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the motion, which was carried; and, after LIST OF THE MINORITY a speech in return from Mr. Waithman,

ON MR.WHITBREAD'S MOTION FOR PEACE. the Common llall was dissolved. The proceedings on this occasion (concludes Abercrombie, Ho. J. Langton, W. G. the reporter) were of the most clamorous Althorpe, Lord Maddox, W. A. description, and Guildhall was not unlike Atherley, Arthur Martin, J. a bear-garden.

Aubrey, Sir John Martin, H.

Astell, William Nonck, Sir C. LIST OF THE MINORITY IN THE HOUSE Barnard, Viscount Moore, Peter OF COMMONS,

Bewick, C.

Mackintosh, Sir J. FOR RECEIVING THE CITY PETIT.ON.

Birch, Josepla Moutgomery, Sir H.
Brand, Hon. Thos. Newport, Sir J.

Byng, George Osborne, Lord F. Abercrombie, Hou. J. Kemp,

Buller, James

Picrse, H.
Burdeti, Sir F.
King, Sir J. D.

Burdett, Sir F. Phillips, G.
Byng, G.
Littleton, Hon. H.

Calvert, Charles Piggott, Sir A,
Baring, H.
Lubbock, Ju.

Cavendishi, Ld, G, Prittie, Hon. F. A.
Berkeley, H.
Martin, J.

Cavendisli, Henry Plumer, W. Bennett, Hon. H. Milton, Ld.

Cavendish, Charles Ponsonby, Right Ho. G. Baring, Sir T. Montgonjery, Sir H.

Chaloner, R.

Pym, Francis
Barham, J. F.
Newport, Sir J.

Coke, Thomas Paullet, Honourable H.
Broadhurst, J.
Neville, Hon.

Campbell, Hoo, J. Vane
Brand, Hon. T.
Nugeut, Ld.

Carew, R.S.

Ramsden, S. C.
Calvert, C.
Osborne, Lord F.

Dundas, Charles Romilly, Sir S.
Cavendish, Ld. G. Preston, R.

Dundas, Hon. L.
Cavendish Charles,

Rowley, Sir Wm.
Ponsonby, Right

Duncannon, Vist. Scudamore, R, P.
Calcraft, Jn.

Hon. G.

Fergusou, Sir R. Smyth, J. H. Drake, W. S. Proby, Ld.

Foley, Hon. A. Smith, w. Fitzroy, Ld. Jn. Phillips, G.

Foley, Col. T. Smith, J. Ferguson, Sir R. Protheroe, E.

Gordon, R.

Seabright, Sir J. Lefevre, Shaw Rowley, Sir Wm.

Grant, J. P.

Tavistock, Marquis Finlay, K. Ridley, Sir M. W.

Guise, Sir William Taylor, M. Angelo Forbes, Ch. Robinson, A.

Horner, F.

Tierney, Rt. Hon. G. Grant, P. Smith, W.

Halsey, J.

Wellesley, R.
Gordon, Wm.
Smyth, J. H.

Hornby, Edward Western, C. c.
Guise, Sir William Smith, R.

Howorth, H.

Wharton, Jolie Gascoigne, Geu. Scudamore, R.

Latouche, R.

Whitbread, S.
Gaskell, B.
Tierney, Rt. Hon. G.

Littleton, Hop. W.

Wilkius, Walter
Hornby, Edward
Tavistock, Marquis

Leach, J.

Winnington, Sir E. Horner, F. Whitbread, S.

Lemon, Sir W.

Webster, Sir G. Hammersley, H. Wortley, Sh.

TELLERS.-Hon. H. Bennett and Sir M, Ridley. Hamilton, Ld. A. Wellesley, H. Jervoise, G. P. Wilkins, W.

Fraukland, T. Stanley, Lord TELLERS-Aldermau Atkius and Sir William Lefevre, C. Shaw Swand, Henry Curtis.

Ņeville, Hon. R.

PAIRED OF

Printed and Published by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; where all Communications addressed 10

the Editor, are requested to be forwarded.

Vol. XXVII. No. 19.]

LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 13, 1815. [Price js.

577]

[578

a very

LETTER VII.

subject. I shall here deal in prophecies To the EARL of LIVERPOOL,

again; and shall not be at all afraid of

proving, in the end, to have been a false On the part which America is likely to prophet. You appear to me now to be in take in a War between England and fair

way of adding another six hunFrance.

dred millions to our debt, and of bringing

the guinea up to forty shillings, instead of My Lord,-From several parts of twenty-eight shillings, at which point it America I have received thanks for my is now arrived. I wish to prevent this; Letters to your Lordskip on the subject of and, if I do not succeed, I shall, at any the American wat. The people in Ame- rate, have these pages to refer to, when rica think, or, at least, many of them the mischief has taken place, and when think, that those Letters had great weight few besides myself will be able to say that in producing the peace of Ghent, than they did all in their power to prevent it. which you and your colleagues never I am of opinion, that France alone is adopted any measure more wise nor in now, as she was in 1793, more than a better time. Yet, you have never thanked match for the coalition against her. But, me for my advice. You, to whom the I am further of opinion, that, before the peace was much more necessary than to war against her be six months old, you Mr. Madison, have never acknowledged I will see America taking a part in it, unless your obligations to me. You have ap- you carefully abstain from every thing peared to be sulky with me, though I that can be construed into a violation of taught you so exactly what to do, in order neutral maritime rights. to avoid the great evils which were coming War, or peace, with America, will deupon you from all quarters. The conse- pend upon the opinions of the people in quences of the American war were fore that country. The people there are really, Seld by me nearly two years before the and truly represented in the Congress, war began. I told you that you would There are no vile sham elections in the have war, if you persevered in seizing United States. That which the people , men on board of American ships on the wills will be done. The Americans are a high seas. You did persevere; and you sensible people; they all read from a press

I told you that the Americans which is really free; they discuss all poliwould beat you in fighting, if you con

tical matters freely. They love peace; tinued the war for two years. You con- they would prefer peace; they would tinued the war, and they did beat you. make some sacrifices to peace; but they I told you, that you would never have will never hesitate a moment in preferring peace, if you demanded any concession war to slavery or dependance. from America. You insisted on great Now, then, what is likely to be the view concessions on her part as a sine qua non which the Americans will take of the preof peace; and, after three months more, sent scene in Europe? And what are likeyou made peace by giving up every thing, ly to be their feelings with regard to what not excepting the sine qua non itself. In is passing in this quarter of the world? It short, you expended fifty millions of mo. is very easy for our corrupt press to pero ney, and lost, I dare say, thirty thousand suade the alarmed and sellish part of Engmen, in accomplishing nothing, except land that it is necessary to plunge the creating a navy in America, causing her country into war, in order to root out the manufactures to flourish, and implanting present government of France. But, it in the hearts of Americans, for ages, a will not be so easy for any body to perhatred of the English government.

suade the American people that such an I remiod you of these things, in order andertaking is just. They will see the matto bespeak your attention on the present ter in its true light. They will see that

T

had war.

on.

Napoleon has been replaced at the head of the alledged traitors took shelter in of the goveróment by the will of the peo- Gibraltar, they were given up to their ple of France; they will see that he has hunters, and that when complaint of this had the wisdom and virtue to abandon his was made in our parliament, the reply ambitious projects; they will see that he was, that “ we had no right to interfere has voluntarily confined himself within the in the domestic affairs of Spain." The ancient limits of France; they will see Americans will ask, why this principle is that he has tendered the olive branch to all not applied to the domestic affairs of surrounding nations; they will see that he France. They will ask, not for vile, means to contend solely for the iodepend foul-mouthed abuse of Napoleon and the ence of France; they will see that he French people; but for some proof of our has returned, as nearly as circumstances right to interfere against him. will permit, to the principles of 1789; Haring seen all these things; having they will see that he has provided for the seen what we and our Allies have been at people being really represented in the Le- in every part of Europe; having seen that gislature; they will see that there is to be the people of France is the only people in no religious persecution, and no predomi- Europe living under a government apnant church in France; they will see that proaching towards a resemblance to their the French people have derived great be own, they will want very little to assist nefits from the revolution, and that now them in forming a correct opinion as to all these benefits are to be confirmed to the real object of the war against France, them; in France they will see a free peo- if such war should now, without provo ple, and in Napoleon they will see the cation on the part of France, be resolved Soldier of Freedom.

On the other hand, they will ask what It appears to me, therefore, that the right England, or any other power, can American people will, at least, feel great iahave to interfere in the internal affairs of terest in this war, much greater than they France; they will ask why England felt in the last war; and, that as they have should not treat with him now as well as just laid down their arms, after a contest at Amiens; why not treat with him as in defence of their maritime rights, thes: well as with the Directory at Lille. They will, the moment they hear of this wary: will ask why England should refuse to prepare again for that defence, America, treat with him, from whom she received in all likelihood, will again be the only the Islands of Ceylon and Trinidad, They neutral nation. There will be po Milan will ask what can be the real object, the and Berlin Decrees to give a pretence for ullimate object, of a coalition of those Orders in Council. So that, if we trench powers who were assembled at Vienna, upon her rights, her ground of war will, and who were disposing of states at their be cleared of all confusion, She will pleasure.

stand upon her indisputable rights. And, The Americans have seen the republic if she be left in the full and free enjoyment of Genoa given to the King of Sardinia; of her advantages as a neutral power, she they have seen Poland parcelled out be will carry on three-fourths of the com“; tween Prussia, Russia, and Austria ; they merce of the world. Our cruizers may have seen the fleet of Denmark taken keep at sea, but it will be only to witness away; they have seen the people of the the increase of her mercantile marine, and Republic of Holland sunk into the sub all the proofs of her wonderful prosperity. jects of a King; they have seen the Re France will receive all that she wants from public of Venice transferred to the Em- foreign countries by American ships. Amen peror of Austria; they have seen the Papo rica will supply her with colonial producer replaced with the Jesuits at his heels; and with certain articles of mapafactore. they have seen, that, in Spain, where & The latter will, through the same chay free constitution had been formed by men nel, find an outlet for much of her abundsi who had been fighting on our side, the ant produce. These two countries will King has been brought back; that he has become much more closely connected thua destroyed this Constitution; that he has ever, and we should come out of the war treated the makers of it as traitors; that shorn of our means, while the means of all. he has re-established the inquisition which. sorts of Ameriea would be found to be Napoleon had abolished; that when two prodigiously increased.

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But, my Lord, is it quite certain that to the well-governing of other nations. the people of America would not feel' When they saw the licet called upon offistrongly disposed to take part in this war cially by the Lords of the Admiralty to against us? They see that France is the finish the American war in such a way as only country left with a government re- would insure the LASTING TRÁN. sembling their own. Great as is their dis- QUILLITY OF THE CIVILIZED tance from Europe, they have felt, that, WORLD. When they heard the Engwhen left to be dealt with single-handed, lish prints call upon the people of New their very existence, as an independant England to separate themselves from the nation; was put in jeopardy. There were Union. When they heard it predicted, many persons in America, who loudly in these prints, that Mr. MADISON would blamed the President, Washington, for be put to death, and that the people would Rot taking part with the French, eren form a connection with the PARENT when America had not a single public ship state. And, when, upon the heels of all of war. They reasoned thus :-that Eng. these predictions and threats, they saw an land was, from the nature of her force, as army actually senit off from France to well as the situation of her dominions, the fight against America; when they saw that only enemy that America had to fear; identical army, which had been engaged that she had never ceased to demonstrate against Napoleon, sent to invade America a hostile mind towards America ; that she by the way of Lake Champlain; when saw in America not only a successful they saw the war of fire and plunder casexample of democratic revolution, but a ried on upon their sea-coast. When those dangerous rival in commerce and maritime who were for war on the side 'of the power; that she only waited for a fuvour. French Republic, in 1793, saw all these able moment to use all her force to crush things in 1814, how they must have trithis rising rival; and, therefore, it was umphed! less dangerous to declare, at once, for the America must feel great confidence in Republic of France, and make common herself from her pasť achievements. The cause with her, than to wait the issue of skill and bravery of her seamen and landthe contest, in which, if France should troops must give her great confidence. fall, America could not long survive But, there is no man who reflects (and the without, at least, another long and bloody Americans are a reflecting people) who war upon her own soil.

will not perceive, that, with all her valour This was the reasoning against neutra- and all her virtue, America has had a very lity in 1793. How these reasoners must narrow escape; and, that, if all had been have triumphed in 1814! When they quite settled in Europe, she would have saw all ground of dispute between Eng- had to carry on a much longer and more Jand and America removed by the close bloody contest. It cannot but be evident of the war in Europe. When they saw, to the American Statesman, that, if France that, instead of this producing in England were to be completely subdued; if she a disposition to make peace, it only pro- were reduced to that state to be obliged duced redoubled activity in the war. When to receive a ruler dictated by us and our they read, in the very same - English news. allies; if her hands and feet were thus papers. that told them of the abdication of tied for ages; and, if the situation of all Napoleon, that NOW, NOW, NOW! Europe were such as to leave the whole unwas the happy moment for crushing Ame- divided power of England to be employed, rica ; for putting an end to “ the existence against America, the situation of the lat. of the mischievous example of democratic ter would be, at least, very unpleusant, rebellion. exhibited in the American not to say precarious. And, if such a person Union. When they heard their President considers what were the real objects of and the majority of the Congress deno- England in 1814, the manner in which minated, in these same papers « rebels and the war terminated, and what an excellent traitors.Wben they saw, in the report memory she has, he must be a bold man of a speech of a Lord of the Admiralty, indeed if he feel no apprehensions at the that Mr. MADISON was to be deposed, as total subjugation of France. Napoleon had been deposed. When they It has not been forgotten in America, saw the breaking up of the American that, directly after the abdication of NaUnion represented as absolutely necessary polcon, there appeared an article in our

7.

newspapers, stating, that there was a SE-, much more able to defend herself than she CRET ARTICLE in the TREATY OF PA was in 1793, a proof of which she has Ris, stipulativg, that none of the parties, given in her recent war against the undiRussia, Prussia, Austria, and France, vided force of England. On the other should interfere in our war against Ame- hand, it is contended, that, though America. This news was given as copied from rica be so mueh more powerful than she the Vienna Gazette. The Vienna Gazette was in 1793, England, loaded as she is iş under the immediate controul of the go- with debts and taxes, is more formidable vernment there. The Americans paid than she would have been in 1793, erea great and deserved attention to this; and, if she had then subdued France; for, must they not have lamented to see France though the people of England suffer, the reduced to such a state? They afterwards government has more force at its command; saw, that there was no safety for their and, what is more for its advantage, the ships of war or their prizes in the ports of country is brought into that sort of state France. They saw, in short, that the which makes wur almost necessary. If Bourbons, holding their power almost at her paupers have increased three-fold,' the mercy of England, afforded not the ber armed men and her means of destrucsmallest hope of any support against so tion have increased five-fold.

She is be. formidable a power as England. Then it come a nation of fighters. She possesses: was, that many Americans blamed Mr. all the means of destroying.

And, say Madison, not for resisting the exercise of these reasoners, it is not only subjugation: our alledged right of impressment; but, against which America ought to guard : on the contrary, for not having sooner it is her duty to guard herself also against made war against us in alliance with devastation and plunder. Besides, say: France. They told him, that he was, at they, England has now less powerful mo.. last, in a state to be able to appreciate the tires to the exercise of forbearance towards : wisdom of keeping aloof from France on America. While the latter was without account of the title of her ruler. They manufactures; while England had almost laughed at him for his scruples to make a monopoly in the sapplying of America; common cause with an Emperor, while he the former saw in the prosperity of the saw England having allies in the Turk, latter the means of augmenting her own' the Pope, the Algerines, and the Indians; riches and power. But now the case is and they laughed at him the more, when different; England sees in America event they recollected, that America had won a manufacturing rival; and, what is still her independence while in an alliance more provoking, she sees in America a offensive and defensive with a Bourbon rival in naval power and renown. There.. King of France.

fore, say they, she must and she will deHowever, many of the causes which sire our destruction; whether she will atkept America aloof from France are now tempt it again will depend upon her and removed. The principles of 1793 are our means of attack and resistance. again adopted in France; the system of It must be confessed, that our infamous reforming by means of conquest is aban- newspapers have given but too much doned; Napoleon will have learnt how to reason to the Americans upon this head." respect the rights and to value the cha- For, they have published lists of the racter of America. Experience has taught American navy and accounts of the Amethe Americans what they have to expect rican shipping and manufactures; and, under certain circumstances. The latter having dwelt upon their magnitude and on are in po danger from France; they never their rapid increase, they have called upor can be in danger from France; and, your Lordship and your colleagues to proFrenchtown and Alexandria will remind secute the war for the purpose of destroying them what danger they are in from Eng- these evidences of rising power and wealt», land.

They have contepded, that it was just to It is said, by some persons in America, carry on war against America to destroy that, though it might bave been wise to her pavy; to destroy her shipping and seck permanent security in 1793, by en- manufactures ; and to obtain, at least, a tering into the war on the side of the Re- stipulation from her, not to build ships of public of France, it would unt be wise war beyond a certain number and a certain nole, seeing that America has become so sicThey have contended that such a

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