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present hour. A conqueror, indeed, he land of the United Kingdom is not held by has been, and he has endeavoured to place descent. The family now upon the throne his family on half the thrones of Europe; can put forward no such claim. They are but, still, his conquests were the fruits of not the descendants of the elder branch of his victories, and have invariably been fol- the Stuarts; but, and it is singular enough, lowed by demonstrations of a desire to re- Louis le Desire is! Our king holds his The Allies haye decla

crown io virtue of an act of Parliament, him out of the pile of civil relations." and solely in such virtue; and a very good It was not thus that he acted, when in pos- holding it is, because it is really legitisession of the capitals of Austria and Prus. mate. Ours, therefore, is a legitimate sia, and when the Sovereigns of those sovereign; but, the Capets were never the countries owed their crowns to his cle- legitimate sovereigns of France. A title mency. Ile did, indeed, extend widely may be, and thousands of titles are, at his dominions, but the extent was far with once hereditary and legitimate, as in the in the compass of his power. In this last case of private estates; but, then, there is scene of the grand drama how does he ap- law in support of the hereditary claim; pear? The Allies put him, as far as they and this is precisely the case with the are able, out of the pale of the law; the claim of our kings: but, in the case of the Bourbons set a price upon his head. lle Capets, there is no law, there never was a suffers the Bourbons to depart unmolest- law, in support of their hereditary claim. ed; those of them whom he takes in arms Then, as to the sort of government, which against him he pardons; and, in answer to existed in France under the Bourbons, the outrageous declaration of the Allies, you have forgotten what it was, or, I am levelled against his fame and his life, he very sure, that you must hold the recolwrites to each of the allied Sovereigns, lection of it in abhorrence. It is strange, tendering him the olive branch, and invi- that, in the long line of their ancestors, ting him to a rivalship in the arts of peace, they dare never appeal to the memory of and in the science of making the people but two: Saint Louis and llenry the happy and free.

Fourth. The former, a tool in the hands You call him an Usurper and Louis the of the priests, exhausted the treasure and legitimate sovereign. Vords have great blood of his people in mad crusades against power, and these words have had great the Turks. The latter began his reigu by power; but the assertions are not true. abjuring the Protestant religion, in the An Usurper is one who seizes on autho- support of which he had led hundreds of rity unlawfully: a legitimate sovereign is thousands of Frenchmen to slaughter. He one who holds his authority by law. Now, called together the States of his kingdom, Napoleon was ly law made Emperor of and, laying his hand upon his sword, told France, an office which never was by law them to remember that in their deliberataken from him. Louis has no legal, or tions. Not content with the terrible laws legitimate, title to the throne of France. already in force to provide for the enjoy. He is descended, in a right line, if you ment of his favourite sport, he decreed, please, from Hugh Capet, who made him that every man, found larking near the self king of France by force, who put the preserves of game, should be stripped and real heir to the throne to death, and who fogged round a bush 'till the blood raa never was legally made king of France, down his back. This was in no remote any more than William the Norman was times. This was in no barbarous age. made king of England. The Bourbons, It was at the time, when Elizabeth reigned whose real name is Capet, held the throne with so much glory in England, when Engby descent merely, and their descent was land relied for its defence on the arms of from an Usurper. At no time was any its people, when the sovereign prided herlaw passed to make any of their ancestors self in being guarded only by the citizens, kings of France; no law was now made in when England extended her arm to the behalf of the authority of Louis, who took Continent, not to support ancient despots, to the crown as descending to him from not to extinguish the bursting flame of poHugh Capet, and not as legally placed on litical and religious liberty, but to establish his head by the people of France. What, both these in aiding the Dutch against their then, becomes of all this talk about legiti- cruel oppressors. mate sorcreigns? The throne of England The House of Bourbon, beginning with Henry the Fourth, has furnished France No: you cannot tell them this. For with five kings. of the first we have that, then, are you prepared to spend spoken. The second, Louis XIII. was your money? For what, then, would you an oppressor and persecutor of his people have war?' You are afraid of Napolcon. from the beginning to the end of his reign. Afraid that he will do what to you? You The third, Louis XIV. besides his wars of are not afraid that he will send his armies aggression and of conquest; besides his to England. How, then, is he to hurt attempts tu create civil war in England you? The truth is, that you are told, that and to dethrone the Protestant family you have cause to fear, and you believe it, settled here by law; besides his thousands without any inquiry into the fact. You of acts of oppression on his people in ge- see, that his return to power suddenly neral, signalized his reign by the most turns Exchanges against you; that it atrocious religious persecution. He caused lowers the value of funded property; that thousands of his subjects to suffer the it deranges commercial affairs; that it cruellest tortures on account of their re- produces distress and ruin. And why? ligion, and finally he drove forth hundreds Not because he has done any thing to pro. of thousands into foreign lands, whither duce such effects ; but because his prethey carried their arts, sciences, industry sence is an object of terror to those, whom and virtue. The fourth, Louis XV. en- you are willing to aid in the renewal of dearoured to excite civil war in this coun- It is you, therefore, and not he, try and to dethrone our lawful sovereign. who have been the real cause of those evils He delegated his tyranny to his mistresses, on account of which you bear him such who sold Letters de Cachet to the highest implacable resentment. bidders, and who filled the prisons, in all To a similar cause; that is, to delusion, parts of France, with the victims of state to credulity, to unfounded fears, to prejususpicion, or of private envy, jealousy, or dice deeply implanted by the never-ceasing revenge. The fifth, Louis XVI. who has falshoods of a press; free only as the organ been so much eulogized, abolished no of a crafty and corrupt faction, and which ergel law, diminished no profligate ex- has long closed up the eyes and ears of pence, remored no odious badge, took off reason, of candour, and of justice. To no oppressive burden, and, even after the this cause is also to be ascribed your hosmeeting of the States General, objected for tility to those, who are labouring to obtain a long while, to the abolition of Letters a Reform in the Common's House of Parde Cachet. But, as to what the govern- liament, and amongst whom, if you saw ment of the Bourbons was, even under your real interests, you would be the most Louis XVI. rely not upon my word; take zealous and persevering. This is a subthe Account of Mr. Arthur Young, ject, which will now force itself upon pubSecretary to the Board of Agriculture, who lic attention. It must be discussed; in a spent three successive summers in France few years it must be brought to issue ; and, in collecting his facts, who wrote down his if it come upon you unawares and is imobservations upon the spot, who visited perfectly understood, the fault shall not be every part of France, who had free access mine. to the best sources of information, and who It has long been a fashion amongst you, was, perhaps, for the nature of his pursuits, which you have had the complaisance to from his stock of general knowledge, and adopt at the instigation of a corrupt press, from the extent of his talents, as well qua- to call every friend of reform, every friend lified for the task as any man living. Take of freedom, a Jacobin, and to accuse him the account of Mr. Young; gather (any of French principles. For my part, one of you) your family around you; read though I wish the French people great to them this account of the degradation prosperity and happiness, and wish to see and sufferiegs of the people under the in- them receive all the praise due to their sults and cruelties of the Bourbon govern- matchless deeds in arms and to their proment; and, then, when your daughters gress in the sciences and arts, I am Enghave listened with streaming eyes and your lishman enough to deny them any share in sons with boiling indignation, then tell the honour of having a claim to the Printhem, if you can, that you will chearfully ciples, to which I allude, and which you so spend a part of their fortunes in another incessantly censure. What are these attempt to re-establish the Bourbons. principles ?-That governments were pade for the people, and not the people for go- ( in their exile by the derision and the ca. vernments. That sovereigns reign legally lumnies of men more interested than them. only by virtue of the people's choice.- selves in the success of their endeavours. That birth without merit ought not to And what are these endeavours? What command merit without birth.—That all are their objects? We are accused of enmen ought to be equal in the eye of the deavouring to create confusion in the coun. law. That no man ought to be taxed or try. Is the abolishing of scenes of drunk, punished by any law to which he has not enness and riot; the putting an end to given his assent by himself or by his repre- bribery, corruption, the basest venality, sentative. That taxation and represen- and the most barefaced perjury; the pretation ought to go hand in hand.-That vention of the sale and barter of seats; the every man ought to be judged by his peers, insuring of the return to parliament of or equals.-That the press ought to be men in whom the people have confidence; free.


the making of those men wholly indepenNow, I should be glad to know, how dent of the Crown and its ministers; the these came to be French principles. It is opening of the House to all men in exact sometimes said, that the French learnt proportion to their merit, their talents, them, or, as the expression is, “ imbibed" and their natural weight in society: are them in America. The Americans, to be these likely to create confusion? Would sure, have most wisely and Virtuously acted the nation be plunged into confusion by upon these principles; but, the principles thirty or forty of you being placed in the are the growth of England. Ten tlou. House instead of an equal number of those sand times as much has been written on men who borrow their qualifications? Do the subject in England as in all the rest of you think, that you are not as capable of the world put together. Our books are deciding upon laws as the present reprefull of these principles. You can read sentatives of the Boroughs are? Do you nothing: law, history, poetry, divinity, think, can you think, that the places and romance ; nothing, without meeting with pensions enjoyed by these men, add to these priociples. There is not a single your safety and prosperity? Do you think, political principle which you denominate that the sinecures of the late Marquis of French, which has not been sanctioned by Buckingham, of Lord Camden, of Lord the struggles of ten generations of Eng- Arden, of Lord Grenville, of the Roses, lishmen, the names of many of whom you and of hundreds of others, are necessary repeat with veneration, because, appa- to the protection of your property? Do rently, you forget the grounds of their you think, that the enormous charges of fame. To Tooke, Burdett, Cartwright, the Civil List, rising in amount every and a whole host of patriots of England, year, are necessary to the security of the Scotland and Ireland, imprisoned or ba- funds? Do you think it an honour to you nished, during the administration of Pitt, to be obliged to yield part of the fortunes you can give the name of Jacobins, and of your own children to support whole faaceuse them of French principles. Yet, milies of the penny-less children of the not one principle have they ever attempted | Aristocracy, which latter, after all, look to maintain that Hampden and Sydney did upon your children as their inferiors? Do not seal with their blood.

you think, that if this drain upon the fruit When that victim of a tyrannical court of your industry were stopped, such stopand a corrupt and bloody Judge, the gal- page would have a tendency to create conlant Sydney, was brought to the place of fusion. execution, the cheeks of the crowd were The truth is, that you see all these evils as bathed in tears, and sobs and cries were plainly as I do. You wish them removed; heard in all directions; “ Yet,” exclaims but you have a sort of vague dread, that any the indignant historian, “not a hand was change in the system would endairger your “ raised to save him, or to carry a dagger property. Your support of the system is " to the heart of his murderers!” If this the consequence of that timidity, which is historian had lived 'till our day, he would natural to, and almost inseparable from, not only have seen the champions in the wealth. This is, however, a motive of cause of freedom suffer without support action, which you are ashamed to acknowand without compassion, but would have ledge; and, therefore, putting a good face seen them followed to their dungeons or upon the matter, you join in the cry agajust

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Jacobins and Reformers, and openly es. Now, suppose, that any one of you pouse the cause of those whom in secret rich merchants had a cancer in the cheek,

and, upon your proposing to send for a But, has it never occurred to you, that surgeon to endeavour to take it out, some confusion may be produced, and much one were to say:

" Don't let any one more terrible confusion, from the want of " meddle with it. You have been doing timely Reform? Has your timidity never very well with this cançer. You have suggested this to you? It is many years “ grown rich as a prince while this cancer since Lord Chatham said, that, “if Re-“has been going on; therefore, the can“ form did not come from within, it would cer has been the cause of your growing “ come from without with a vengeance.”“ rich; therefore, the cancer is a good Jlave you never thought, for a moment, on thing; therefore, you ought to preserve the sort of confusion, which such a reform" the cancer.” Suppose this were said to would produce?

you, would you not spum the ass from From a reform, such as the Constitu- your presence ? Yet, would this sarpass tion warrants us in demanding; from a in folly the belief, that rotten Boroughs, peaceable and legal reform, leaving Crown, Bribery, Corruption, Sinecures and wanPeers, and Church untouched in their se- ton Wars have taused commerce and agriveral prerogatives, privileges and posses- culture to flourish ? sions, but giving to the people a real and If any thing could be wanted to shew free choice of their own House of Parlia- the absurdity of such potions as these, you ment; from such a reform no confusion need only look at America. There, in could possibly arise; because the people, the space of thirty years, a greater increase knowing that they had freely chosen their of population, a greater improvement in representatives, would necessarily have arts and sciences, a great increase of confidence in them, and would chearfully agricultural and commercial wealth, have submit to all their decisions. But, from a taken place, than in any other country in reform, produced by the final bursting the space of three centuries. There we forth of the angry passions and long-har- have seen a commercial marine, not much boured resentments, what is not to be less in magnitude than our own, rise up feared ? The friends of peace, of order, of in the same short space of time. There the safety of property, are, therefore, those we see a military marine, which is already who endeavour to promote a timely re- become formidable even to England, and form; and the real enemies of these are commanded and managed in a way to ex. those who resist that reform.

cite our envy. There we see rich merIt is often said, that the nation has be-chants and manufactures in prodigious come very great under the Borough-sys- numbers. There we see, not great and tem. That wonderful improvements have elegant cities enlarged and improved, but taken place in agriculture, in all the absolutely created. There we see new sciences and arts; that new roads, new roads, canals and bridges, and millions canals, new bridges have been made; that of acres of wilderness changed into corn. manufactures and commerce have flourish- fields. And, yet, there we see a governed; that wealth has increased; that mer- ment, purely representative from the bot. chants have grown enormously rich. tom to the top; there we see every man, Shallow as this is, it has produced great paying a tax, having a voice in the chooseffect; and no wonder, when we consider, ing those who impose the taxes. There, that it has been trumpeted forth by nine at the head of as great a number of peotenths of the press for the last thirty years. ple as Great Britain contains, we see a The nation has grown rich while the Bo- President, chosen for four years, with a rough-system has been going on; there salary of less than six thousand pounds, fore, the Borough-system has been the not more than a sixth part of Lord Camcause of the nation's growing rich; there- den's sinecure. And, with this proof before, the Borough-system is a good thing; fore you, are you still to be made to betherefore, we ought to support the Borough lieve, that commercial prosperity is prosystem, with all its notorious bribery, cor- moted by a Borough-system and by ruption, and perjury, the proofs of which expensive government? Are you still to are produced, in black and white, in such be made believe, that your property would multitudes at every general election. be enda ngered by the putting an end to

bribery, corruption, and perjury? If you Allied armies are about to undertake? are, to reason with you is useless. · You They are going to contend against the are destined passively to be carried along greatest military genius in the world, who by the current of those events, which is is to fight for his own existence. This is daily and hourly becoming stronger and an important circumstance. It is his life stronger, and which the Borough-faction that is to be the object of the war, and will not be able to resist.

for which he is to be made to fight; and WM. COBBETT. who does not know the strength of this

extraordinary motire! Such is the first

stroke of the wisdom of the Allies, who by CONSEQUENCES OF A WAR with FRANCE. this declaration have given to Napoleon,

a great accession of real power. But NaMR. COBBETT.--I never had any doubts poleon is not alone; he is at the head of 3 about the wishes of the Allied Powers to or 400,000 veteran troops, strongly atgo to war against France. When we con- tached to their General, tighting on their sider the rooted hatred which the corrupt native land, for the right to choose their Governments of Europe bear against li. own government and chief. They burn berty and the rights of men, how could for revenge, they feel how much they have we imagine for a moment that they would been insulted, and remember how often suffer France to remain in a state of peace, they have triumphed over the same kind to form her own constitution, which will of coalitions. Add to all this, upwards of be too favourable to that liberty which 2,000,000 of National Guards, contendthey always detest. The wars against the ing for the same cause, on the same soil, French Republic, the recent war against and under the impulse of the sanie ani. America, and the approaching war against mating and powerful motives. Is not France, are all founded on the same bad France alone, thus circumstanced, able to principles and passions. In the name of the resist the world ? But if we further add koly and undivided Trinity, the Allies now the King of Naples with his 100,000 Neagain arm themselves and make public politans and some other states, which declarations of their intentions. This is have been offended by the Congress at another coalition of the old regular cor- Vienna, it appears next to impossible that rupt governments, against the rights of the Allied Powers should succeed. The men to choose their own constitution and French are not ignorant Barbarians, but rulers. The French have unequivocally an enlightened people, who know the difdeclared in favour of Napoleon, who now ference between liberty and slavery, beTeigns, if any monarch ever did reign, by tween choosing their own government, the will of his people. He has also shown and having one imposed upon them by himself anxious to preserve general tran- foreign armies. Let us not forget who are quility, and is willing to abide by the least the aggressors and invaders on this occa. favourable terms that can be proposed to siop. If it should be the Allies, (which him, by the Treaty of Paris. What can I hope will not be the case,) and if these we do more? And is it possible to think should happen to meet with defeat, let us that the French nation, powerful and en- not afterwards be told of the tyranny and lightened as they are, will be insulted with cruelty of Bonaparte when he invades their impunity? The High Allied parties, how territories and capitals in return. Though ever, seems to be solemnly engagod, with decidedly the approbation of the French the assistance of the Trinity,“ never to People, yet Napoleon is held up as in out.

lay down their ‘arms, until the object law. After the Declaration of the Iligh « of the war shall have been attained"; Contracting Parties, what if tho Empethat is, not until Bonaparte the choice of ror of France succeed, and demolish his people, shall be dethroned, and inca- the continental governments of Europe ! pucitated from doing further mischief. But whether we prosper in a military Why has not experience, severe experience, point of view, or not, it is certain that our taught the Allies the lesson of modesty: debt and taxes must be greatly increased. Do they not know that he has entered Are the people of England desirous of entheir Capitals as a Conqueror? And who tering into a contest so unjust in its obwill venture to say that he will not act the ject, and so ruinous in its consequences ? same tragedy again? What is it, that the If there ever was a time, when the people

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