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very true, that the British and Prussian against France ever since she declared for armies are now considerably advanced independence. What sort of ideas of into France ; but it is equally true, that freedom can this child form, under the the enemies of France possessed the same tutelage of a daughter of the House of advantages in 1792, and yet were obliged | Austria ?-Where are the hylacon days, to retreat. “The enemy is at the gates which Frenchmen had a right to look for 66 of Paris. Verdun, which lies in his under a free representative government, way, cannot hold out louger than eight when such prospects as these seem to open
days.”—This was the state of affairs at before them ? - The contemplation is that period, “ but the citizens who de- gloomy indeed. Still, I am free to ac“ fend it (Verdun) have sworn that they knowledge, that I would rather prefer the 56 will perish rather than surrender it.” reign of Napoleon the Ild, with all its They were faithful to their oaths, and disadvantages, to that of the Bourbons. the invaders were driven back.– The only The former has the semblance, at least, doubt remaining in my mind is, that the of being the choice of the nation. The people of France are not so ardent in latter has been twice expelled, and if he the cause of freedom as they were in is again restored, it must be by the sword, 1792. So much has been done to fami- a mode of erecting a government at all liarize them with royalty, to impress times hostile to the legitimate rights of the their minds with the importance of a people, and subversive of the true princonstitutional monarchy, and to fascinate ciples of liberty. them with the vain and gaudy trappings of
ARISTIDES. an Imperial dynasty, that if they again revert to the reign of despotism and priestcraft, they will only have themselves
British POLITICAL OBJECTS. to blame for the melancholy change. Napoleon has always possessed a great MR.COBLETT.-The policy of the Brishare of my esteem and respect. But I tish gorerament, as well with respect to its never could forget the violence he offered own domestic interests, as to those of to liberty, when he seized upon the go- foreign relations, should be to nurture, to vernment, under the name of “ First extend, and to establish the cause of raConsul.” It was the first step towards ex- tional liberty. What has given to the tinguishing public spirit. What followed British realms the transcendant authority, served only to benumb the faculties, and and the vast political resources they posto prepare France for the re-establishment sess, but the popular and liberal instituof that system, which it had cost her so tions of the legislature by which they are many years of sussering to get rid of.
governed. If reference be bad to the best Why did not Napoleon, at once, renounce periods of the Assyrian, the Egyptian, the the imperial dignity, and return to those | Greciais, and the Roman governments, it principles which were the cause of his will be found that the high renown and early good fortune, and which procured distinction of these several states, arose him more real and substantial glory than from the liberty enjoyed by the people, he ever derived from the imperial bauble? by the recognition of inherent civic rights, Had he done this, France would have and by the mutual confidence that subbeen saved ; lad he resum ? the endearing sisted between the governing and the naine and title of 6 Generit? Bonaparte, governed. The moment that intrigue, Commander of the armies of the Repub- and despotic artifice reared their baneful lic,” he would, indeed, hose deserved sceptre, and gained the ascendancy of well of his country; he would have drawn public virtue, all the political advantages all parties around him. The very sound of those wise institutions were practically would have appalled the tyrants of the lost, and delapidation and ruin marked the earth, and little more would have been fatal effects of such deplorable aberration necessary to ensure the triumph of liberty. from sound policy. 6 Evil communicaBut, no-he abdicates only in favour of tions corrupt good mannerrs," is a maxim his son, whom he desires to be proclaimed that has the sanction of holy writ, and if by the regal title of Napoleon 11 !-Alas! it were not there recorded, it is incessantly tiis very son is a branch of that house proving in the individual and national which lias taken the most decided part' intercourse of men. It is undoubtedly
the policy and interest of governments simi- | political security of that country, be dimi larly constituted, to co-operate in each bished and endangered. Where unreothers plans of procedure, and not to at- strained despotism exists, rational liberty tempt the solecism of reconciling in prac- can have no secure abode. Overtly or tice what is radically and irreconciliably covertly, the machinations of tyranny are different in principle. Agreeably to this incessantly directed against popular free rule of policy, the British government dom, inasmuch as the one is totally iashould be anxious to conciliate the good compatible with the other. As liberty opinion, and prefer the alliance of kin- and tyranny, therefore, cannot co-exist, dred forms of legislature, if any such how is it that they can be associated in there
are, and not for purposes of tempo. alliance for any vindicable object? Tyrary power, or for objects unworthy of an ranny never lends its aid to liberty, and independent nation, enter into any polic liberty disdains to assist the cause of tical compacts with powers that have no- tyranny. All alliance, then, obtaining thing in them at all congenerous; nay, between such opposite systems, is not that found their schemes of authority, and less reprehensible in principle than, strength or principles of tyranny, at utter sooner or later, ruinous in practice. It variance with British liberty. Is it pos- is very natural and perhaps even sible that any benent can accrue to realmendable, agreeably to the existing sysBritish interests, by cultivating friendly tem, for Russia to seek the aid of alliance and confidental relations with States that from all the European states founded on a have not the slightest afinity with the similar scheme of government, but with constitutional liberty of Great Britain ? what consistency can that, and other In what points of sound policy can nations, kindred states, ask co-operation from the governed by principles of liberty and British nation, knowing that their systems slavery, faithfully concur? If mutual sin- of government are so widely different? cerity exists in their engagements, must What is there in common between the they not make mutual sacrifices of their Russian and German governments, and respective systems for the benefit of these that of Great Britain. The two former engagements; and if that be the case, how are founded on the sole will of the peris the cavse of liberty furthered by the sonal sovereign, excluding from all conialliance, and what practical benefit is sideration the political rights of the likely to result to ihe enslaved nation, who people ; the latter constitutionally rests sees that professions of liberty are not so a strict representative system, in unbending but they may be made to ac- which the people are acknowledged to cord with the habitual objects of avowed be every thing, and that without them despotism? The intercourse is unnatural there can be nothing, What interes, and necessarily tends mutually to vitiate legitimately or consistently associated, and injure the contracting parties, without can the government of Great Britain a chance of advancing the political virtue seek in conjunction with its present alies, of either. In this view of the hurtful dis-in waging hostilities against France. The cordancy, that must arise in the alliance French have proclaimed, and are now seekof governments essentially differing in ing the establishment of national liberty and political principles, and practice, is it not independence. These privileges have been an anxious consideration for Britons to bottomed on a representative system of ascertain what possible good can result to government, comprehending, with but a the British nation, by pledging its blood few exceptions, the most important ad. and treasure for objects that might coun- vantages of a free and an enlightened tenance and protect despotic governments, form of legislation. Its ground work is but cannot possibly benefit a liberal and not dissimilar to that of the English Con. popular system of legislation ? In the stitution. Does not this circumstance, exact proportion in which the despotic as well as its generic character of civilliallies of Great Britain have their terri- berty, naturally assort it with British torial possessions, and political powers en- views, and should it not as naturally secreased by any compact into which they cure it British amity and protection? Is may enter with the government of this not the prosperity of French liberty facountry, must the real interests, and even yourable to all ttiat is excellent in the.com,
stitutional charter of Great Britain; and | Where are the respective authority and would not the destruction of the one en-dependence existing, which would warrant danger the safety of the other? Is it pos- the representative office of the House of sible to uppose that the genuine spirit of Commons in saying, that the representathe British constitution can be embattled tive possesses a power to which the repreagainst France, io opposit:on to her es- sented are so subjected that they cannot tablishin a similar form of government? be either relieved, or discharged from its Were the British people truly represented obligations, but by the sort of favour that in Parliament, as prescribed by the con may be shewn to humility of petitioning stitutional law of the land, would it be or praying. Does either the priuciple or possible to sanction a war against French practice of social liberty recognise a feelliberty and independence by legislative ling so abject, so mendicating, as that provisions for its support? Frenca li- which would rather crouchingly suppliberty is only dangerous to despotic states ; cate, than sternly demand an unquestionits tendency should awaken no apprehen- able right? There cannot be two opinions sion in the B.itish government; it will be with regard to the superior power of the more likely to justify and confirm the represented to that of the representing; constitutional excellencies of that govern- tie former possesses the original and imment, than at all to invade or undermine mutable right; the latter has only the them. Great Britain and America should exercise of its delegated authority, and to be earnest in their devotion to the ame- which it can have no moral claim longer Jiorated state of French government; they than it be merited by a faithful and adeshould regard it as another important link quate execution of the duties imposed. in the chain of power, that promises ulti- The right of domineering and dictating mately to extend and establish the influ- cannot be vindicated by any provisions in ence of political liberty over the habita- the chartered liberties of the British ble world. The prejudices, habits, and realms, on the part of the representative ignorance of national slavery must gra- towards the represented; and, of course, dually give way to an enlightening system under no circumstances whatever, can of education, before the example of legis- the people be justly degraded to the lative liberty, constitutionally provided low state of petitioning as a boon for in England, America, and France, what they may demand as a right. All
can become as universal as it is necessary applications to Parliament may not be adto the wants and happiness of mankind. missible; the propriety of them is justly A True Britox.
subjected to the corrective wisdom of the House; yet, in as far as the objects of such applications were held to be war
rantable, they are entitled to the most ON TIE Term PETITION. ample consideration; not because they Mr. COBBETT.-The admirable obser
are couched in servile language, but be
cause they are presented as a remonvations, recently made in his place in the strance against either a real or supposed House of Commons, by Sir Francis Bur- grievance. To talk of denying references dett, in the memorable instance of pre- to the legislature, in the independent senting the Westminster Petition against tone of acknowledged complaint, and of the present war, are well adapted to enlighten the British people in the genuine city, to entitle it to any reception at all,
prescribing to it the language of mendipolitical quality of a constitutional peti- is surely to invert the order of moral tion. It is quite clear, what, in the fram- authority ; it is to obliterate and eclipse ing of that privilege, must have been de thc real source of power by rendering the signed by it; but the choice of the term delegated every thing, and the delegating for claiming that right is not correctly nothing. The hackneyed forms of par. sig vificant of its real import. To petition, liamentary petitions, the gradations of literally means, to pray, to supplicate, to favour assigned to them, in proportion as beg. How is this servile cringing attitude they attain or fall short of what is reof spirit consistent with the moral power garded as the standard measure of decoand freedom of requiring, of demanding, rous servility; and the unreserved flipof insisting, on an indefcasible right pancy with which they are either, in the
first instance rejected, or, if received, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, BAVARIA, WUR. finally everlooked and forgotten, are TEMBERG, &c. &c.; WITH AN ARMY among the worst effects of a degenerated of ONE MILLION AND ELEVEN THOUsystem of British representation. When SAND REGULAR Soldiers, AGAINST the people know their true political rights, NAPOLEON AND FRANCE. and dignities, and confer them only where they will be faithfully administered for their true benefit, it will then be understood that the style of communicating
The following, as appears from the with the legislature will not be in terms French official accounts, was the result so debased as to assume the character of of the battle of the 16th inst. to which either a petition, a prayer, or a supplica- they have given the name of the “ Battle tion, but as a demand or remonstrance, of Ligny-Under-Fleureus.” according to the circumstances of redress or correction sought to be obtained. The At half.past nine o'clock we had 40 pieces of word petition ought, therefore, to be ex- cannon, several carriages, colours, and prisoners, punged from the legislative vocabulary, and the enemy songhit safety in a precipitate reit should have no meaning in national po treat. At 10 o'clock the battle was finished, and Jitics. What may be justly required by we found ourselves masters of all the field of bata British people, should be constitution- tle. General Lotzow; a partisan, was taken priably demanded, whether it be in the way soner. The prisouscrs assure that Field-Marof instruction, for the amelioration of the shal Blucher was wounded. The flower of the State, or in that of remonstrance, for the Prassian army was destroyed in this battle. Its correction of alledged abuses of delegated loss could not be less than 15,000 men. Our's authority. The right of the British pub- was 3000 killed and wounded. On the left, lic to demand of the legislature redress Marshal Ney had marched ou Quatre Bras with of wrongs, or to remonstrate with it
a division, which cut in pieces au English divi. against any affirmed inaccuracies of con- sion which was stationed there; but being atduct, cannot be denied.--If either the tacked by the Prince of Orange with 25,000 demand or remembrance should be well men, partly Englishı, partly Hanoverians in the founded, it will be entitled to the fullest pay of England, he retired upon his position at acquiescence on the part of the legisla. Frasnes. There a multiplicity of combats took ture; if it should be imaginary and er- place; the enemy obstinately endeavoured to roneous, it still deserves to be treated force it, but in vain. The Duke of Elchingen with all the respect due from the delegated waited for the 1st corps, which did not arrive to the delegating authority, and in no till night; le confined himself to maintaining his case to be contumaciously rejected as position. In a square, attacked by the 8th regi. unworthy of notice. The right of the ment of curassiers, the colonrs of the 69th regi. people constitutionally, that is peacefully, ment of English infantry fell iuto our hands. to call on the Government to do justice 'The Duke of Brunswick was killed. The Prince to the public, when it may suppose itself of Orauge has been wouvded. We are assured unjustly treated, is one of the most vital that the enemy had many personages and Geneprivileges of the liberty of the land, and, rals of note killed or wounded; we estimate the to be consistent with its own independ
loss of the English at from 4 or 5000 men ; our's ence and dignity, should be always de
on this side was very considerable, it amounts to olared in language of resolute firmness 4,200 killed or wounded. The combat ended and of determined authority.
with the approach of night. Lord Wellington CENSOR.
then evacuated Quatre Bras, and proceeded to Genappe. In the morning of the 17th, the Emperor repaired to Quatre Bras, whence he warchie
ed to attack the English army: le drove it to No. II.
the entrance of the forest of Svignes with the HistoriCAL NOTICES OF Tue War of left wing and the reserve. The right wing av.
ENGLAND, Austria, Russia, PRUSSIA, vanced by Sombref, in pursuit of Field-Marshal DENMARK, SWEDEN, HOLLAND, Sar- Bluclier, who was going towards Wavre, where PINIA, Tue Pope, Naples, Siylcı, he wished to take a position. At 30 o'clock in
the evening, the English army occupied Mount the cuirassiers of General Milband charged that St. Jean wit's its centre, and was in position be divisiou, three regiments of which were bruken fore the forest of Soigne : it would have required and cut up. It was three in the afternoon. T'lie Three linurs to attack it, we were therefore Emperor made the guard advance to place it ia obliged to postpones it till the next day. The the plain upon the ground which the first corps heard-quarters of the Emperor were established had occupied at the outset of the battle this
The Prusat the farm of Caillon, bear Plancheport. The corps being already in advance. sain tell iu torrents. Thus on the 16th, the left sian divisioni, whose movement had been fore. wing, the right, and the reserve, were cqually seen, then engaged witls the light troops of Count engaged, at a distance of about two leagnes. Lobau, spreading its fire upon our witole right
Oank. It was expedient, before undertakivg Battle of Mount St. JEAN.-At 9 in the any wing eisewhere, to wait for the event of this morning the rain having somewhat abated, the 1st attack. Hence, all the means in reserve were corps put itself in motion, and placed itself with cavalry charged the battery of Count d'Erion isy the leit on the road to Brussels, and opposite the ready to succoor Count Lobat, and overwheln village of Mont St. Jean, which appeared the
the Prussian corps whea it should be advanced. centre of the enemy's position, The second This done, the Emperor had the desigu of leadcorps leant its right upon the road to Brussels, ing an aitack upon the village of Mount St. Jean, and its left upon a small wood within cannon
trom which we expected decisive success; but shot of the English army. The cuirassiers were
by a movement of impatience, so frequent in our in se-erve brund, and ihe guards in reserve military amals, and which has often been so fatal upon the lights, The sixihi corps, with the
to us, the cavalry of reserve fraving perceived a cavalry of General d’Aumont, under the order of retrograde movement made by the English to Come Lo su, was destined to proceed in rear
shelter themselves from our baiteries, front of our right, 10 oppone a Prussian corps, wlicia which they had suffered so muel, crowned the appeared 10 bave escaped Marshal Grouchy, and heights oí Mouut St. Jean, and charged the into intend to fall upon our right tlauk, an intention fantry. This movement, which, made in time, and whicho had been made known to us by our re
snpported by the reserves, inust have decided ponts, and by the letter of a Prussian General, the day, made in an isolated mamer, and before inclosing an order of battle, and which was taken affairs on the right were terminated, became fa. by ow liglie troops. The troops were full of ar
tal. Having uo incans of countermanding it, the doar.
We estimated the force of the English enemy shewing many masses of cavalry and inarmy at 80,000 men. We supposed that the
fantry, and our two division of cuirassiers being , Prussian corps which miglit be in line towards engaged, all our cavalry, ray at the same moment pielte sight might be 15,000 men. The enemy's force
to support their comrades. There, for three teu was upwards of 90,000 men, Onni's less nu.
lours, numerous charges were made, which enaenerous.
At noon, all the preparations being bled 118 to penetrate several squares, and to take tenuated, Prince Jerome, commanding a disix standards of the light infantry, an advantage vision of the second corps, and destined to form
ont of proportion with the loss which our cavally the extreme left of it, advanced upon the wood experienced loy the grape shot and musket firing. of which the enemy occupied a pari... The can.
It was impossible to dispose of our reserves of ponavle began. Tlie enemy supported with 30 infantry until we had repulsed the flank attack pieces of cannou the troops be had sent to keep of the Prussian corps. This attack always prothe woodl. We made also on oor side dispositio:s longed itselt perpendicularly upon our right of artillery. At one o'clock Prince Jerome was • master of all the wood, and the whole English hesme witų the young giard, and several batteries
flank. The Emperor seut thither General Du. army fell back behind a curtain. Count d’Erlon of reserye. Tlie enemy was kept in check, rethen attacked the village of Dount St. Jean, and pulsed, and fell back-he had exhausted lis supported bis attack with 80 pieces of cannon, forces, and we had nothing more to tear. It which must have occasioned great loss to the
was this moment that was indicated for an at. English army. All the efforts were made to. wards the ridge. A brigade of the first division cuirassiers suffered by the grape-shot, we seut
tack upou the centre of the enemy. As the of Comvi «’Erlon took the village of Mount St. [four ballalions of the middle guard to proiect
a second brigade was charged by a corps the cuirassiers, keep the positiou, and, if possible of Engli di cavalıy, which occasioned it much disengage, and draw back into the plain a part loss. At the same moment a division of Englise of our cavatry. I'wo other battalions were sent its right, and disorganised several pieces; but
to keep themselves in polence upon the extreme