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but, be that as it may, the President here," British subjects in their service, and tendcred a measure to render that impress. " enforce the prohibition by suitable regument unnecessary, unless it was still meant " lations and penalties, the motive for the to impress the Republicans.

practice is taken away. It is in this mode The Republic having failed in this en- " that the President is willing to accommodeavour to restore peace, she made another" date this important controversy with the attempt, the succeeding month, as will be “ British Government, and it cannot be conseen in the letter of Ir. Monroe to Sir “ceived on what ground the arrangement John B. Warren, and which letter it is of " can be refused. A suspension of the great importance now to peruse with at-" practice of impressment, pending the artention. After the opening of his letter, mistice, seems to be a necessary consehe proceeds thus ; "I

instructed to quence. It cannot be presumed, while “inform you, that it will be very satisfac- “ the parties are engaged in a negociation ** tory to the President to meet the British “ to adjust amicably this important differ“ Government in such arrangements as

ence, that the United States would admay terminate, without delay, the bosti- “ mit the right, or acquiesce in the prac"lities which now exist between the United“ tice, of the opposite party; or that Great " States and Great Britain, on conditions Britain would be onwilling to restrain “honourable to both nations.-At the “ her cruisers from a practice which would ** moment of the declaration of war, the have the strongest tendency to defeat " President gave a signal proof of the at. “ the negocuition. It is presumable that " tachment of the United States to peace." both parties would enter into a negocia. " Instructions were given, at an early pe- ' tion with a sincere desire to give it effect, “riod, to the late Charge d'Affaires of " For this purpose, it is necessary that a * the United States at London, to propose « clear and distinct understanding be first " to the British Government an armistice, “ obtained between them, of the accommo"on conditions which, it was presumed, " dation which each is prepared to make. " would have been satisfactory. It has “ If the British Government is willing to

been seen with regret, that the proposi- "suspend the practice of impressment from “tion made by Mr. Monroe, particularly “ American vessels, on consideration that "in regard to the important interest of the United States will exclude British "impressment, was rejected ; and that " seamen from their service, the regulation,

none was offered through that channel,“ by which this compromise should be caras a basis on which hostilities miglit" ried into effect, would be solely the ob

cease. -As your Government has au- “ject of this negociation. The armistice " thorised you to propose a cessation of " would be of short duration. If the par" hostilities, and is donbtless aware of the “ ties agree, peace would be the result. * important and salutary effect which a sa- “ If the negociation failed, each would be "tisfactory atljustment of this difference “ restored to its former state, and to all its “ cannot fail to have on the future rela-“ pretensions, by recurring to war.-Lord “tions between the two countries, I in- " Castlereagh, in his note to Mr. Russell, ** dulge the hope that it has, ere tliis, given “ seems to have supposed, that, had the you full powers for the purpose.

Ex-“ British Government accepted the propo"perience has sufficiently evinced that no “sitions made to it, Great Britain would

peace can be durable, unless this object" have suspended immediately the exercise " is provided for: it is presumed, there- “ of a right on the mere assurance of this “ fore, that it is equally the interest of “ Government, that a law would be after, “ both countries to adjust it at this time.- " wards passed to prohibit the employment “ Without further discussing questions of " of British seamen in the service of the "right, the President is desirous to pro- “ United States, and that Great Britain "vide a remedy for the evils complained" would have no agency in the regulation " of on both sides. The claim of the Bri- " to give effect to that proposition. Such “tish Government is to take from the " an idea was not in the contemplation of merchant vessels of other countries Bri- " this Government, nor is to be reasonably " tish subjects. In the practice, the Com-“ inferred from Mr. Russell's note : least, “manders of British ships of war often“ however, by possibility, such an inference " take from the merchant vessels of the “ might be drawn from the instructions * United States American citizens. If the ' to Mn Russell, and anxious that there " United States prohibit the employment of “ should be no misunderstanding in the

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“casc, subsequent instructions were given | once allowed, that we had a right to im6 to Mr. Russell, with a view to obviate press on board American ships. Was this

every oljection of the kind alluded to offer to be attributed to a wish to aid Na“ As they bear date on the 27th of July, polcon ? How execrable, then, has been " and were forwarded by the British the conduct of those who have been labour* packet Alphea, it is more than probable ing to make the people of England believe, " that they may have been received and that Mr. Madison went to war to aid Na66 avted 01.

-i am bappy to explain to poleon! What wretches must those be, you thus fully tbe views of my Govern- who have called bim “ the tool of the fallen "ment on this important subject. The “despot ?" what impudent men, those who " President desires that the war which have accused him of attacking us in the "s cxists between our countries should be durk, like an assassin ? The man, who, so terminated og such conditions as may se- the other day, uttered that expression,

cure it solid and durable peace. To ac- onght to have had bis lips smashed upon "complish this great object, it is neces- his teeth. Every effort, short of opening

sary that the interest of impressment be the Republican ships to English press"s satisfactorily arranged. He is willing gungs, was, it appears to me, made by the " that Great Britain should be secured President to prevent the war, and to put

against the evils of which she complains. an end to the war after it was begun. " He seeks, on the other hand, that the It is asserted most roudly, in Lord "citizens of the United States should be Castlereagle's letter to Mr. Russell, that “protected against a practice, which,“ to impress British seamen from the mer" while it degrades the nation, deprives “ chant ships of a foreign State is the anci"them of their right as freemen, takes “ent and accustomed practice of the British "them by force from their families and Government.It has often been thus their couniry, into a foreign service, to said, but never has been attempted to be 4.1.ht the buitles of a foreign Power, per- proved. I bave vever read of any such haps against their own kindred and practice ; I have never heard of any such

Country. -[ abstain from entering, in practice ; and, I defy any one, to cite in " this communication, into other grounds any book on the law of nations any record 6 of differences. The Orders in Council of such a practice, or any maxim or prin“having been repealed (with a reservation ciple to warrant it. I have thrown down “ not impairing a corresponding right on this challenge fifty times, and it has never " the porrt of the United States), and no been taken up. But, we did not stop with " illegal blockades revived or instituted in this practice. We impressed Nutive Re" their stead, and an understanding being publicans. Mr. Madison says that we ims obtained on the subject of impresent, pressed thousands of them. The President “ in the mode herein proposed, the Presi- tenders us a law, to be agreed on by us " dent is willing to agree to a cessation well as him, to prevent our seamen from " of hostilities, with a view to arrange, by serving on board of the Republican ships ; “ treaty, in a more distinct and a niple and this, even this, does not satisfy us.

manner, and to the satisfaction of both He wishes to put an end to the war in this 'parties, every other subject of contro- way, even at a time when he is accused of

vers7.--I will only add, that if there having declared it for the purpose of aiding “ be no objection to an accommodation of Napoleon ; and still the birelings of the * the difference relating to impressment, London press call him “ the tool of Napo

in the mode proposed, otber than the sus- leon;" while other miscreants accuse him

pension of the British claims to impress- of having attacked us in the dark, like an 'm-nt during the armistice, there can be assassin. "none la pruuding, without the armistice', SECOND, the causes of the continuance of " {0 an immediate discussion and arrange the War:- -But, how came the war not * ment of an article on thai subject. This to cease when the war in Europe occised.? « great question being satisfactorily ad- This is the most interesting part of the

justed, the way will be open either for subject. The professed object of the war, aa armistice, or any other course leading on our part, was to make the Americans

most convenieatly and capellitiously to a submit to our practice of impressment, al" general nucification."

ledging that that practice was necessary to This offer, too, w:s rejected ! What the preservation of our maritime power, more was the Presiileni to do unless he, ät on which our existence depended." Mr.

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Madison tendered us the means of prevent- | Monroe, in his instructions to the Commising oursiamen from avoiding our service by sioners at Ghent, written in July and Au-, serving on board of American ships ; but, gust, telling then, that it appears to the laying that aside, why did we not make President, that the war, on our part, bus peace as soon as we had made

peace

with a new object. France? We were no longer in danger. But this proclamation of the Admiralty There existed no longer any reason to was not all that had a tendency to produce fear, that our men would take refuge on this opinion ofour object. On the 2 lof June, board of American ships. The European just after the issuing of this proclamation, peace had taken away all ground of quar- the London newspapers published what rel. The Republic was always ready to they called a speech of Sir Joseph Yorke, treat. Her Ministers, or Commissioners, one of the Lords of the Admiruliy, deliverirere in Londou soliciting audiences. And ed, as it was stated, in the House of Comyet the war continued, and, on our part, mons, the evening before. This document with more fury than ever. All danger to is of infinite importance, whether we us was at an end. The French king was view it as coming from a Gentleman in restored ; the Pope was re-established in office, or as to the time of its having been his Chair of St. Peter; regular Govern- uttered, or, at least, published. It was in ment and the Inquisition were happily re- these memorable words, as published in the stored in Spain ; and, in short, “ social Courier newspaper of the 2d June, 1814.

' | Bowles used to call them, were every where "one great enemy of this country, Bonabecome again in vogte.

“parte, had been deposed, there was anoThis change took place in the months of “ i her gentleman whose DEPOSITION April and lay last; and just as I was hugis was also necessary to our interest, lie ging myself in the prospect of a speedy meant Alr. President Madison, and with peace with America, out came a very ex- view to THAT DEPOSITION traordinary paper from the Admiralty. It considerable naval force must be kept was an ahlress to the fleets. It set out up, especially in the Atlantic. But as with expressing thanks to the sailors for “ to his Hon. Friend's opinion respecting their services in the glorious canse, which “ the reduction of the Navy, lic w.shed it had just been crowned with such signal“ to be considered that a number of shipsuccess; it then stated to them, that their “ping were employed in conveying French services would be wanted a little longer, in “ prisoners to France, and bringing home order to carry on the war against America, our own countrymen. So much for the which had been guilty of an unprovoked act "occupation of our navy on the home of aggression against our maritime rights; “ station. But from the Mediterranean and it concluded by observing, that, with “ for instance, several three deckers were the aid of the navy, there was no doubt" ordered bome, and he could swear that but such a peace would be procured as “no practicable exertion would be remitted would tend to the “ CASTING TRAN. “ to reduce the expence of our Naval De“QUILLITY OF THE CIVILIZED “partment.”—. This required no interpre“ WORLD.” There was a great deal of ter. It left no 100m for miscomprehension. meaning in these concluding words. Sup. It went, at once, to the point; and, though pose the war to have gained us an acknow- i might possibly liave been a fabrication of ledgment of our right to send press-gangs the Newspaper Editors, it never was, at into American merchant ships on the bigh any time afterwards, stated to have been seas, what bad that to do with “ the lasting such; and yet it was of quite importance “tranquillity of the civilized world.?” And enough to merit a contradiction, if it could why the word civilized ? In short, this have received it. No wonder, then, that novel instrument was, in America, looked Mr. Madison thought, that we had found upon as a new declaration of war against out a new object for the war.

It was high them;, a declaration of war upon a new time for him to make this discovery, when ground. Jonathan, who heard so much be read in the English newspapers a report about our care for the “ cirilized world,of the speech of a Lord of the Almiralty, when we began our war against the French stating, in an official way, that a strong Republic, did not fail to interpret these sig. naval force was still necessary with a view nificant words according to John Bowles's to THE DEPOSING of Mr. Madison, Dictionary. Accordingly we find Mr. This speech, as I have often said, may

66

manner

have been a fabrication ; but the publica- "sistent with oui selves, we must in like tion of it never was complained of in the

maintain the doctrine of NO House; the report was never contradicted “ PEACE WITH JAMES MADI. in the newspapers; and, at any rate, when “ SON........... coupled with the Proclamation of the Ad- “ Can we doubt, that a vigorous effort on miralty, Mr. Madison could not help look- our part will annihilate the power of a ing upon it as very nearly proof positive of "faction, alike hostile to Britain, and fatal our Government's determination to depose" to America? Is not the time propitious him; that is to say, to destroy the Consti- " for WINNING AT LEAST THE tation of the Republic.

« SOUNDER AND BETTER PART Besides, these documents went to Ame-“ OF THE AMERICANS TO AN rica accompanied with the menacing lan-“ UNION OF INTERESTS WITH guage of our press; or, at least, all that "THE COUNTRY FROM WHENCE part of the press which was most in

vogue,

" THEY SPRUNG?”... which was most cherished by the rich, and

............Again, in the same which was looked upon as speaking the paper of a date a few months later :-“The voice of persons having great influence. ill-organized association, is on the eve The prints of this description, the moment of dissolution ;' and the world is speedily Napoleon was down, changed, all at once, to be delivered of the mischievous exe their tone with regard to America. They ample of the existence of a Government had before talked of our maritime rights ;

66 FOUNDED ON DEMOCRATIC they had apologized for the war; they had

6 REBELLION.” called it a war of'necessity; they had affected I need insert no more. This was the to lament that necessity; they had been ex- language of the favoured and patronised pressing their hopes of the return of peace part of the English press. It is impossible with our misled brethrenin Ancrica. But no to efface these passages. They speak in sooner was Napoleon put down, than these language which can neither be misundersame prints proclaimed the necessity of con- stood nor misrepresented. tinuing the war for the purpose of subduing

In addition to these clear unequivocal the Republic; of bringing ler to subjection; indications, we must not omit to bear in of putting down her Government; of bring- mind the article, which appeared in all our ing to an union with us a part, at least, of London prints, some weeks after the peace the States ; of rooting out her democratical of Paris, stating, that there was a secret principles. They declared, that no peace article in that treaty, pledging the Contiwas to be made with James Madison, whom nental Powers not to interfere in the war, they called a TRAITOR and a REBEL. or the dispute, between England and AmeBut observe well, that the main object con- rica. This was something very remarkstantly kept in view by these prints was able ; for the article is given as an exthe necessity of delivering the world of the tract from the Vienna Gazette. How EXAMPLE of the existence of a Go- could it get into that Gazette, which, all vernment founded on DEMOCRATIC, the world knows, contains nothing disaprebellion. To quote all, or a hundredth proved of by the Government? How could part, of the instances that I am here speak the article get there? It related to a mat. ing of, would fill a large volume. I will, ter of very great importance. Uncommonly therefore, content myself with few

pas

important it was. The editor, the mere sages from the Times newspaper of the last editor of a Paper at Vienna was not likely two weeks of the month of April, 1814. to think much, or care much, about Ame

" It is understood that part of our army rica, or her dispute. Why should he invent in France will be immediately trans. the story of such a secret article ? Be the

ferred to America, to FINISH the war cause of this article what it might, the ef" there with the same glory as in Europe, fect certain, was very great. The fact, " and to place the peace on a foundation which was taken for granted by the ene* equally firm and lasting."

mies of liberty bere, encouraged them to .“ The American Government proceed in urging the continuance of the "is, in point of fact, as much a tyranny war; they told the people, that there was

Though we are far from saying it is so no danger now; that all the Powers of “ horrible a ony, as was that of Bonaparte: Europe were of one miud ; that there was " and as we firmly urged the principle of no fear, in the present state of France, of " RO peace with Bonaparte; so, to be con-ber lending the Americans any assistance;

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see

that all the maritime powers were ex- to see Mr. Madison deposed; therefore they hausted by the war; that they stood in wished to an aristocratical faction need of long repose to recover themselves ; raised up against the Republican Governthat, in fact, their fleet and seamen were ment; they thought, that war, necessarily nearly all gone; that now! now! NOW producing taxes heavier than the RepubOR NEVER!' was the motto; that, by Iicans had ever been used to, would fure a good hearty exertion, this Republic, this nish the aristocratical faction with a plaudungerous example to the worldi, might be sible ground of complaint; they were in for ever got rid of. There were many hopes of thus producing, first, violent oppoamongst these publishers and their patrons, sition to the war ; next, something like who boped for, who expected, and who en- open REBELLION; next, u division of couraged the notion of, a re-colonization of the States ; and, last, the conquest or overthe Republican States. They openly pro- throw of the whole. This was the main claimed this; and, indeed, I verily believe, ground of hope with these malignant pubthat, about four months ago, a great part lishers ; these enemies of real freedom ; of the nation had been persuaded, that the these sons and daughters of Bribery and project would be accomplished very speedily. Corruption, whose hearts overflowed' with Thus was the war rendered popular; and gall, whose eye-balls were seared by the 80 popular, that, even in the city of London, sight of a people, who chose their represenand at a Common Hall, a motion for a pe- tatives every twenty-four months, in the tition against the continuance of the Ame- choosing of whom every man paying taxes rican war, though coupled with a call for had a voice, whose chief magistrate even the discontinuance of the Income Tax, was chosen from amongst his fellow-citiwhich that war rendered indispensable, zens every four years, without any pecucould not obtain a moment's hearing. The niary or religious qualification; and whose people were worked up to a senseless spirit whole Government, civil, judicial, military, of resentment, while those who had so and naval, did not cost above a tenth part worked them up, had in view the ntter sub- as much as the amount of the Civil List version of the American Republic, and alone in England, though the population with her, the last remains of political li- of the country was nearly equal to that of Aberty.

England. This was an object that blasted licre, then, we have the rcal objects of their sight. They could not endure it. The the friends of tyranny; the sons and were mad at the thought of its being left daughters of corruption; the race who never in existence. They saw that, while this can be at heart's ease while the sun spectacle was in the world, they were never shines upon one free country; upon one safe. It was useless, in their view of the nation happy in the enjoyment of liberty. matter, to have restored the Bourbons, the These people had seen liberty, and the very Pope, the Dominicans, and the Inquisition, hope of liberty, destroyed in France; their wbile America remained an example and long existing hopes of seeing that object an asylum for the oppressed of all natione. aecomplished had been just fully gratified; Hence these malignant writers left nobut they, who are as cunning as they are thing undone to urge the nation on to a ricked, clearly saw that nothing, and, per- continuation of the war. Every art was haps, worse than nothing, was done, unless made use of to encourage an acquiescence the free Constitution of the American Re- in the project. Mr. Madison was held up public could be destroyed. The sons and as the basest of men; as a traitor, who, daughters of corruption foresaw, that, while at a moment when England was in great this Republic existed, nothing was done; danger from the designs and the power of that the “ example,” to use the words of Napoleon, took advantage of our embarthe Times,of the existence of such a Go- rassment, and declared war with a design ** vernment,” would keep Bribery and Cor- to assist him in totally ruining us. But ruption in constant dread and constant the great inducement, the great ground danger; that the example of a people living of hope of final success was, the expected under a Government such as that of Ame- division of the States. It was well known rica, without tumults, without commotions, that there was an aristocratical faction in would always be a handle for the friends the four States, called the New England, of reform to lay hold of; and, therefore, or Eastern States ; that some very artful they anxiously wished for the overthrow of men, in that part of the Union, had stirred that Government; therefore they wished I up a sort of rebellion. The influence of

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