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gone out of the kingdom ;" but, reader, - beef," continues the writer," gives forget not the reason ; they are taxed “ way to modern delicacy.” This also out of it.
is true; but the reason, Sir, is, because Aristides is not content with the far- their own mutton and pork is cheaper mers' mode of living; he calls upon the to them. After all, Mr. COBBBTT, why reader to enter a farm-house, and tells does Aristides envy the farmers ? Does bim, he will " no longer find the farmer's he think they live in luxury? Does he
daughters, Madge and Molly, (for such think they get too rick? If he does, let • he will have their nanies) feeding hogs, him try; let him take a farm at 41. per “ fetching or milking cows, churning acre ; let him pay 3l. per acre in taxes; “ butter, or making cheese;" but will after he has tilled and sown the ground find them in the back parlour, drawing with all possible care, let him get fifteen or at music, or preparing for a county bushels of blighteil wheat per acre; let ball. But, reader, be not content with him pay like an honest man the tenth of stepping into one ; go into nine, and see all he has laid out on it to the church"; if idleness is the order of the day; see if | let him make Os. tbe bushel of the rethey are not attempting to earn their mainder, and then he will know and taste livelihood by making cheese, or perform the sueets of farming; then, he may ing some other duties. But, mark me, sport his "military-cut upper-coat of sudo not come from town to do this, when" perfine, lined with silk," and his Welyou have taken a fashionable breakfast lingtonian boots; and then, instead of at ten o'clock, and then, after a ride of keeping his curricle, he had better march twenty miles, expect to find them churn- along with that illustrious personage, tire ing their butter. No, no, they will have next time he goes to fight for the re-estahalf finished before you get from your blishment of the Pope and the Inquisibeds; they will be in their back parlour, tion, than attempt to raise another year's if they have one, mending their garments, rent and taxes. or recreating themselves by some agree- Aristides pities the poor; so do I. He able and pleasant amusement, perhaps wonders why they sbould be made to eat at music, perhaps at drawing, or perhaps dear bread; so do l. He says bread embroidering. Allow me to ask Aris- ought to be cheap: so dol. But, instead tides, what harm there is in farmers' of envying the supposed riches of the daughters amusing themselves in this farmer, I would pray Parliament to take way, provided they do not neglect their off the taxes ; to do away the support of business? Does it follow of course, then a vile system of corruption, so as to that they cannot make pie, pudding, or enable the landlords to lower their rents, dumplin, bceanse they learn music? Or and the tenant bis corn. because they sometimes sit in their back that we might be reliered of tythes, that parlour, must they neglect going into the curse to agriculture, which supports a dairy?
set of men, a tenth of whom are scarcely But the "old mare (what a grievance !), worth any thing but to roar out 'Church " is discarded.” It is true; for those“ and State ;" a system which every ugriwho kept her only, have found it neces- culturist ought to set his hands against; sary, by the late increase of assessed and by doing which they would prove taxes, to make shifl without her, and are their patriotism, their sincerity för nacontent to walk.---But why may not far- tional improvement more than the supmers have the privilege of getting money port of wars, or of agricultural societies. enough to enable them to ride a good
-Aristides-it behoves you, as an nag, as well as a tradesman ? As for active citizen, to give a proof of your their “ curricles, gigs, and chaises,” is sincerity in wishing bread cheaper, and there one in fifty, or even in a hundred, the people happier, by helping to prothat keep any of them? I shall pass mote such a petition, and if yours and over the young gentleman, his " hobnails our prayer is heard, and the taxes and • end smock frock, and carter's whip,'| tythes taken off, then we shall have bread although I consider there is a medium cheap; then we shall be content and between this and the other dress, which happy: that will be the period, and not Aristides describes; and would wish to till that period arrives. 'I am, &c. İnow, why a farmer may not be a gen
A FRIEND TO SINCERITY, tleman, ** The ox's cheek, and leg of | Hertford, March 3, 1915.
I would pray
per quarter was possible. Now Sir, I
presume that no comment is necessary. MR. COBBETT.--Having from the and that I need only add that whoever commencement of the present and pre-thinks this gentleman did wrong in this ceding discussions upon the proposed instance, or in giving similar informaalterations of the Corn Laws, in behalf tion to all his foreign correspondents, or both of agriculture and the grower, that gentlemen in this profession collecgiven the most constant attention to the tively in giving such iuformation to all argument whereby they have been sup- their respective foreign connexions are ported, and also to those which have been censurable, is ignorant of the regular opposed to them, permit me through practice and interests of commercial the medium of your invaluable Journal, trade, and of what constitutes credit 10 make a few remarks upon the same. and respectability in the contracting of it,
From the occasional conversation with I have no hesitation in adding that every the farmer and grower of coru, I frankly regular factor of foreign grain must have confess myself to be one of those who remitted such information to each of have been persuaded that a very consi- their respectable correspondents, by the derable and valuable body of men among earliest opportunities after the expected the farming tenantry, require the protec- rise, probably by the succeeding post. tion stated to be sought in their behalf; I cannot however pass from the subject and as far as my observation has ex- of importation, (which will doubtless betended, I am also fully satisfied that come very considerable to the port of the class of agricultural labourers, col- this metropolis) without noticing, though Jectively and distinctively as a body, re- with great deference to your superior quire consideration and legislative assist- judgement, that I do not think in con ance. Presuming therefore, that these nexion with a durable peace that the statements are facts; I must conclude proposed measure will have quite the that they ought to be duly weighed, and effect in raising the price of the London generously appreciated in connexion with quartern loaf, which has been supposed; all remonstrances against any measures certainly not for a permanency. If the that are proposed professedly to obtain price should pass '13d. I must attribute a fair and proper amelioration, which I it to the alarm which these obnoxious conclude the present measures, precipi measures have excited. This remark: tating through the houses of parliament, I beg you will not suppress. Should are not calculated to produce, but, on the price exceed, it would certainly only the coutrary, are practically mischievous benefit the class of speculators whose and particularly inconsistent with public ability to enrich themselves at the public welfare. However, Sir, as you Irave al- expence, you would not I am sure willingly ready fully and repeatedly proved this contribute to. I do not allude to regulatter opinion, I shall only add one fact lar middle men, whose credit with their in confirmation of one of the objections connexions, and whose permanent inwhich reflecting persons stated in the terest is involved in regular profits, and first instance. I allude to their assertion, not in fluctuating prices. But, Sir, are “That if the proposed measure could the inhabitants of this ancient and enbe established, the difference conse- lightened metropolis to be persuaded by quently paid in the higher price of foreign the country representatives, that without corn, can but prove principally a premium absolute dearth, and with free communior bonus to the foreign grower of, and cation to and from the coasts of the condealer in corn." The following fact Itinent, that 13d. or 1s.or even 9d. should humbly presume is convincing on the be the permanent price of this portion subject. ' A cornfactor (whose name can of food? My reason for concluding be supplied, as soon as those measures that bread would not under the proposed were known to be sanctioned by the measures exceed the price I have stated Goverument, and likely to be established during the continuation of peace, is that under some modification, immediately in inasmuch as the said measure of probiformed a foreign correspondent, advising biting the first sale of the importations him to delay his shipments and wait a of foreign corn, when under Bus. would few weeks for advanced markets; and have the effect sought of advancing corn park reader, as a rise of no less than 17s, to that price, so likewise there would such an immense importation and de- circumstances, whenever material disposit take place, to obtain that price tinctions and differences exist, in order on the advance, that it must necessarily to arrive either at fair premises or juist keep it down to the lowest possible ad conclusions. It is a species of the comditional advance that would ensure an monest craft used in vulgar controversy, equal chance of sale, which must be to confi.und all distinctions. It would connived at, otherwise there would probe equally mischievous, and not a jot bably be wanted a protection or indem- more injinous, to assume distinctions nification bill, in behalf of the interested inat are frivolous or unfounded. In venparties, and of the foreign proprietor. turing therefore to state that the farThus it is obvious that if importation is mers should be considered as differently to take place in any way, it must produce interested in point of claims in the present the same competition between the fo- instance, and in adding that the indivireign and British growers of corn, which duals appear to me to form in Great now exists between the British and Irish; Britain three distinct and nearly equal and unless the two latter are first upon parties, with very different pretensions, a fair footing, to oppose it in such a de- it is proper to explain, that this is my gree as must eventually produce their private view of their case, and also that ruin, or call for absolute prohibition in it is not grounded upon very intimate their behalf, a remedy which we have knowledge with, or extensive information been led to suppose, might if this coun- on the subject, but merely derived fron try once relied principally on foreigners a few residents in inferent parts of Engfor its consumption, in its application, land, in several of which very dissimilar occasion as great a fall in the prices of customs prevail in the letting of estales, corn throughout the exporting and corn and consequently in the circumstances growiug nations of Europe, as might and claims of the landed tenantry. In probably produce a general revolution, some parts of the couníry nearly the or lead to a war with this country to pre- whole of the tenantry are without leases, vent it. But, Sir, what good is the and many of them have now been so, for grower of com, and the agricultural many years past; and as the custom has fabourer of this country, to derive from very much inereased, it is probable that a measure that will always ensure a rival the persons thus siivated, amount to one at his protecting price, seeing that go-third of the whole number of farmers, vernment is determined that whenever | The next class of farmers are those who bigh prices or large demands prevail, the hold either long or short leases at an foreigner is then to close in, and to reap exorbitant rent, taken during the high the greater advantages, for it is evident prices of every species of produce, and that the cheap grower who must in this the limiteil supply of the importation case reap a large profit, has the decided of foreign corn.
Several ofthese persons advantage in holding back to engross it is said, occupy a number of estates or such a market.
very large farms, but I do really believe But having allowed the partial accu- that neither in number por in point of recy of the statement of our opponents the quantity of land which they occupy in behalf of the farmer and his servant, that they form more than a third of the I would advocate their cause as earnestly interest ia questival. Certainly the emas I would that of any other class of in- barrassments or ile farmer at the present dividuals. For elicitating their particu- time, are not exclusively anong ihese lar cages, I shall proceed on the present persons. 'Ilie last cuvision consists of occasion, by giving the master the pre- Those farmers who have been raore caucedence, though only on account of the tious and succeseful, and are now leving courtesy due to him from his superior upon and cultivating their own property, situation, for as men and members of adding to those the gentlemen farniers society, I know no difference in their a term by no mea us novel) who perhaps relative importance, or in their claims to bave calivaled under their own inspechumanity. To api reciate the interest, tion a small part of their estate, for the and items sikbe farmers ceilectively, or sake either of amusement, or improve
nien, or oi suciens arent and discorery, rather than by way pusly necessary to of competition will the more dependent
distipet states and farmer. These two descriptions of persons, with those tenants who have long old that these persons do not pay so much leases, or who have contracted prudently rent per acre, as the farmer in some with liberal and uninformed Cits for re- other districts ; this objection is allowed newals, beyond doubt comprise a full to be correct, and even in several inthird of the parties interested in the stances where the farmers will be gainers growth of corn and the farming business. by their present leases. But this
The first class of farmers which I have only makes the practice more intolerinstanced, are those who have no leases. able. It is evident that those perThese persons have been considered as sons cannot pay a rack rent equally as mere vassals of the landlord, but I think high as the leasehold tenant of a well very improperly, and that the term is managed and conditioned farm, in the inappropriate, and totally inadequate to first instance; because the security of reaappreciate their situation and wretched- ping the advantage of his improvements,
and expenditure of property, on the esIt is very obvious, that in the pre- tate, during his enjoyment of the lease, sent state of society these persons receive would have induced him to cultivate and n10 particular protection nor equivalent stock it, to the utmost of his ability. advantage, neither are they to be fairly But no farmers of property would take reckoned tenants at will. The farming land to do the same, upon an uncertain business is the only employment they terms, nor is there any probability of are adapted to follow, and if they profess persons without property becoming ademoral principles and integrity, desiring quate to such an expenditure, unless by to live by their exertions, and duly and certain possession at a moderate rent, for fully to discharge the just demands, a given number of years. This is a bow small soever of their servants and chance that certain landholders, for the others, they must continue to make the sake of enjoying a most arbitrary power, best of it. If they have noire they must or for the gaining of a few pounds more still do the same; without character, in the first instance, appear determined eredit or property, 'their profession is to continue denying them. In passing the sole medium of their existence. The from this subject, I would hazard a conwhole of these do not probably pay a jecture and venture to suppose that if this rack rent, but it is notoriously other increasing practice should become genewise with the majority; they are doomed ral throughout Great Britain, as the whether corn is high or low, to pay the face of the country recovers its mili tary exactions of their landlords, to the utter-population, it would approach that state most faithing. This class of farmers of anarchy, so often prevailing in the therefore are not at all interested in pro- sister kingdom ; of which country I would tecting prices, but they want, and so venture to add, that under similar cirdnes agriculture, as far as connected cumstances, more serious troubles and with them, this innovation suppressed; difficulties must occur than any hitherto this growing imitation of Irisli customs encountered. put a stop to; this unnatural associa- Government ought, however, to intertion with civilization broken down. It pose and fine both landholders for is also obvious that the protection of letting, and tenants for occupying, agriculture by an enhancement of prices, farms without leases ; and that also, if would not as far as it is connected with not contracted for between the resident this class of farmers, contribute to the tenant, and the real proprietor, when enrichment and employment of the other such. This would, in some measure, classes of society: no, their poverty would defend the unwary, of the latter order, still remain, and they would continue in from those speculators in the taking of this respect, the least useful body of the farms, who deal in leases, and the farmer community, Having no inducements for from the same; and also from the obexertion, they would also continue to noxious class of interloping overseers be very inferior agriculturists. They in the management of large estates. may sign their landlord's petitions for The next class of farmers, in behalf of protecting prices, but it is evident the whom pretensions are made for corn pro. protection they want, is from high and tecting prices, are those who have taken fluctuating rents, in connexion with leases during the extreme high price of more certain tenure. It may be said | Corn, and other provisious ; but the difficulties in which these persons are participated in the fail of the price of involved, are justly meriled by the animal food (the consequence of the faimajority of them; inasmuch as it was lure of government contracts in the Lontheir speculations, for extensive occu don markets (which I must conclude very pancy, which occasioned' those high | unfair, though I hold the middle man in prices, both of rents and provisions, in equal respect and worthy of etlicient pro
connexion with circumstances that fa- fits) yet it is notorions that it has genervored the issue. To place the subject, ally taken place to a very great extent, in reference to themselves, in a clear and that the lease occupiers of large. point of view, it should be thus' stated. farms, whether men of preperty or not, are " That by rendering the land less fruit- at their wits’ end, both from the fall in “ful in provisions, and agricultural value of their stock, and the uncondition
productions, the money value, or price al obligation of their leases. Now, Sir, “ received for the produce' became con- are not the persons thus ruined or likely “ siderably enhanced,” a necessary con- to be so, entitled to assistance? and seruenie, in connexion with a proportion would it not be politic in the country to ate' demand for the various productions. grant it in behalf of agriculture. lithe
That this is a substantial part, or a ne statement before you is a correct ore, it cessaryo consequence,' of the improved would be most impolitic and most unjust system of " large farms, and unlimited oc- in the gorernaient to requie it. But cupancy is obvious. That it is the key should not the landlords be compelled, stone upon which the whole system or rather ought they not voluntarily to hringes, is incontrovertible.
lower their revis? The latter is for their: Mith proprietors and monopolizing far- private consideration, but were I a lancia mers, tlie chytësť of the system for largelard thus situated, I should not choose to of for small farms, is simply; does the comply with any suggestion to that låter, or the former, produce the most efect, unless in snch presudiar case viliere money, not the greatest quantum of com- it became my interest to do so, or unless' Mordily. Thus, does the produce of any I could be assured that' laid-bokers · given quantity of land, in 60 mali farins, thromhout the country wouli do so ge. in früit, veletalsles, poultry; pork, lurer; nerally. lu, Sir, I completely dics:ytlat chitee, corn, and pasiure selt for as much government bere any risit t interfere within a limiieri or equivalent demanil, as leiseen the parties in this case, altho' I the po dute of the same land; divided am prepared 10 allow that they have preonly into iliree farms: 'Ihe value in cellent in interfering to regulate and rea quantity and price of the two last mêr- strieť the importation of cofil, or rather rued branches of agriculture; being in the present instance in Mitet.ding and erval in both instances, and it being pos attempting to do so, und as has been forsible for the three farms to supply the cibly stiewn, a very bad precedcrit, yet I
kemaud for the former commodities, do not think iliat government can interthough not to raise' tlie' quantifies of the tere even if an indirect way. It lias. 80farins; it is therefore pretty obvious, however been surmised by some essayists that the large' farm system has well paid withe subject, triat by taxing those land. those who succeeded it jostling their lord's estates whielt are let ai a biglarani, friğlibours our' of Isouse; home, and enr- and by relieving the occupying lenunt, ploynicrit; and Niat tie large land-holders' paying sucir reiit of bris taves, that some'
lurses have beer filled thereby; and that things might be done, But I do not ibeys both would contine to prosper think that the lodly of land liokers, vitin while-tig two principle depavinients of all their preachings to the populace o: agriculture remaineat as lucrative' as be the subject of passiveness, trould be fore, or unless soine' other uncontrolable brðuglit to submit"; and also think that circuwstances should prostriive the sys- if they could, it would ever at present, Anri Suclt ait occurrence bay probably and swreilly lieréatier; he toimd totally be a yatural etiect of a coutinitation of inadecurate. It appears 10 nè, that the peace; Bæt independently of iúly sucirfa- situation of illere distressert and tuwör-furt event great dealuctors have already thy persons is imetijerable, and that to ker place is the prites and profits of more of them will become bankrupts, to Are olier leading depart aunt of agricul the attition aiheir creditors bout just! stare, and attiw we liave 108 property and surious, or to the parking with