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VOL. XXVII. No. 8.1


[Price 1s.


[ 226 To the Knights Grand Crosses, Com-| BULWARK man, seems to have been

manders and Companions of the Orders applied to by this BULWARK Spaniard of the BULWARK and the HEN-in preference to the Goveroment here, ŘIADE, lately assembled in fullthough one would have thought, that he Chapter, at HERTFORD, in New would fly to his old friends to be received England.

with open arms.

Mr. WHITBREAD has Botley, 22 Feb. 1815. made several very eloquent speeches GENTLEMEN,

upon the subject; but, to say the truth, As your occupation appears to have they liave produced but little effect upon been suddenly put an end to by the me, and this for two reasons: First, peace, which our Government has had these Bulwark men fought and wrote for the wisdom to make with yours, it may Ferdinand; they called every one a traiamuse and please you to be informed how tor and a miscreant, who did not wish the glorious work of deliverance proceeds for the restoration of the ancient family, in Europe. I was highly delighted to the venerable institutions. In the course perceive, that you were very careful to of their proceedings, they levelled their avail yourselves of the aid of the Cossack swords and their pens against the lives Priesthood, duriug your late delibera- of all those, who wished not to be delitions. The long prayers, which it was vered; they drew forth the sweat and resolved those gentry should put up, two blood of their country against him who or three times a day, was not the least had put down the Monks and the loquiinteresting part of your measures. It sition; they persecuted every man, who must glad your hearts to hear, that the acted as if he dreaded the deliverance Pope, the Jesuits, all the Monks (except of Spain. In their turn they are persein disorganized France) have been not cute:l; they are sent to jails and galleys ; only delivered, but fully re-established by and, you will please to observe, that they the efforts of the BULWARK; and that, suffer this from those for whom they had in Spain, the HOLY INQUISITION has fought, in whose behalf they had persebeen so completely delivered " from the cuted others, and are delivered up, too, "fell grazp," as Mr. RANDOLPH calls it, by an English Governor. I think, may of Napoleon; that it is now under the it please your Knighthoods, that thisii paternal sway of “Ferdinand the beloved,” | as suitable, as fit, as exemplary, as any in fuli vigor of operation for the support luman occurrence can well be.--My of “ Social Order, and of ancient and other reason for taking little interest in "venerable establishments." In this the fate of these men, is, that I feel more operation, it has laid hold of-cho, think tor persons in our English, Scotch, and you? Why of those men, who, for se- Irish jails. The patriot, who is sent to veral years, were fighting and writing the galleys, was charged with the crime for" Ferdinand the beloved;" that is of LIBEL. He, it is acknowledged, say, for the BULWARK against the de- wrote a letter to the beloved Ferdinand, stroyer of venerable institutions. Some advising him to adopt a new government of these “ Patriots," as they were called, in Spain; that is to say, to consent to a having taken refuge in our fortress of revolution, that horrid thing, which is so Gibraltar, have been given up by our contrary to those ancient and venerable Goveruor to the beloved Ferdinand, institutions, to restore which so much whose Government has sent one of them blood and movey has been expanded; to work in the galleys for ten years. and for the restoration of which you have Another of them has escaped to England, so long and so fervently prayed through where his cause has been espoused by the nose, with your eyes turned up toMr. WHITBREAD, who, though not a wards the ceiling Now, while they ar

80 many men in our jails for writing 11- favour of this law, tell us, or, rather, tell bels; while I recollect that so many Gen- the Parliament, that our farmers cannot tlemen were sent from Scotland to Botany sell so cheap as those who pay no tythes, Bay, on the charge of attempting a revo- poor-rates, and, comparatively, very lution in our Government; and, while I little in taxes of any sort. What is this. hear no word from Mr. WHITEREAD in but attacking tythes, one of the most their behalf, that gentleman must excuse ancient and venerable institutions in the me, if I am very little moved by his elo whole world! and these are Bulwark quence, great as it is, in behalf of these men, too, who petition in these terms ! Spaniards. There is a Mr. Lovell,who in France, they have not been able to bas been in our jail of Newgate about restore tythes; or, in your language, to four years and a half. His offences deliver the country from the want of were, copying a short paragraph from a tythes. They have not been able to restore country paper relative to the operation of the gabelles, the corvées, the feudal the PROPERTY Tax, and publishing courts, laws and rights, nor have they another paragraph, or letter, relative to yet scen a Monk in France since the the conduct of the Transport Board to days of Brissot. They have put up the wards French prisoners of war. He Bourbons; but, they have not put down might be in efror in both instances; but, the code Napoleon.--At the same time his affidavits shewed, that he was the I am reminded of an occurrence that will author of neither publication ; that he give you both pleasure and pain: I mean copied one, inadvertently, from a country the attempt to assassinate Napoleon by newspaper, and that he did not examine the hand of some hired villain. It will the other with sufficient care. He was give you pleasure that a villain has been sentenced to eighteen months imprison- found to attempt the deed, and pain to ment for each, and was fined besides; know that it has not succeeded. Your and he is now in jail, where he has been manifesto has excited a great deal of for a year and a half, wanting ability to anger in ou: Bulwir's newspapers, one of pay his fines. Mr. Houston is suffering which observes, that it was hoped and two years imprisonment and fine for a "expected, that the Hertford Delegates book on religion. Away, then, with the “ would have declared a seperation of the complaints of Don Carrea and Don Puig- “ union at once.On the other hand, you blanc and all the Dons in the universe, are beld in the utmost contempt. You 'till Mr. Lovell and Mr. Houston and had courage to menace, but not enough to others find somebody to feel and 10 strike.If any of you were, however, to speak for them.----It will vex you very do here what you have estually done in much to know, that the French revolution America; that is, to endeavour to overawe bas produced remarkably beneficial the king and Parliament, you would be consequences to the country. It is now banged, liave your bowels ripped out acknowledged, and even proclaimed, by und Bung in your faces, have your bodies our Bulwark newspapers, that France cut in quarters, and the quarters placed has greatly improved in agriculture, at the king's disposal.---- How foolish during what is called her state of that would make Heuriade nien look! disorganization, though we were told

Yours to command, by ibese same newspapers, and by

Il’ILLIAM COBBETT our insipid and hircling Mr. Walii, ihat Napoleon bad left none but old

THE BUDGET. men, women, and children to cultivate the land. These poor, feeble creatures This is now a most interesting topic. bave got the knd into such a fine state, I shall, therefore insert the Budget-Speech that we are compelled to resort to a law at full length, and when I have so done, to protect our farmers against their corn, I shall offer thereon such reniarks as apin which article they undersell us in our pear to me likely to be useful. own niarkets. The truth is, that, in addition to this great improvement in the

The Chancellor of the Erchequr, is state of France, the Bulwark war has calling the attention of the Conmittee to left us a load of taxes, which the land the financial measures of which he had cannot pay without high prices. The given notice, stated that the House was petitions, which have been presented in aware that the Property Tax would as pire on the 5th of April next, and that he believed that the Commissioners emseveral other war taxes would also ex- ployed in its collection had been actuated pire three months afterwards, in July. by the purest and most patriotic motives. It was an inportant consideration whe- They were not a set of men appointed ther the renewal of those tases should and paid by the crown. They were the be contemplated, or the sumy necessary same gentlemen to wliom the country to pay off the expences of the war should was indebted for the preservation of be levied in a different mauner. It was peace, and whose attention and exertions not his intention as he had already stated in the gratuitous dispensation of justice on a former occasion, to propose the re- did them the greatest honour. There newal of the Property Tax; not merely, were certainly many provisions in the because that tax was 10 expire on the Act about to expire, which should not 5th of April next, or the war with Ame- be adopted at a future period without the rica was terminate 1; for though it was deepest consideration. , He could not a war impost, be did not consider the refer to times when liberty was better House precluded from again resorting understood than to those that followed to it, should circumstances render it ex- the revolution.--Yet let the House look pedient. He did not consider that the at the 1st of Queen Anne, second sec transactions of 1806 on this subject tion, chapter fifty-three, enacted at the could bind future Parliaments against renewal of the French war, and they the interest of the country. He did not would find what duties were then inunderstand a compact between the Com- posed. Amongst others, there was one mons at large and Parliament. On this of four shillings in the pound, on pensions subject, whatever had been stated in the and annuities, and one of five shillings petitions laid before the House would in the pound, on the produce of profes have had no effect, bad more powerful sions. The Commissioners, or the major considerations, required the renewal of part of them, were empowered to exathis impost. He recollected having heard mine or inform upon oath, and all tra& Right Hon. Gentleman begging pardon ders compelled to give returns, signed by of the House, for the part which he had themselves, of the whole quantity and taken in 1806, in the increase of the Pro- value of their stock in trade. The Com. perty Tax, For bimself, there was nothing missioners were besides authorised to which he considered with more satisfac- enter their premises at any hour. With tion than the share which he had in main- respect to the Property Tax, whenever taining that impost. He believed that it had been possible to make the assessthe Property Tax brad Leen the means went without personal injury it had been of rescuing the land from its ditficulties, done. The property in the funds was of supporting the exertions made in the assessed to its full amount, without any cause of European independence, and difficulty. That in land was also pretty effecting the delivery of nations. (Hear, clearly ascertained, but that engaged in kear, hear!)—It had saved the country trade was of a less tangible shape, and a funded debt of 303 millions. It had its assessment could not be very correct. produced in money 150 millions, and if, on the revival of the tax, a new node saved a capital of infunded debt of 180 of assessment could be found in that para millions, and near nine millions of per- ticular branch, it would probably contrimanent taxes. Yet however productive bute to render it more productive. He it had been, and however useful it might then alluded to a clause included in the have proved at a time when large sums Act in 1803, for allowing private examiwould be wanted, he did not think proper nations, but which did not fully answer te revne it, but considered it more ex- the end proposed. Having thus entered pedient to preserve it as a resource, in into a defence of the provisions of the case of the future renewal of war, to be Property Tax, to prevent that odiam re:o:ted to enly in the greatest emergen- from being left, which had been excies, as the firm basis of our public cre- pressed against it, and which it so littig dit. (Hear, hear!) He had been told deserved, he would now proceed to state of thc inqnisitorial nature of this tax, and the reasons which induced him to think anany complaints had been uttered in its renewal unadvisable; though in the the House against the vexaions avlich present year, when large sums would be it was said to occasica. For his own part, wanted to liguidate arrears, such a mea

of the year,

sure might have appeared to many pre fieation, the present system must have ferable to raising a loan, and on account heen overthrown, and one more vexaof the advantages which it promised to tous established in its stead. As this yield, perfectly justifiable. At the Peace inpost would, therefore, now encounter of Amiens, the Prope: ty Tax had been many difficulties in its operation, and pledged to make good a large sum of as it was not the intention of Parliament money, and charged for a period of nine that it should be employed except as a years. Though its renewal would there war tax, he thought it was far better fore have been authorised by present to lay it aside entirely, and to return to circumstances, he had considered that one of those resources which at all the immense fluctuation of price which times remained open to the country. He had taken place in almost every article was convinced, however, that in point of would have introduced so great a variety right, had it been expedient, it would as to make returns extremely ditticuit. have been excusable to have preserved it The impost would have fallen, besides, for the purpose of diminishing the sun with particular weight on the class of which must be raised by loan. As to farmers, who would have found them- the ainount of the expenses selves rated far beyond their real property. I until the ratification of peace by AmeThe assessment had been calculated on rica should be received, it would be ima fair average, but when the fluctuation possible to ascertain it correctly. He of prices became excessive, the average could not enter into any details on that could no longer be regarded as just. subject, as its reduction would in some Many ideas had been suggested to con- sort depend on the period at which this tinue that tax during the present year, intelligence should be received. What with various modifications. It ioight he should now propose would therefore have been done on three different prin- not be entirely on the footing of perce ciples. By exempting those classes, on expenditure. Large sums of money would whom its operation was considered as be required this year: suns, ubich likely to produce an unfair pressure, and even the renewal of the Property Tax including all tixed property. But the would not have covered. Bit since it chief ground on which this impost had was abandoned, the loan must be consibeen cheerfully borne, was, that all were derably larger. in taking an enlarged included in it. When that should no 1 view of our present situation, he would longer be the case, it would appear that not compare it with that of the country Government were encroaching on the when it was involved in difficulties at the good faith of their creditors. Another close of the American war, and our pubmode might lave been adopted; persons lie credit was really giving way. might have been charged in a proporti- would oppose it to the most flourishing onate ratio to their incomes; the rich period of our history, that which preceded might have been made to pay much, and the long and extraordinary warfare in the poor, little; but this would have which we had been engaged. been impracticable. The act gave 10 insight into the whole income of any one;

in the year 1791, the produce of the consolidated it charged every species of property,

Fund was

£13,472,000 without enquiring about its proprietor, Thu charges upon it Any gentleman, for instance, might be

which being deducted from it, lett a sura partner in a banking-house in London,

2,151,000 might be one of a commercial partnership To this was to be added, the produce of

plus of at Bristol, might hold a share in a ma

Land and War Taxes

2.558.000 nufactory at Manchester, and have 100,0001, in the funds (a laugh); for Forming togetber a total of

4,709,000 every one of these be would be assessed

disposable for the service of the coun:ry. separately; he might gain on the one

Our income 1o the 5th of January last, iuand lose on the other, and no one would

cluding the produce of the Consulidated know h's real income. There was no

Fund, amounted to

38,256,000 case in which the whole of a mau's re

To tliis was to be added in War Taxes 2.706,000 venue was known, uuless when he applied for an abateneat to be made. To Forining togethes a total of

40.962,000 revive the Property Tax with this modi. The charges upun this wore - 35,450,000


Charges on Imperial Loan

465.000 1 of the war. It must likewise be 'recollecDitto on Portuguese Loan

51,000 led, that after twenty years of actual Charges on Civil list and others 1,571,010 service, the state of our navy required

very extensive repairs. Respecting the - Making a total of ..

37,5 14,000

peace establishment, he did not think he Which being deducted froin the above 40,962,000 should be able to bring it under 18 or Left a surplus of

19 millions, including the Irish establish3,417,000

ment. He should be happy to find To this is to be added in Aunual Duties

another year, that a greater reduction tubstituted to War [axes, about. 3,000,000

should be practicable. The present calcuWhich formed a to:al of..

6,417,000 | lation would allow two millions for Treleft for the service of the Siate, so that at the close lanıl, and 17 for Great Britain. of tic late extensive, long and expensive war, there To meet the annual sum, he would take emained a disposable surplus tund much larger from the Annual Tuxes and Consoli. han at its connencernent.

dated Fund, nearly .


He would continue War Taxes to the The sinking fund, which now produced

amount of

6,300,000 upwards of eleven millions, did not yield and would levy additional Taxes 10 at that period more than 1,300,0001. It

an ainount of about

5,000,000 was true that we aow had a debt of 650 millions, and that it only amounted to Making in all

17,500,000 250, at the time of the breaking out of There would then only remain two milthe revolutionary war. We bad in addi- lions to be provided for Ireland. The tion an unfunded debt that must be pro- expense of the Loan for the present year vided for, But to meet that expense, we and the charge of the unfunded debt, had 20,000,000 of war taxes. Ifit were would also still be to be defrayed. If it possible to reduce our expenditure to were possible to reduce the amount of svhat it was at the commerceinent of the the peace establishment to 13,000,0001. svar, theo we should have ample means which was at this moment utterly imin our power to encounter it: but it must practicable, still the taxes which he had lie evident to every one, that such a re- mentioned' would be necessary. , He duction was impracticable, and that ex thought them preferable to making an ertions must be made to meet what could

application to the sinking fund.not be avoided. The expense of the

Every gentleman in the house must be peace establishment would depend upon aware of the expenses which a long war the wisdom of Parliament; he wished entailed upon a nation. These it required its most deliberate attention should be time to liquidate. After the contest with given to the subject. But it would be America was closed, it was not until unfair to look merely at what the peace 1786 that Parliment took the Peace Esta• establishment cost formerly, and not to blishment seriously into consideration, take into consideration what was now and even as late as 1791 the Committee really wanted. An augmentation of ex- reported expenses incurred on the account pense was rendered unavoidable at pre- of the war. Therefore he thought he spoke sent, by many circumstances comected within compass, when he said that it with the prosperity and greatness of the would scarcely be practicable to wind up empire. We must ot necessity augment the Peace establishment in less than four our Military Establishment, on account years from the present time. Until 1819, of the increase of our Colonies. Malta, Therefore, it would be necessary to have the Cape o Good Hope, several impor- resort to funding Exchequer Bills, or tant islands in the East and West Indies Loans; and, to meet the charges which biad been added to our dominions; and those would occasion' with new taxes. In a great extent of services had been provi- this he had the example of Mr. Pitt, who ded by Parliament, which it did not de- as early as the year 1784, proposed by peud on Government to reduce. Amongst anticipation to form a fund to liquidate these might be mentioned the expence of the debt then funding. There was also the the half-pay allowance, and the widows' unfanded debt, the charge for which was pensions, which alone would

not fall also to be provided for, as well as for that much short of the whole amount of our which was funded. The first resource to military establishment at the beginning meet this expenditure might have beer

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