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a convenient distance, and may send its boat, with two or three men only, in order to execute the said examination of the papers, concerning the ownership and cargo of the vessel, without causing the least extortion, violence, or ill-treatment; and it is expressly agreed that the unarmed party shall in no case be required to go on board the examining vessel for the purpose of exhibiting his papers, or for any other purpose whatever.


It is agreed that the stipulations contained in the present treaty relative to the visiting and examining of a vessel shall apply Provision as to ves only to those which sail without a convoy; and when said sels under convoy. vessels shall be under convoy the verbal declaration of the commander of the convoy, on his word of honor, that the vessels under his protection belong to the nation whose flag he carries, and when bound to an enemy's port, that they have no contraband goods on board, shall be sufficient.




to punishment and

on persons or proper

In order effectually to provide for the security of the citizens and subjects of the contracting parties, it is agreed between them that all commanders of ships of war of each party, respect- ships of war liable tively, shall be strictly enjoined to forbear from doing any damages for outrages damage to or committing any outrage against the citizens or ty of citizens of the subjects of the other, or against their vessels or property; and if the said commanders shall act contrary to this stipulation, they shall be severely punished, and made answerable in their persons and estates for the satisfaction and reparation of said damages, of whatever nature they may be.


other country.

In case of war, mer.

chants to be allowed range business and

a certain time to ar



If by any fatality, which cannot be expected, and which may God avert, the two contracting parties should be engaged in a war with each other, they have agreed and do agree, now for then, that there shall be allowed the term of six months to the merchants residing on the coasts and in the ports of each other, and the term of one year to those who dwell in the interior, to arrange their business, and transport their effects wherever they please, with the safe conduct necessary to protect them and their property, until they arrive at the ports designated for their embarkation. And all women and children, scholars of every faculty, cultivators Who may of the earth, artisans, mechanics, manufacturers, and fisher- tinue their respect men, unarmed and inhabiting the unfortified towns, villages, molested. or places, and, in general, all others whose occupations are for the common subsistence and benefit of mankind, shall be allowed to continue their respective employments, and shall not be molested in their persons, nor shall their houses or goods be burnt or otherwise destroyed, nor their fields wasted by the armed force of the belligerent in whose power, by the events of war, they may happen to fall; but, if it be necessary that anything should be taken from them for the use of such belligerent, the same shall be paid for at a reasonable price.

ive employments un

This article not to

And it is declared that neither the pretence that war dissolves treaties, nor any other whatever, shall be considered as annulling or suspending this article; but, on the contrary, that the state be of war is precisely that for which it is provided, and during

annulled or sus

pended on any pretence.


which its provisions are to be sacredly observed as the most acknowl edged obligations in the law of nations.

Disposition of per


The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal goods within the jurisdiction of sonal property. the other, by sale, donation, testament, or otherwise, and their representatives, being citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, and they may take possession thereof, either by themselves or others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such dues only as the inhabitants of the country wherein such goods are shall be subject to pay in like cases.

As for the case of real estate, the citizens and subjects of the two contracting parties shall be treated on the footing of the most favored nation.

Of real estate.

zens of either coun



The citizens of either party shall have free access to the courts of Courts of Justice justice, in order to maintain and defend their own rights, to be open to the citi Without any other conditions, restrictions, or taxes than such as are imposed upon the natives. They shall, therefore, be free to employ, in defense of their rights, such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents, and factors as they may judge proper, in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall have free opportu tunity to be present at the decisions and sentences of the tribunals in all cases which may concern them, and likewise at the taking of all examinations and evidences which may be exhibited in the said trials.


The United States of America and the Kingdom of Italy mutually Privileges of the engage not to grant any particular favor to other nations, most favored nation. in respect to commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party, who shall enjoy the same freely if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation if the concession was conditional.

This treaty to con



The present treaty shall continue in force for five years (5) years from the day of the exchange of the ratifications; and if, twelve tinue in force, how (12) months before the expiration of that period, neither of the high contracting parties shall have announced to the other, by an official notification, its intention to terminate the said treaty, it shall remain obligatory on both parties one (1) year beyond that time, and so on until the expiration of the twelve (12) months, which will follow a similar notification, whatever may be the time when such notification shall be given.


The present treaty shall be approved and ratified by His Majesty the When and by whom King of Italy, and by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and

to be ratified, &c.

the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within twelve months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries of the contracting parties have signed the present treaty in duplicate, in the English and Italian languages, and thereto affixed their respective seals.

Done at Florence this twenty-sixth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one.



JAPAN, 1854.






The United States of America and the Empire of Japan, desiring to establish firm, lasting, and sincere friendship between the two nations, have resolved to fix, in a manner clear and positive, by means of a treaty or general convention of peace and amity, the rules which shall in future be mutually observed in the intercourse of their respective countries; for which most desirable object the President of the United States has conferred full powers on his Commissioner, Matthew Calbraith Perry, Special Ambassador of the United States to Japan, and the August Sovereign of Japan has given similar full powers to his Commissioners, Hayashi, Daigaku-no-kami; Ido, Prince of Tsus-Sima; Izawa, Prince of Mima-saki; and Udono, Member of the Board of Revenue. And the said Commissioners, after having exchanged their said full powers, and duly considered the premises, have agreed to the following articles:


There shall be a perfect, permanent, and universal peace and a sincere and cordial amity between the United States of America on the one part, and the Empire of Japan on the other part, and between their people respectively, without exception of persons or places.

ade ports


The port of Simoda, in the principality of Idzu, and the port of HakoSimoda and Hako dade, in the principality of Matsmai, are granted by the Japanese as ports for the reception of American ships, where they can be supplied with wood, water, provisions, and coal, and other articles their necessities may require, as far as the Japanese have them. The time for opening the first-named port is immediately on signing this treaty; the last-named port is to be opened immediately after the same day in the ensuing Japanese year.

NOTE.-A tariff of prices shall be given by the Japanese officers of the things which they can furnish, payment for which shall be made in gold and silver coin.



Whenever ships of the United States are thrown or wrecked on the coast of Japan, the Japanese vessels will assist them, and carry their crews to Simoda, or Hakodade, and hand them over to their countrymen, appointed to receive them; whatever articles the shipwrecked men may have preserved shall likewise be restored, and the expenses incurred in the rescue and support of Americans and Japanese who may thus be thrown upon the shores of either nation are not to be refunded.


Those shipwrecked persons and other citizens of the United States shall be free as in other countries, and not subjected to confinement, but shall be amenable to just laws.


Shipwrecked men and other citizens of the United States, tempora. rily living at Simoda and Hakodade, shall not be subject to such restrictions and confinement as the Dutch and Chinese are at Nagasaki, but shall be free at Simoda to go where they please within the limits of seven Japanese miles (or ri) from a small island in the harbor of Simoda, marked on the accompanying chart hereto appended; and shall in like manner be free to go where they please at Hakodade, within limits to be defined after the visit of the United States squadron to that place.


If there be any other sort of goods wanted, or any business which shall require to be arranged, there shall be careful deliberation between the parties in order to settle such matters.


In case other things are wanted.


It is agreed that ships of the United States resorting to the ports open to them shall be permitted to exchange gold and silver coin and articles of goods for other articles of goods, under such regulations as shall be temporarily established by the Japanese Government for that purpose. It is stipulated, however, that the ships of the United States shall be permitted to carry away whatever articles they are unwilling to exchange.


Wood, water, provisions, coal, and goods required, shall only be procured through the agency of Japanese officers appointed for that purpose, and in no other manner.


It is agreed that if at any future day the Government of Japan shall grant to any other nation or nations privileges and advantages which are not herein granted to the United States and the citizens thereof, that these same privileges and advantages shall be granted likewise to the United States and to the citizens thereof, without any consultation or delay.


Ships of the United States shall be permitted to resort to no other ports in Japan but Simoda and Hakodade, unless in distress or forced by stress of weather.

Other ports.


There shall be appointed, by the Government of the United States,

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