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exhibition of the registers of the vessels, the muster-rolls of the crews, or by any other official documents, that such individuals formed part of the crews; and on this claim being thus substantiated, the surrender shall not be refused.


Such deserters, when arrested, shall be placed at the disposal of the said Consuls, Vice-Consuls, commercial agents or vice-commercial agents, and may be confined in the public prisons, at the request and cost of those who shall claim them, in order to be sent to the vessels to which they belong, or to others of the same country. But if not sent back within three months from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall not be again arrested for the same cause. However, if the deserter shall be found to have committed any crime or offence, his surrender may be delayed until the tribunal before which his case shall be pending shall have pronounced its sentence and such sentence shall have been carried into effect.

party residing in the


The citizens and subjects of the high contracting parties shall be Rights of citizens permitted to sojourn and reside in all parts whatsoever of or subjects of either the said territories, in order to attend to their affairs, and territory of the other. also to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the purposes of their commerce, provided they submit to the laws, as well general as special, relative to the right of residing and trading.

Whilst they conform to the laws and regulations in force, they shall be at liberty to manage themselves their own business in all the territories subject to the jurisdiction of each party, as well in respect to the consignment and sale of their goods, by wholesale or retail, as with respect to the loading, unloading, and sending off their ships, or to employ such agents and brokers as they may deem proper, they being in all these cases to be treated as the citizens or subjects of the country in which they reside; it being, nevertheless, understood that they shall remain subject to the said laws and regulations; also in respect to sales by wholesale or retail.

They shall have free access to the tribunals of justice in their litigious affairs on the same terms which are granted by the law and usage of country to native citizens or subjects, for which purpose they may employ in defence of their rights such advocates, attorneys, and other agents as they may judge proper.

The citizens or subjects of each party shall have power to dispose of their personal property within the jurisdiction of the other by sale, donation, testament, or otherwise.

Their personal representatives being citizens or subjects of the other contracting party, shall succeed to their said personal property, whether by testament or ab intestato.

They may take possession thereof either by themselves or by others acting for them, at their will, and dispose of the same, paying such duty only as the inhabitants of the country wherein the said personal property is situate shall be subject to pay in like cases.

In case of the absence of the personal representatives, the same care shall be taken of the said property as would be taken of the property of a native in like case, until the lawful owner may take measures for receiving it.

If any question should arise among several claimants to which of them the said property belongs, the same shall be finally decided by the laws and judges of the country wherein it is situate.

Where, on the decease of any person holding real estate within the territories of one party, such real estate would, by the laws of the land, descend on a citizen or subject of the other, were he not disqualified by alienage, such citizen or subject shall be allowed a reasonable time to sell the same, and to withdraw the proceeds without molestation, and exempt from all duties of detraction on the part of the Government of the respective States.

The capitals and effects which the citizens or subjects of the respective parties, in changing their residence, shall be desirous of removing from the place of their domicil, shall likewise be exempt from all duties of detraction or emigration on the part of their respective Governments.


Duration of treaty.

The present treaty shall continue in force for the term of twelve years from the date hereof, and further until the end of twelve months after the Government of Hanover on the one part, or that of the United States on the other part, shall have given notice of its intention of terminating the same; but upon the condition hereby expressly stipulated and agreed, that if the Kingdom of Hanover shall determine, during the said term of twelve years, to augment the exist ing import duty upon leaves, strips, or stems of tobacco imported in hogsheads or casks, a duty which at this time does not exceed one thaler and one gutengroschen per one hundred pounds Hanoverian currency and weight, (seventy cents pr. one hundred pounds United States currency and weight,) the Government of Hanover shall give a notice of one year to the Government of the United States before proceeding to do so; and at the expiration of that year, or any time subsequently, the Government of the United States shall have full power and right to abrogate the present treaty by giving a previous notice of six months to the Government of Hanover, or to continue it (at its option) in full force until the operation thereof shall have been arrested in the manner first specified in the present article.


Privileges of this

treaty may be ex

tended to other states of the Germanic Confederation.

The United States agree to extend all the advantages and privileges contained in the stipulations of the present treaty to one or more of the other States of the Germanic Confederation, which may wish to accede to them, by means of an official exchange of declarations; provided that such State or States shall confer similar favors upon the said United States to those conferred by the Kingdom of Hanover, and observe and be subject to the same conditions, stipulations, and obligations.



The present treaty shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of their Senate, and by His Majesty the King of Hanover; and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged at the city of Hanover, within the space of ten months from this date, or sooner if possible, when the treaty of commerce and navigation concluded between the high contracting parties at Berlin, on the 20th day of May, 1840, shall become null and void to all intents and purposes.

In faith whereof we, the Plenipotentaries of the high contracting

parties, have signed the present treaty, and have thereto affixed our seals.

Done in quadruplicate at the city of Hanover, on the tenth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, and in the seventieth year of the Independence of the United States of America.


[L. S.]


[For accessions to this treaty, under the twelfth article thereof, see names of the particular States.]*


HANOVER, 1855.

CONVENTION WITH HANOVER, FOR THE MUTUAL EXTRADITION OF FUGITIVES FROM JUSTICE IN CERTAIN CASES. CONCLUDED JANUARY 18, 1855; RATIFICATION EXCHANGED APRIL 17, 1855; PROCLAIMED MAY 5, 1855. The United States of America and His Majesty the King of Hanover, actuated by an equal desire to further the administration of justice, and to prevent the commission of crime in their respective countries, taking into consideration that the increased means of communication between Europe and America facilitate the escape of offenders, and Extradition of that consequently provision ought to be made in order that the ends of justice shall not be defeated, have determined to conclude an arrangement destined to regulate the course to be observed in all cases with reference to the extradition of such individuals as, having committed any of the offences hereafter enumerated in one country, shall have taken refuge within the territories of the other. The constitution and laws of Hanover, however, not allow ing the Hanoverian Government to surrender their own subjects for trial before a foreign court of justice, a strict reciprocity requires that the Government of the United States shall be held equally free from any obligation to surrender citizens of the United States. For which purposes the high contracting Powers have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:


The President of the United States, James Buchanan, Envoy Extraor dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at the Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; His Majesty the King of Hanover, the Count Adolphus von Kielmansegge, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majesty, Grand Cross of the Order of the Guelphs, &c., &c; Who, after reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed to the following articles:

For what crimes



The Government of the United States and the Hanoverian Government promise and engage, upon mutual requisitions by extradition may be them, or their Ministers, officers, or authorities, respectively made, to deliver up to justice all persons who, being charged with the crime of murder, or assault with intent to commit murder, or piracy, or arson, or robbery, or forgery, or the utterance of forged papers, or the fabrication or circulation of counterfeit money, whether coin or paper money, or the embezzlement of public moneys, committed within

the jurisdiction of either party, shall seek an asylum, or shall be found within the territories of the other; provided that this shall only be done upon such evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so charged shall be found, would justify his apprehension and commitment for trial if the crime or offence had there been committed; and the respective judges and other magistrates of the two Goverments shall have power, jurisdiction, and authority, upon complaint made under oath, to issue a warrant for the apprehension of the fugitive or person so charged, that he may be brought before such judges or other magistrates, respectively, to the end that the evidence of criminality may be heard and considered; and if, on such hearing, the evidence be deemed sufficient to sustain the charge, it shall be the duty of the examining judge or magistrate to certify the same to the proper executive authority, that a warrant may issue for the surrender of such fugitive.

The expense of such apprehension and delivery shall be borne and defrayed by the party who makes the requisition and receives the fugitive.


The stipulations of this convention shall be applied to any other State of the Germanic Confederation which may hereafter declare its accession thereto.

Other Germanic States.


None of the contracting parties shall be bound to deliver up its own subjects or citizens under the stipulations of this convention.



Whenever any person accused of any of the crimes enumerated in this convention shall have committed a new crime in the When the criminal territories of the State where he has sought an asylum, or has committed a new shall be found, such person shall not be delivered up, under the stipulations of this convention, until he shall have been tried and shall have received the punishment due to such new crime, or shall have been acquitted thereof.


Duration of this

The present convention shall continue in force until the first of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight; and if neither party shall have given to the other six months' convention. previous notice of its intention then to terminate the same, it shall further remain in force until the end of twelve months after either of the high contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of such intention, each of the high contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other at any time after the expiration of the said first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fiftyeight.


The present convention shall be ratified by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, and by the Government of Hanover, and the ratifications


shall be exchanged in London within three months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this convention, and have hereunto affixed their seals.

Done in duplicate in London, the eighteenth day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, and the seventy-ninth year of the Independence of the United States.


[L. S.] [L. S.]

HANOVER, 1861.


Special treaty concerning the abolition of the Stade or Brunshausen dues.

The United States of America and His Majesty the King of Hanover, equally animated by the desire to increase and facilitate the Contracting parties. relations of commerce and navigation between the two countries, have resolved to conclude a special treaty, to the end to free the navigation of the Elbe from the tolls known under the designation of the Stade or Brunshausen dues, and have for that purpose conferred full powers:


The President of the United States of America upon Mr. Norman B. Judd, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to Prussia, and His Majesty the King of Hanover upon his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Royal Prussian Court, the Lieutenant Colonel and Extraordinary Aid-de-Camp, Mr. August Wilhelm von Reitzenstein, Knight Commander of the 2d class of the Royal Guelphick Order, etc.;

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, and having found them to be in due and proper form, have concluded the following articles:


His Majesty the King of Hanover assumes towards the United States of America, who accept the same, the obligation



1. To abolish completely and forever the toll hitherto levied on the Bruns cargoes of American vessels ascending the Elbe, and passing the mouth of the river called Schwinge, designated under the name of the Stade or Brunshausen dues;

hausen dues.

2. To levy no toll of any kind, of whatever nature it may be, upon the hulls or cargoes of American vessels ascending or descending the Elbe, in place of those dues, the abolition of which is agreed upon in the preceding paragraph;

3. Nor to subject hereafter, under any pretext whatever, American vessels ascending or descending the Elbe to any measure of control regarding the dues that are hereby abolished.

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