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means sure of success by the way of arms. | you are describing present themselves to There was, then, no magnanimity here, your own imagination, and to that of your even if we could forget how the crowned al- hearers, in monstrous caricature. There lies had been treated by Napoleon when he is also a marvellous coincidence in the ocreally had them in his power. The allies casions which excited in Mr. Burke a had been accused of magnanimity at Fon- frantic fear of liberty, and that which seems tainbleau; the nation were bellowing very to be producing a similar aborration in loudly about it; they began to be very you. Here I trust the parallel will fail. much out of humour that Napoleon had The influence of his name and of a mind not been put out of the way completely; still powerful, had no small share in givwhen your Lordship, in justice to the al- ing real existence to the horrors of his dislies, stepped forward and very clearly ordered fancy; and the prophecies for showed, that they had by no means been which he obtained so much credit, were guilty of any thing like magnanimity; greatly accessary to their own fulfilment. that they had made the best bargain that It is the recollection of that epoch which I they were able to make for themselves; hope may yet preserve us. Then we had and, that the English nation might be sa- no such example for our instruction. tisfied, that the allies would have dealt Europe is yet at peace, and you, Sir, are harder by Napoleon if they had been in a doing your part to rekindle a war, of situation to do it without danger to them- which the dreadful experience of the last selves. Mr. Grattan seems very bitterly twenty-three years enables us, beforeprovoked, that Napoleon should have pre- hand, to estimate the character. This is pared 60,000 men for the invasion of Eng- a subject for severe deliberation and not land. But, does not this gentleman al- for a display of rhetoric. "Peace withlow, that the French have as great a right "out security and war without allies." to invade England, as the English have to This Antithesis, we are told, drew forth iuvade France? We made landings at the applause of the honorable assembly Toulon, at Quiberon; and we even now to whom you addressed your first philippic! are, if the public papers speak truth, send- But did you attempt to inform them, how ing all sorts of implements for killing many campaigns it may require to replace men; for enabling the people to shed each Frauce in a situation capable of holding others blood, in the West of France. I out the security which she now offers? hope that this is not true; but, while our Her limits determined and acknowledged: newspapers are boasting of this, it is men of tried integrity, the friends of peace likely, that we shall excite much shame in and moderation, at the head of her counthe French nation for their having been led cils: her people, and even her army, unto make preparations for the invasion of less indeed the late excitements have stiEngland? mulated it to fury, languishing for repose. And as to our wanting allies at a future period, did you stop to say that we purchase them now, and that we shall speedily fail in the means of purchasing? That to obtain such allies, subsides alone are needed; and that to continue even this miserable traffic in accomplices, peace is indispensible? The Government of France is, you say, a stratocracy: did you explain how it became such? and why she adopted that system of subjugation you censure so bitterly? She had to fight with Europe single handed: she conquered alliances whilst we purchased them. The General who led her to victory became, mischievously, I allow, but most naturally, her ruler. At length the tide of victory turned; the conquered allies proved faithless, as though they had been purchased; and this very General was given up, that
The other topics I reserve for my next.
TO THE RIGHT Hox. H. GRATTAN. SIR-From the parliamentary debates, as given in the Morning Chronicle of the 26th inst. it appears that you have chosen this critical juncture to commence a course of oratory in opposition to those principles in the support of which you have acquired a celebrity, which, I fear, will give undue importance to your new character. Like your countryman, and predecessor in the same course, you have adopted a style in which Antithesis holds the place of argument, and metaphor of facts; a style of which deception is the essence, which aggravates on the one hand, and extenuates on the other, until the objects
the people of France might escape from a state of war, of which they had good cause to be weary. We, however, gave them a king with old notions, and with the old nobility and priesthood at his heels: these proved still less tolerable than war, and they recalled their Emperor. He membered their sacrifice of himself for peace, and knew that the promise of peace would be the pledge of their attachment. He, therefore, abjured his schemes of conquest, and submitted himself to moderate councils. Yet you would again urge, nay compel, to war that nation, headed by the same General, and with the same
CONGRESS OF VIENNA.
breath in which you detail his triumphs! EXTRACT FROM MINUTES OF CONFERENCES OF
THE POWERS WHO SIGNED THE TREATY OF
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.
He made his brother King of Holland; he called his son King of Rome: and it is Alexander King of Poland, Frederick William King of Saxony, and the immaculate cabinet of Great Britain (which appointed the King of Belgium by an armed force,) together with his father-in-law, the equally legitimate sovereign of half Italy; these are the pure and honourable avengers of political morality and the faith of treaties!!! The most unpardonable offence of Napoleon was quitting Elba, just before those righteous observers of treaties had fixed place of his final seclusion. "Voila le congrés dessous" are words that can never be forgiven by the confederacy of Monarchs. "Imperial Europe" sickened at the sound; but it was music to the people-to thousands in this island who would not yield, in real attachment to the Constitution, to your former professions. Napoleon takes possession of an offered throne:-This, upon your new scale, is "gigantic wickedness."-Assumption by force, of the government of an unwilling people, is "vice in moderation," and "has displeased you." He intended to take possession of England: he intends to take possession of Belgium: he intends to enslave Europe: on these presumptions Great Britain must be taxed to destruction; the wretched subjects of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, must be led to slaughter;-France must be laid waste by fire and sword!-If no intelligence had reached us, you could not have believed
The Declaration published on the 15th of March last against Napoleon Bonaparte and his adherents, by the Powers who signed the treaty of Paris, having, since his return to Paris, beea discussed in various shapes by those whom he has employed for that purpose; these discussions having acquired great publicity, and a letter addressed by him to the Sovereigns, as well as a note addressed by the Duke of Vicenza to the heads of the Cabinets of Europe, having been also published by him with the manifest intention of influencing and misleading public opinion, the Committee appointed in the sitting of the 9th inst. was charged to present a report on these topics; and considering that in the above-mentioned publications, it has been attempted to invalidate the Declaration of the 13th of March, by laying it down,-1. That that Declaration, directed against Bonaparte, at the period of his landing on the coast of France, was without application now that he had laid hold of the reins of government without open resistance, and that this fact sufficiently proving the wishes of the nation, he had not only re-entered into possession of his
that Louis the Desired, having adminis-old rights in regard to France, but that the questered with wisdom an excellent consti- tion even of the legitimacy of his government tution, should not have collected even a had ceased to be within the jurisdiction of the small band of faithful adherents to grace powers;-2. That by offering to ratify the Treaty his exit. And now that we have heard of Paris, he removed every ground of war agajust
of his silent departure, you talk of the beneficence of his reign; and the Constitution, agreed to, but not observed, was only not too good for these poor Frenchmen!-The one descends from the throne unnoticed; the other is received with re-acclamation. Yet in our Senate it is declared, and more wonderful, is believed, that the former was the choice, and the latter is the abhorrence of his subjects! I am, Sir, &c. &c.
M. BIRKELCk. Wanborough, May 29, 1815.
Conference of the 12th May, 1815. The Committee appointed on 9th instant, and charged to examine, whether, after the events which have passed since the return of Napoleon Bonaparte to France, and in consequence of the documents published at Paris on the Declaration which the Powers issued against him on the 13th
of March last, it would be necessary to proceed to a new Declaration, presented at the sitting of this day the following Report:→
him;-The Committee has been especially charged conducted Bonaparte to Paris, and restored to to take into consideration-1. Whether the po him for the moment the exercise of supreme sition of Bonaparte in regard to the Powers of power, have, doubtless, in fact, altered the posi Europe has changed by the fact of his arrival at tion in which he was at the period of his entering Paris, and by the circumstances that accompanied France; but these events, brought on by criminal the first success of his attempt on the throne of collusion, by military conspiracies, by revolting France--Whether the offer to sauction the treasons, can create no right; they are absolutely Treaty of Paris, of the 51st of May, 1814 can null in a legal point of view; and in order to the determine the Powers to adopt a system different position of Bonaparte being essentially aud from that which they announced in the Declara legitimately altered, it would be necessary that tion of the 13th of March;- 3. Whether it be the steps which he has taken to establish himself necessary or proper to publish a new declaration on the ruins of the government overturned by to confirm or modify that of the 18th of March? | him, should have been confirmed by some legal
The Committee having maturely examined these questions, submits to the assembly of Plenipotentiaries the following account of the result of its deliberations :-
title. Bonaparte lays it down in his publications, that the wishes of the French nation in favour of his re-establishment on the throne suffice to constitute this legal title. The question for the powers to examine may be stated as fol lows:-Can the consent, real or fictitious, explicit or tacit, of the French nation to the re-establishment of Bonaparte's power, operate a legal change in the position of the latter in regard to
Is the position of Bonaparte in regard to the Powers of Europe altered by the first success of his enterprise, or by the events which have passed since
his arrival in Paris.
The Powers, informed of the landing of Bo-foreign powers, and form a title obligatory on these powers?-The Committee are of opinion that such cannot by any means be the effect of
such consent; and the following are their reaSons:--The Powers know too well the principles which ought to guide them in their relations with an independent country, to attempt (as it is endeavoured to accuse them) to impose upon it laws, to interfere in its internal affairs, to prescribe to it a form of government, to give it mas ters according to the interests or passions of its neighbours (2). But they also know that the liberty of a nation to change its system of government must have its just limits, and that if foreign
Powers have not the right to prescribe to it the exercise which it shall make of that liberty, they have at least indubitably the right of protesting against the abuse which it may make of it at their expense. Impressed with this principle, the Powers do not deem themselves anthorised to impose a government on France; but they will geblishment in France of a focus of disorders and of never renounce the right of preventing the estasubversions to other States, under the title of a Government. They will respect the liberty of France in every way in which it shall not be ins compatible with their own security and the general tranquillity of Europe. In the existing case, the right of the Allied Sovereigus to interfere in the question of the internal government of France, is the more incontestible, inasmuch as the abolition of the power which now elaims to
naparte in France, could see in him only a man who, by advancing on the French territory, with force and arms, and with the avowed project of overturning the established Government, by ex. citing the people and the army to revolt against their lawful Sovereign, and by usurping the title of Emperor of the French, (1) had incurred the penalties which all legislations pronounce against such outrages,—a man who, by abusing the good faith of the sovereigns, had broken a solemu treaty, a man, in fine, who, by recalling upon France, happy and tranquil, all the scourges of internal and external war, and upon Europe, at a moment when the blessings of peace must have
consoled her for her long sufferings, the sad necessity of a new general armament, was justly regarded as the implacable enemy of public welfare. Such was the origin, such were the grounds of the Declaration of the 13th of March;--a Declaration of which the justice and necessity have been universally acknowledged, and which neral opinion has sanctioned. The events which
(1) The 1st Article of the Convention of the 11th of April, 1814, is as follows; "The Emperor Napoleon renounces for himself, his successors, and descendants, as well as for all the members of his family, all rights of sovereignty and of power, not only over the French empire and the Kingdom of Italy, but also over every other country." Notwithstanding this formal renunciation, Bonaparte in his different proclamations from the Gulf of Juan, from Gap, Grenoble and Lyons, entiled himself by the Grace of God and the constitutions of the empire Emperor of the French, &c. &c. &c. See Monticur of March 21, 1615.
(2) It is thus that Bonaparte's Council of State express themselves in their Report on the inten tions of the Powers. See Moniteur of the 13th of April.
be re established there, was the fundamental con- | Europe and the happiness of France. Never, in dition of a treaty of peace, on which rested all treating with Bonaparte, would they have conthe relations which, up to the return of Bona-sented to the conditions which they granted to parte to Paris, subsisted between France and a government, which, while offering to Europe the rest of Europe. On the day of their entrance a pledge of security and stability, relieved them into Paris, the Sovereigns declared that they from requiring from France the guarantees which would never treat of peace with Bonaparte (3). they had demanded under its former governs This declaration, loudly applauded by Francement."(5) This clause is inseparable from the and by Europe, produced the abdication of Na- treaty of Paris; to abelish it, is to break this poleon and the convention of the 11th of April; treaty. The formal consent of the French nait formed the principal basis of the negociation; tion to the return of Bonaparte to the throne it was explicitly pronounced in the preamble of would be equivalent to a declaration of war the treaty of Paris. The French nation, even against Europe: for the state of peace did not supposing it perfectly free and united, cannot exist between Europe and France, except by the withdraw itself from this fundamental condition treaty of Paris, and the treaty of Paris is incom. without abrogating the treaty of Paris and all its patible with the power of Bonaparte. If this existing relations with the European system. reasoning had need of further support, it might The allied Powers, on the other hand, by insist- be found in the very offer of Bonaparte to ratity ing on this very condition, only exercise a right the treaty of Paris. This treaty had been scruwhich it is impossible to contest to them, unless pulously observed and executed: the transactions it be maintained that the most sacred compacts of the Congress of Vienna were only its supplecan be perverted as suits the convenience of either ments and developments; and without the new of the contracting parties. It hence follows, that attempt of Bonaparte, it would have been for a the will of the people of France is by no means long series of years one of the bases of the public sufficient to re-establish, in a legal sense, a Go- right of Europe: but this order of things has verment proscribed by solemn engagements, given place to a new revolution; and the agents which that very people entered into with all the of this revolution, although they proclaim incesPowers of Europe; and that they cannot, under santly" that (6) nothing has been changed," conany pretext, give validity as against these Powers ceive and feel themselves that all is changed to the right of recalling to the throne, him, whose around them. The question is no longer the exclusion was a condition preliminary to every maintenance of the treaty of Paris, but the pacific arrangement with France: the wish of making of it afresh. The Powers find themselves, the French people, even if it were fully ascer with respect to France, in the condition in which tained, would not be the less null and of no effect they were on the 31st of March, 1814. It is not in regard to Europe towards re-establishing a to prevent war, for France has in fact rekindled power, against which all Europe has been in a it, it is to terminate it that there now offers itself state of permanent protest from the 31st of to Europe a state of things essentially different March, 1814, up to the 13th of March, 1815; from that on which the peace of 1814 was foundand in this view, the position of Bonaparte is ed. The question, then, has ceased to be a ques precisely at this day what it was at these last tion of right: it is no more than a question of mentioned periods. political calculation and foresight, in which the powers have only to consult the real interests of The Committee thinks it may dispense with entheir people and the common interest of Europe. tering here into an exposition of the considerations which, under this last view, have directed the measures of the governments. It will be suf ficient to recall to notice, that the man, who, in now offering to sanction the treaty of Paris, pretends to substitute his guarantee for that of a Sovereign, whose loyalty was without stain, and benevolence without measure, is the same who during 15 years ravaged and laid waste the earth, to find means of satisfying his ambition, who sacrificed millions of victims, and the happiness of an entire generation, to a system of conquests, whom truces, little worthy of the name of peace, have only rendered more oppressive and more odious; (7) who, after having by mad enterprizes
Should the offer to sanction the Treaty of Paris change the dispositions of the Powers? France has had no reason to complain of the Treaty of Paris. This Treaty reconciled France with Europe; it satisfied all her true interests, secured all her real advantages, all the elements of prosperity and glory, which a people called to one of the first places in the European system could reasonably desire, and only took from her that which was to her, under the deceitful exterior of great national eclat, an inexhaustible source of sufferings, of ruin, and of misery. This Treaty was even an immense benefit for a conntry, reduced by the madness of its chief to the most disastrous situation (4). The Allied Powers would have betrayed their interests and their duties, if, as the price of so much moderation and generosity, they had not, ou signing the treaty, obtained some solid advantage; but the sole object of their ambition was the peace of
(3) Declaration of the S1st of March, 1814. (4) The Emperor, convinced of the critical situation in which he has placed France, and of the impossibility of saving it himself, appeared to resign himself and consent to an entire and unconditional abdication.-Letter of Marshal Ney to the Prince of Benevent.
(5) Preamble of the Treaty of Paris.
(6) This idea recurs perpetually in the report of the Council of State of Bonaparte, published in the Moniteur, April 13, 1815.
(7) The Committee here think it right to add the important observation, that the greater part of the invasions, and forced unions, of which Bonaparte formed successively what he called the Great Empire, took place during those perfi dious intervals of peace, more destructive to
none of the sophistries by which it is pretended to be attacked can at all affect it :--2. That these reasons remain in all their force, and that the changes which have in fact occurred since the Declaration of the 13th of March, have produced
tired fortune, armed all Europe against him, and exhausted all the means of France, was forced to abandon his projects, and abdicated power to save some relics of existence; who, at the moinent when the nations of Europe were giving | themselves up to the hope of a durable tranquil-no alteration in the position of Bonaparte and of lity, meditated new catastrophes, and by a double France with regard to the Allies.-3. That the perfidy, towards the powers who had too gener-offer to ratify the Treaty of Paris cannot en any ously spared him, and towards a government account alter the disposition of the Allies.which he could not attack without the blackest Therefore, the Committee is of opinion that it treason, usurped a throne which he had renouuced, would be useless to publish a fresh declaration. and which he never occupied except for the misery of France and the world. This man has no other guarantee to propose to Europe than his word. After the cruel experience of 15 years, who would have the courage to accept this gnarantee? and if the French nation has really embraced his canse, who could any longer respect the security which it could offer? Peace with a government placed in such hands, and composed of such elements, would only prove a perpetual state of uncertainty, anxiety, and danger. No power could really disarm : nations would not only enjoy any of the advantages of a true pacification; they would be crushed by charges of all kinds; as confidence would no where revive, industry and commerce would every where languish; there would be no stability in political relations; gloomy discontent would sit brooding on every
The Plenipotentiaries of the Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, and who as such are responsible for its execution with regard to the acceding Powers, having taken into consideration, and sanctioned by their approbation the preceding report, have resolved, that there shall be made to the Plenipotentiaries of the other Royal Courts a communication of the minutes of this day. They have further ordered that an extract of the said minutes shall be made public.— Here follow the signatures in the alphabetical order of the Courts :— AUSTRIA.-Prince METTERNICH, Prince WESSENBERG. SPAIN (Espagne).—P. Gomes Labrador. FRANCE.-Prince TALLEYRAND, Duke of DALBERG,
Count ALEX DE NOAILRES,
Country, and at a day's notice, alarmed Europe GREAT BRITAIN.-CLANCARTY,
Is it necessary to publish a new Declaration? The observations which the Committee have just presented, furnish the answer to the last question which remains to be examined. It considers, -1. That the Declaration of the 13th of Marchi was dictated to the Powers by reasons of such evident justice and such decisive weight, that
Europe than even the wars with which it was tormented. It was thus that he took possession of Piedmont, Parma, Genoa, Lucca, or the States of Rome, of Holland, of the countries composing the 32d Military Division. It was thus at a period of peace (at least with all the continent), that he struck the first blow against Portugal and Spain, and he thought to have finished the conquest of those countries by cumming and andacity, when the patriotism and energy of the people of the Peninsula drew him into a sanguinary war, the commencement of, his own downfall, and of the salvation of Europe.
PORTUGAL.-The Count DE PALMELLA,
PRUSSIA.-Prince HARDEN Berg,
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries, approving the whole of the principles contained in the present extract from the minutes, have affixed to it their signatures.
Vienna, May 12, 1815.
TWO SICILIES.-The Commander RUFFO.
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