Mr. THOMPSON. Maybe I can simplify it, Mr. Burdick. He told us of the situation insofar as increased costs, etc., are concerned, but what I am trying to do for the record is to find out what happened then. Somebody besides the Governor of the Panama Canal evidently had carried the ball to the President in order to get him to issue the proclamation in question. What I am trying to do is just trace the history of it in order to defend the position of the Panama Canal. I don't mean defend it in the sense that it is something that needs to be defended, but only to confirm it, which is perhaps a better word.

Mr. BURDICK. You will recall, Mr. Chairman, that the Governor advised you with respect to appropriation matters. The Appropriations Committee had called the Governor's attention to the fact that there had been a great increase in cost of operation without any increase whatever in toll rates, that the Canal was no longer operating on a self-supporting basis, and the committee was advised that the matter was under consideration and that the study would be continued.

Shortly thereafter, the Governor of the Panama Canal submitted a report to the Secretary of the Army, who exercises the President's supervision over the Panama Canal. In that statement, the Governor pointed out the extent of the capital investment in the Canal, the cost of operation, the revenues received from tolls and business operations, pointing out that we were making only a little more than operating expenses and nothing to cover the carrying charge, that is, interest paid money that the Government had invested in the Canal.


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The Secretary of the Army, in a letter of March 10, 1948, which I offer for the record at this time, recommended to the President that the toll rates be increased from 90 cents to $1 per net vessel-ton, one dollar being the maximum amount that can be levied under the present law.

This letter to the President outlines more fully some of the cost factors that I mentioned briefly a moment ago.

Mr. THOMPSON. We will insert the letter into the record at this point. (Letter submitted by Mr. Burdick follows:)


Washington, D. C., March 10, 1948. The PRESIDENT, The White House

(Through the Director, Bureau of the Budget). DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: I submit herewith for your consideration a proposed proclamation fixing the rates of tolls for the use of the Panama Canal at $1 per net vessel-ton on laden merchant vessels, 80 cents per net vessel-ton on vessels in ballast, and 55 cents per ton of displacement for other floating craft. The present rates are 90 cents per net vessel-ton on laden merchant vessels, 72 cents per net vessel-ton on vessels in ballast, and 50 cents per ton of displacement for other floating craft.

The following is quoted from a statement of the Governor of the Panama Canal under whose supervision the proposed proclamation was prepared:

“It is the aim of the Panama Canal to return to the Treasury of the United States each year enough money to pay all operating expenses and in addition interest at 3 percent on the net capital investment in the Canal enterprise, now carried on the books as slightly more than $515,000,000. The principal sources of the funds deposited as miscellaneous receipts are the tolls cha ed for the use of the Canal, civil revenues (fines, license fees, etc.), and the profits from business operations. From the beginning of operations in 1914 to and including the fiscal year 1947, the combined revenues of the Canal have exceeded the total net operating expenses by $271,179,950.91, whereas the total interest on capital at 3 percent amounted to $409,535,628.32. The resulting deficit of $138,355,677.41 would have been reduced to approximately $76,800,000 if tolls had been charged for ships owned or controlled by the United States which transited the Canal without payment of tolls.

"For the total period of operation, therefore, the revenues have been sufficient to pay the operating expenses and something more than 2 percent interest on the net capital investment. In the fiscal years 1946 and 1947, however, because of increased operation expenses resulting from higher wages and prices, the adoption of the 40-hour workweek and other factors, the surplus after payment of operating expenses amounted to only a small fraction of 1 percent on the net capital investment, and it is estimated that the total revenues for the fiscal years 1948 and 1949 will fall short of paying the operating expenses. Therefore, if the Canal is to continue to be a self-supporting enterprise, it is evident that its revenues must be increased, and since the civil revenues and business profits constitute only a minor part of the total revenues, a substantial increase can be obtained only by the rates of tolls charged for transiting the Canal.

"Title 2, section 411, Canal Zone Code, authorizes the President, subject to the provisions of section 412 of the code, 'to prescribe, and from time to time change the tolls that shall be levied by the Government of the United States for the use of the Panama Canal, but no tolls when prescribed as above shall be changed unless 6 months' notice thereof is given by the President by proclamation.' Section 412, as amended August 24, 1937, provides as follows:

""Tolls on merchant vessels, Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships, supply ships, and yachts shall be based on net vessel-tons of 100 cubic feet each of actual earning capacity determined in accordance with the rules for the measurement of vessels for the Panama Canal prescribed by the President and as may be modified by him from time to time by proclamation, and tolls on other floating craft shall be based on displacement tonnage: Provided, That the basic rules of measurement shall not be changed except after public hearing and 6 months' public notice of such change. The rate of tolls on laden vessels shall not exceed $1, nor be less than $0.75 per net vessel-ton as determined under the aforesaid rules, and on vessels in ballast without passengers or cargo the rate may be less than the rate of tolls for vessels with passengers or cargo. In addition to the tolls based on measurement or displacement tonnage, tolls may be levied on passengers at rates not to exceed $1.50 for each passenger. The levy of tolls is subject to the provisions of article XIX of the convention between the United States of America and the Republic of Panama, entered into November 18, 1903, and of article I of the treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of Colombia proclaimed March 30, 1922.'

“The tolls-rates presently in effect were prescribed and proclaimed by the President, under authority of the above-quoted laws, by proclamations dated August 25 and 31, 1937, and became effective on March 1, 1938. The rates then prescribed are as follows:

“1. On merchant vessels, yachts, Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships, when carrying passenger or cargo, 90 cents per net vesselton of 100 cubic feet each of actual earning capacity—that is, the net tonnage determined in accordance with the rules for the measurement of vessels for the Panama Canal.

"2. On vessels in ballast without passengers, or cargo, 72 cents per net vessel-ton.

“3. On other floating craft, including warships, other than transports, colliers, hospital ships, and supply ships, 50 cents per ton of displacement.

"It will be noted that the toll rate which has been in effect since 1938 for laden merchant vessels, that is, 90 cents per net vessel-ton, is 90 percent of the maximum rate which the President is authorized by law to prescribe. If this rate were to be raised to the full amount authorized by law, with corresponding increases in the rates for vessels in ballast and for other floating craft including warships, the increased annual revenue would be approximately $2,000,000 for the present volume of traffic. This increase would cover the estimated deficiency of revenues as compared with operating expenses, and would provide a small surplus to apply to the interest charge of approximately $15,475,000.

The present tolls rates were recommended by a special tolls committee, appointed under authority of an act of Congress approved April 13, 1936, which estimated that the return to the Government from the recommended rates would be sufficient in conjunction with other revenues, to cover the interest charges and operating expenses during the next few years. The special committee's estimates proved to be very accurate for the conditions then existing, since the new rates produced revenues in the fiscal year 1939, the first full year after they became effective, which were sufficient to pay all operating expenses and more than 2.8 percent interest on the net capital investment. Since that time, however, the operating expenses of the Canal have risen approximately 80 percent. Since the increase in the tolls rates recommended herein is only 11 percent, it is apparent that a further increase would be required to carry out the aim of paying all operating expenses and interest at 3 percent on the net capital investment. Study is being given to the desirability of recommending legislation authorizing a further increase.

I concur in the views expressed by the Governor and recommend that you sign the proposed proclamation. Respectfully yours,


Secretary of the Army. Mr. FUGATE. Mr. Burdick, didn't this request grow out of the discussion before the Appropriations Committee when requests were being considered for the operation of the Canal last year?

Mr. BURDICK. Yes, sir.

Mr. FUGATE. Testimony was presented that the revenue was insufficient to take care of the charges.

Mr. BURDICK. Yes, sir.

That matter is covered, Mr. Fugate, in the report of the House Committee on Appropriations on the appropriations bill for civil functions for the fiscal year 1949, as follows:

Under authority of an act of Congress passed in 1937 the President of the United States is authorized to fix toll charges for commercial traffic using the Panama Canal at not to exceed $1 per ton for laden ships and a lesser amount for ships in ballast. Shortly after this authority was granted a rate of 90 cents per

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