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men, purely because they are Christi- France some of the greatest geniuses the "ans, let the persons accused be dis- world has produced, were united hand in “charged, although they be found to be hand for fifty years, for the purpose of “ Christians, and let the informer himself enlightening their fellow creatures. " undergo the punishinent.” When shall is a great piiy the enemies of superstiwe see an Antonins? Yet the Apology tion, tyranny, and priestcraft are not which produced this, coutaing passage, better known to each other; and more which no one woulrl, in this enlightened, organized in their exertions. Look at the humune, and liberal age, clare to advance. Fanotics of every description; how they In the second section, of his second Apo- unite, and how successful they are in logy, he says, “ Reason informs and ad stultifying the human understanding, that monishes us, that true pliilosophers and most glorious ornament with which NA
of virtue, who lave lieen filled TURE has vouchsafed to embellish man? " with godliness and holiness, have Would not a general merliumn of cominu“ loved and honoured the simple trutlı, nication for Theology, Metaphysics, and " and have turne:l aside from followiny Moral Philosophiv, beopen with im" the ancients, whenever their opinions partiality to the Churchman, the Dissent
have been found erroneous, or bad. er, the Disciple of NATURE, the follow“ Both scripture and sound reason ersjoiners of Pyrrho, and every 'class of Lati“115, not only to avoid those whose lives tudinarian, be the means of facilitating “have been wicked; who by teaching, such an object? It would lead people to
argument, or other means, have dis- think, examine, and judge for themselves; “seminated false and impious doctrines; and ultimately inculcate a liberality of “ not to imitate, vor in any respect to be sentiment, which can only be acquired "led by thein; but also prescribe, that by the exercise of our reason concerning "the inquisitive lover of truth should the nature of man, his intellectual faprefer it to his life, and should not be culties, and education.
It would enadeterre: bythe fear of death, or tirreats ble them to make that generous allow“ of torture, from speaking and acting ance for the opinions and prejudices of “according to justice.”
others, so essentially necessary to the Tiese able "sentiments may be used harmony of society; but which they can by every retorner; they were appropri- never possess, while their reading and ute to those who suffered in Smithfield, observation are confined within the pale to Galileo, Huss, and Jerome of Prague; of a particular sect; and while they are they may be used with equal propriety in the habit of implicitly receiving their by the Deists of the present day, and by religious notions, upon thecredit of others, all persons persecuted for what they without investigation. A Journal of the believe to be trae. Those of my Friends above description has long been a desidewho will take the trouble, will tind much ratum in the republic of letters; for learning, philosophy, and curious matter potwithstanding the number and variety in the works of this father. I am writ of theological and controversial magaing a treatise upon the model of the zines, there are none completely open to Apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertul- all partics; whatever liberality they may lian, to be entitled, if God spare my life, profess. Some are exclusively the vehiand that of the best of Princcs, till he cles of one set of opinions only, and shall ascend the throne of these realms) refuse insertion to every thing of an “ An Apology to King George ibe Fourth, opposite tendency. Others admit nothing “ in behalf of that most learned and contrary to their own tenets, but what “respectable portion of bis subjects, the they think can easily be answered by
Materialists, Sceptics, and Deists; by sonie of their own partizans. I have ta" a CHRISTIAN:"and intend approaching ken the liberty of throwing out these few him in person with a hwly boldness, to hints, as to the nature of a Journal much deliver a copy thereof. Ererything wanted by the Friends of Free Discussion; which has been done towards liberalising and remain, dear Sir, your's truly. mankind in this country, will be found the
ERASMUS PERKINS. isolated efforts of individuals; but in London, Jan. 18, 1815.
Prinsed and Published by G. Houston: No. 192, Strand; where all Coinmunications addressed to the
Editor are requested to be forwarded.
VOL. XXVII. 5. 4.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, JAN. 28, 1815.
--I have just
stait is uud
[98 PARTIAL AND MEAN PERRY, Mr. Lovell of the Statesman was im
prisoned a year or 18 months in New Proprietor of the Morning Chronicle.
gate, and also fined.---The selfish and READER, a full report of the proceed- unfeeling crowds, who are now clamouring
against this tax; who are abusing it; ings of the Hampshire meeting was sent who are applying to it all sorts of vile to the above Printer, together with the epithets and names, because they now Petition, which I moved thereat, and feel the pinch of their pockets; these
persons never meet to petition against which petition (the only copy I had) was the prosecutions of the press; no, and obtained from me, by the Reporter of the they never would have met for that purChronicle, in order to be sent to London | demolished and the types thrown into
pose, if every preșs in England had been to be printed in that and other papers. the street, as were those of the American It was so sent; but was suppressed by printers at the City of Washington, by
command of our military and naval this partial, this mean, this despicable commanders - These persons now call tool nf - Jaenicable place-hunting faction. the tax partial, oppressive, cruel, inqui
sitorial," tyrannical. They compare it irnt these facts, and can to every time on earth that is odious, vichy zvi say, that I will, next week, and some on them have gone to Hell give this trick of Perry the exposure, They declared, that it is every thing
for similies in the way of illustration, whieh it deserves.
that is tyrannical, odious and detestable, WM, COBBETT.
and that it violates the spirit of our
constitution; and all this in its PRINCI. Botley, Thursday Evening,
PLE; in its very NATURE; and ESN.B. Mr. Hunt said, at the time, that men? What are these noisy petitioners !
SENCE.- Now, then, what are these this worthy “member of the Rampden What is their character, even upon their Club," would play us this trick. I
own shewing? Why, that they are now
calumniators of the government; or, could not believe it. Mr. Hunt knew that they have been slaves for the last the man better than I did,
18 years. Let them take their choice.It is curious enough to see men, and
great numbers of them too, who supa PROPERTY TAX.
ported this tax when it was laid on, who
voted for it in parliament, who, in fact, This poor tax is now become as much laid it on; it is curious to see these the object of senseless abuse as were, men, and in great numbers too, in 1798, those who endeavoured to pre coming forward and joining in the above vent it from being imposed. In 1812 horrid deseriptions of the tax, They an unfortunate man, named CARTER, seem to be looking to new scenes, They was imprisoned in jaol, for a year, and are ratting from the Government. They fined, for having published a paragraph begin to suspect, that the taxing and complaining of the operation of this tax. soldiering systein must soon undergo a My Lord Folkestone, who made a mo- very material change. In short, the sysLion upon this subject, described the pa- tem (for it is of no consequence who are ragraph as being moderate and inoffensive. ministers) is in a state of great anxiety, Yet, for republishing the same paragraph, at least. The peace has produced the efe
fects, thus far, that I anticipated ; and those effects will now develope them- The whole of the army, and nearly all. selves, day after day.-In some places, the navy must be discharged; the petitioners have included all the war
OR tares, in others only the malt and pro- The dividends on the Natial Debt must perty tax, in others only the property tax,
go unpaid. The first is the only rational mode of Take your choice, good petitioners, proceeding; for, in fact, all the taxes One of the five propositions you must are equally burdensome. But, in some take. I am for the fourth. What say places, as at Worcester City, they are you? What sense is there in your clafor doing away with all the war-taxes, mours and abuse, unless you think that except the Landlord's part of the property the war taxes can be dispensed with ;and tax. What a whim is this! What a child if you think they can be dispensed with, ish distinction ! Is it not clear, that the why do you not say so? One thing, Landlord's part of the property tax must however, in this senseless uproar, I am be included in the rent of the tenant, and highly delighted with. It is this: That that, finally, it must be paid by these there are no longer any accusations heard. who eat the bread, the meat, the butter, against us Jacobins. It is not we, but the cheese, the poultry, the milk, and "the loyal,” who now cry out, who clathe eggs, and who wear the flax and the mour, who now deal out abuse on the wool? People are so galled with their taxing system. Mr. HARDY, who esdifficulties to pay the taxes, that they caped with his life, after endeavouring to know not what they say. Political eco effect a reform in that body who imposed nomy is a subject too deep for minds in these taxes, is alive to see the day when general; but, as every one now feels, those, who clamoured for his destruction, every one cries out. Sir Francis Bur- clamour against those taxes. He is alive dett, in 1811 or 1812, when he moved to see “ the loyal" pouring forth all sorts the address in the House of Commons, of invective against thing tona!
all ne la was most grossly abused for describing boured to prevent. Moressary to ine the Property Tax in colours far less alive to enjoy this spectacle; Hit, his odious than those, in which " the loyal" efforts, the noble stand which he made, now describe it. Thus time makes all will always be remembered with gratitude sorts of changes.-But, if other taxes be by those who retain any esteem for the imposed instead of the war taxes, what rights and liberties of their forefathers. will the people have gained? If, for instance, JERRY JOBERNOL, the farmer,
No. I.--CORN BILL. should get rid of his tenpounds a year of war taxes, and should, in future, have to It is now evident to me, that ouf pay ten pounds a year iu lieu of it, in his ministers mean to propose a law to put salt, malt, horse, window, soap, candle a stop to the importation of Cor. Tam and leather tax, what wouluJerry there contirmed in this opinion by the language by gain? And, if the petitioners mean, of the COURIER newspaper for some that no other taxes should be laid on in time past; and especially by the following lieu of the war taxes, they should say so. article, which appeared in that paper of -Then, do they mean, that the funding the 23d instant, and which article I an system should be destroyed, and that morally certain came from a source of the fund-holders should not be paid their authority. The reader will see, from dividends ? No: they do not mean this. the ability with which it is written, that Why then do they not say so? And, it never could come from the same pen why do they not point out how faith may whence proceed the articles of the Editor be kept with the fundholders, and the of that paper; and the form and place, war taxes (without substitutes) be done of it, if the reader could see them, away?
would strengthen the opinion. After inThe war taxes must be continued ; serting it, I shall endeavour to shew, how
it blinks all the main points, how fallaThere mmst be new taxes laid on, equal cious it is, how it is calculated to deceive to them in amount ;
and to mislead.
“ The Meetings upon OR
" the Agricultural State of the Country Die There must be Loans in time of peace ; " are become universal. This is a sub
ject which we touch always with deli- " ever high it was, did not depend upon
cacy, and almost with dread. It is “ them. It arose from causes over which " one of such vital importance, one in “ they had no controul ; from deficient " which a false step, or an erroneous doc-" seasons, and from the state of the con“ trine, may do such incalculable mis- tinent, with which all intercourse was “ chief, that we fear ever to pronounce prevented. But allowing, for the sake " any decisive opinion. What suggestions of argument, that they did make farge " we throw out, we throw out with diffi- “ fortunes, that must have been a public “dence and hesitation, convinced of our “ benefit, inasmuch as the increase of " being more in want of information, than “ their capital would naturally lead them “ able to communicate any. But there " to extend the agriculture of the coun" are some facts upon which there can “ try, to improve bad land, and bring “ be no doubt, and upon them we may
“ the waste into produce. The answer safely reason---and in reasoning upon “ to the first question involves in it an " then, we are quite sure that we shall answer to the second. Upon the third "not deserve, in the words of Mr.Burke, “ we very willingly observe, that we are “ to be classed amongst
" those wicked “ for the people having this necessary of " writers of the newspapers, who would “ life as cheap as possible; but we would “ inflame the poor against their friends,“ pot purchase an unexampled cheapness " guardians, patrons, and protectors."--" to-day, with the certainty, or even the " Upon this subject, more than any other, " risk, of having dearness to-morrow. By " there are prejudices so strong as almost " the return of last Saturday's Gazette, us to resist the evidence of the strongest find that the average price of wheat “ facts, and these prejudices are infinite- " was 31. 3s. 4d. the quarter, or 73. 11d. " ly aggravated by the number of idle “ the bushel : Barley, Il. 11s, 6d. ; and " tales spread about by the industry of “ Oats, 1l. 3s. 9d. This cheapness arises " faction, and greedily devoured by the “ from two causes—the admitting the * malignant credulity of mankind. When " free importation of corn, and the con"grain is dear, the prejudice is against "sequent necessity under which the " monopolizers; when it is cheap, then “ British farmer has been of bringing bis “the cry is, to give the utmost license“ grain to market. The generality of " and encouragement to importation, " mankind, looking only at the present " in order that it may become cheaper " result
, will rejoice, and we are not sur“ still, and thus, as we have heard it“ prised at it, and feel disposed to look " said, to be rerenged on the farmer. " with an evil eye upon any thing that " But revenge ought not to be exercised " would disturb it. Forbearance, and " against the farmer. Revenge on the " the want of all interference would " farmer would soon be accompanied a greater disturber than any “ with a much wider vengeance upon“ other cause.
For let but the systhe avengers--they would themselves be-" tem of encouraging the free impor
come at no remote period the victims of " tation of corn be continued, and the " their vengeance. Evils however at a dis-“ vengeance which the ignorant would " tance we are too apt neither to see nor “ inflict upon the British farmer would
care for. “ Have not farmers (is the “ be complete. He would not enter the
common cry,) been making immense lists of competition with the foreign “ fortunes for the last twenty years ? grower, for he would not cultivate "Have they not been living upon the grain at all. But the British farmer " distresses of the people? And ought ought not to be so dealt with, nor * not the latter to have the advantage " ought the food of the people of Eng"' which the late harvests and peace have " land to depend upon foreign coun“ given them, to have bread at as cheap “ tries. There is not a more obvious " a rate as possible?” We answer each principle than this, that men will not " of these questions, That the farmers apply their industry and their capital " have been making immeuse fortunes " to the growing or manufacturing an “ for the last twenty years, is an asser- “ article which they cannot sell at a -“ tion which it is as easy to make, as we price higher than it cost them in grow“ believe it would be difficult to prove." ing or manufacturing it; a price that "But if they had, how would that bear" shall enable them if not to lay something upon the subject? The price, how" by, at least to maintain them. Wheat
" and Barley at the last prices quoted ensue, where can you look to ? To " 'in the Gazette, are at a less price than " the British farmer? No--you have " the expence to which the farmer would “ turned your back ироп
him. But there “ be put by growing them, including “ is another thing to be considered, grain " wages to labourers, keep for horses, may be cheap, and yet be less within repair of waggons, cost of the seed,
of some than when it " and rent to the landlord. Of course was dearer. If agriculture be dis" then he will direct his industry and couraged, the farmer will not want so
capital to other channels; he will not many lalourers, the ploughman, the grow grain; he will not make land thresher, and the reaper, will not be
hitherto barren, productive in corn; wanted-and thus will those per“ he will not bring the wastes and heaths
starve ainidst cheapness.” “ into cultivation. There will compara- “ But it has been said, let the farmer look
tively be no English corn grown, to his landlorii, who having raised his " "Very well,” we hear some say, “and rent in proportion to the encreasing price “ what is that to us, provided we still “ of grain, ought now to be lowered to the “ have abundant supplies open to us.”
“ levelat what it was before such increase. “ But softly! it is a great deal to them “ There is much reason in this, and it will -a great deal indeed! In the first
operate no doubt upon the landlord. If place, the foreign grower, when he “ he find that lie cannot yet a high rent “ finds that he has nothing to fear from paid, but that he can get a lower one, “ the rivalship of the British farmer, will“ of course he will prefer the latter. The “ raise his price.
This is obvious “ cessation of the Property Tax will be “ When he knows you must depend upon “ another relief; But these of themselves “ him for the commodity, he will increase “ will not be suiticient. We take our stand « his terms.
There is not a plainer upon this ground, which cannot be sha“ commercial principle than this. Here “ ken; that the British fariner should have “ then is the first inroad upon the cheap- au interest in cultivaiing grain. Has
ness which you flattered yourself would " he that interest at the present prices? " be so permanent. But you must not “ No, Wiat is the semecky? Clearly that “ forget another circumstance- that “the forrign grouer should btar some
peace cannot be perpetual, and that of the burthens that he does; that he wars must take place.- Nay, that fo- “ should pay a duty upon importation ;
reign powers may be more likely to go that this duty should make the price “ to war with us, thinking that they of foreia com equal to a price which “ bave the ineans in their hands, (we, “ the Emin farmor ought to get for Bri.
depending upon them entirely for “ tish corn. Nir. Burke Viongiit a farmer grain) of compelling us to accept ternis “ought to make 1.2 per cent upon his and to make concessions. We put a
We put a "capital after paying his rent;' Later case---Poland will be annexei to, or “ writers and witnesses examined by Paror under the controul of Russia. It is liament, think 10 per cent. “ from Poland we derive the largest “niuch less than is made in almost all “ continental supplies of foreig!ı corn.
“ other trades. At the present price of “ Should we go to war with Russia, she" grain the farmer so far from making
might shut all hier ports, Russian as "this inierest upon his capiial must les"well as Polish, and prevent the expor- sen that capital by coltivating. What “ tation of grain.-Wliat sliould we do “the price should be per quarter to " then? We might procure it from other "enable liim to pay his lent and gaisa sa “ parts, from the Barbary States and much upon his capital, we presume " from America. But would not the 100 io siate from our own knowledge, ro
price be much increased upon us, those " Some of the witnesses examined by the “ Powers always keeping in mind that “ Hlouse of Lurds declare that incat
we must depend upon them? Well, ought to be 41. los, a quarter, or 12s, “ but this is not all-you have for:ned. a bushel to produce this effect. Others your calculations and your hopes upon
- fix it at 41. or los. the buskel; none “ i!ie certainty of the harvest never fail. “ lower. At 31. 15s, or 9s. 1d. per ing upon the Continent, of there being "bushel, (see the reports of the House
ays fine and productive seasons. If“ of Lords,) all vleclare the farmer could s the harvest should fail and a scarcity “ not be able to pay bis rent and get