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Iroquois, or, as more commonly called, St. Lawrence; down whose course it proceeds as far as St. Regis, distant about 109 miles from Kingston, where it strikes, due east across the country; along the parallel of 45°, till it reaches, at a distance of 147 miles, the west bank of the river Connecticut in the United States. · The instant the war became known at New York, some British merchants of that city despatched expresses to Queenstown in Upper, and Montreal in Lower Canada. According to an American editor, the Queenstown messenger, described as a native of Albany, told his countrymen, on the way, that he was proceeding with the news to Fort Niagara; and obtained, in consequence, every facility that money and horses could afford him. Thus, through private channels, notice of the war reached Queenstown and Montreal in six, and Quebec in eight days after it had been declared ; which was fortunate, as, some unaccountable accident, the official notification from the British minister at Washington did not arrive at Quebec till some weeks had elapsed. At this time, the British regular force in the Canadas consisted of the 8th, 41st, 49th and 100th regiments, a small detachment of artillery, the 10th Royal Veteran Battalion, and the Canadian, Newfoundland, and Glengary Feucibles; amounting, in the whole, to 4,150 men.


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These were distributed along the different posts from the telegraph station, about 250 miles below Quebec, to St. Joseph's, but so unequally divided, that, in the upper province, whose front extends to nearly 1300, out of the 1700 miles, there were but 1450 men; and the restricted navigation of the St. Lawrence, by the time any succours could arrive from England, left no hopes of a reinforcement previous to the ensuing summer,

Major-general Brock, the president of Upper Canada, was at York when the news of war reached him. He, with his accustomed alacrity, sent immediate notice of it to lieutenant-colonel St. George commanding a small detachment of troops at Amherstburg, and to captain Roberts commanding part of a company of the 10th R. V. Battalion at St. Joseph's. A second despatch to the last-named officer contained the major-gene. ral's orders, that he should adopt the most prudent measures, either for offence or defence. Captain Roberts, accordingly, on the day succeeding the arrival of his orders, embarked with 45 officers and men of the 10th Royal Veteran Battalion, about 180 Canadians, 393 Indians, and two iron 6-pounders, to attack the American fort of Michilimacinac. This force reached the island on the following morning. A summons was immediately sent in; and the fort of Michilimacinac, with seven pieces of ordnance, and

61 officers and privates of the United States army,* surrendered, by capitulation, without a drop of blood having been spilt.

The editor of the “ History of the War,' while he admits that 66 every possible prepard. tion was made by the yarrison to resist an attack," describes the force under Captain Roberts as “ regular troops 46; Canadian militia 260; Indians 715." Here the regulars are correctly enumerated; but their inconsiderable number taught Dr. Smith a preferable method of stating the British force. He lumps the whole together thus :-"regular troops, Canadian militia, and Indians, amounting to 1,000 men;" and omits not to add, that they were “ furnished with every implement for the complete investment and siege of the place."|--Lieutenant Hanks states, that he“ had anticipated” the declaration of war: in fact, there is no doubt that he, in common with the other American commanders at the posts along the frontier, had been instructed to

expect it.

The misunderstanding that bad, for several vears, subsisted between Great Britain and the United States, and the recent broils between the latter and the Indians on the Wabash, had occasioned a considerable augmentation of the military force of the United States. Since early in the month of May, brigadier-general Hull had been despatched with a force to the north-west ; and was invested with discretionary powers to inrade Canada from Detroit, immediately on receiving intelligence of the war, then resolved to be declared against Great Britain. This army, 2,500 strong, arrived at Detroit on the 5th of July, to be in readiness for the contemplated invasion.

* App. Nos. 1. 2. 3. + Hist. of the United States, Vol. III. p. 177. † App. No. 3.

Every preparation having been made, not omitting a proclamation to the Canadians,* sent purposely from Washington, the embarkation of the troops took place on the 12th. The army landed on the opposite or Canadian side of the Detroit; and, after a short cannonade, took possession of the defenceless village of Sandwich, situate about two miles within the province. The few militia, there stationed, bad previously retired, carrying with them the most valuable of the stores, to Amherstburg.+

Lieutenant-colonel St. George, inspecting fieldofficer of the district, commanded at this post; haring under his orders a subaltern's detachment of artillery, about 100 of the 41st regiment, 300 militia, and about 150 Indians, under Tecuinseh. The timely notice of the war, sent by majorgeneral Brock, enabled the lieutenant-colonel, early in July, to intercept, as she was entering * App. No. 1.

+ See p. 48.

Detroit river, the American Chicago packet, having on board the baggage and hospital stores, and an officer and 30 men, of general Hull's army

Instead of proceeding against Amherstburg, which would have fallen an easy prey to so powerful a force, and proved an important acquisition to the American cause, general Hull remained in the neighbourliood of Sandwich, carrying on an excursive war by detached parties, and, through them, occasionally reconnoitring the British outposts in the neighbourhood.

A company of the British 41st regiment, about 60 militia, and a party of Indians, being posted near a bridge, crossing the river Aux Canards, four miles from Amherstburg, an American reconnoitring party, consisting of about 300 men,* under colonel Cass, advanced, on the 15th of July, to a plane, distant about a mile from the bridge. To induce the Americans to approach the position occupied by the British regulars and militia, 150 Indians were sent across tlie bridge. A company of American riflemen, concealed in a wood that skirted the plane, immediately fired upon the Indians, killing one, and wounding two. After scalping the dead Indian, the American force was no more seen. Not a musket was fired by the Indians, nor were the regulars or militia in any way engaged; yet

* List of the War, p. 37.

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