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[Treaty of Ghent.)
the principles of humanity and justice, and whereas both Elis Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the Contracting Parties shall use their best endeavours to accomplish so desirable an object.
Ratifications without Alteration. ART. XI. This Treaty, when the same shall have been ratified on both sides, without alteration by either of the Contracting Parties, and the Ratifications Mutually exchanged, shall be binding on both parties, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington, in the space of four months from this day, or sooner, if practicable.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this Treaty, and have thereunto affixed our seals.
Done, in triplicate, at Ghent, the 24th day of December, 1814.
(L.S.) JOHN QUINCEY ADAMS.
No. 7.-DECLARATION of the Eight Powers, relative to
the Universal Abolition of the Slave Trade. Vienna, 8th February, 1815.
[This Declaration formed Annex XV to the Vienna Congress Treaty of 9th June, 1815, No. 27.]
(Translation as laid before Parliament.*) The Plenipotentiaries of the Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May, 1814 (No. 1), assembled in Conference.
Having taken into consideration that the commerce, known by the name of The Slave Trade” (Traite des Nègres d'Afrique), has been considered, by just and enlightened men of all ages, as repugnant to the principles of humanity and universal morality; that the particular circumstances from which this commerce has originated, and the difficulty of abruptly arresting its progress, may have concealed, to a certain extent, what was odious in its continuance, but that at length the public voice, in all civilised countries, calls aloud for its prompt suppression; that since the character and the details of this traffic have been better known, and the evils of every kind which attend it, completely developed, several European Governments have virtually come to the resolution of putting a stop to it, and that successively all the Powers possessing Colonies in different parts of the world have acknowledged, either by Legislative Acts, or by Treaties, or other formal engagements, the duty and necessity of abolishing it ;
That by a separate Article of the late Treaty of Paris (No. 1), Great Britain and France engaged to unite their efforts at the Congress of Vienna to induce all the Powers of Christendom to proclaim the universal and definitive abolition of the Slave Trade;
That the Plenipotentiaries assembled at this Congress cannot do greater credit to their mission, better fulfil their duty, and manifest the principles which actuate their august Sovereigns, than by endeavouring to carry this engagement into effect, and by proclaiming, in the name of their Sovereigns, their wish of putting an end to a scourge which has so long desolated Africa, degraded Europe, and afflicted humanity;
The said Plenipotentiaries have agreed to open their deliberations, on the means of accomplishing so salutary an object, by a solemn declaration of the principles which have governed them in this undertaking ; accordingly, being duly authorised for
* For French version, see “State Papers," vol. iii, p. 971. + See Hertslet's Treaties, vol. xii, Index, p. 142.
this purpose, by the unanimous accession of their respective Courts to the principle laid down in the said separate Article of the Treaty of Paris ; they declare, in the face of Europe, that, considering the universal abolition of the Slave Trade as a measure particularly worthy of their attention, conformable to the spirit of the times, and to the generous principles of their august Sovereigns, they are animated with the sincere desire of concurring in the most prompt and effectual execution of this measure, by all the means at their disposal ; and of acting, in the employment of these means, with all the zeal and perseverance which is due to so great and noble a cause.
Too well acquainted, however, with the sentiments of their Sovereigns, not to perceive, that however houourable may be their views, they cannot be attained without due regard to the interests, the habits, and even the prejudices of their subjects; the said Plenipotentiaries at the same time acknowledge that this general Declaration cannot prejudge the period that each particular Power may consider as most advisable for the definitive abolition of the Slave Trade. Consequently, the determining the period when this trade is to cease universally, must be a subject of negotiation between the Powers; it being understood, however, that no proper means of securing its attainment, and of accelerating its progress, are to be neglected; and that the engagement reciprocally contracted in the present Declaration, between the Sovereigns who are parties to it, cannot be considered as completely fulfilled, until the period when complete success shall have crowned their united efforts.
In communicating this Declaration to the knowledge of Europe, and of all civilised countries, the said Plenipotentiaries hope to prevail on every other Government, and particularly on those which, in abolishing the Slave Trade, have already manifested the same sentiments, to give them their support in a cause, the final triumph of which will be one of the noblest monuments of the age which embraced it, and which shall have brought it to a glorious termination.*
Vienna, the 8th of February, 1815. (Signed) CASTLEREAGH.
* See also Rosolutions of the Cougress of Verona of 28th November, 1822.
No. 8.-REGULATION of the Eight Powers, concerning
the Rank and Precedence of Diplomatic Agents.—Signed at Vienna, 19th March, 1815.
[This Regulation formed Annex XVII to the Vienna Congress
Treaty of 9th June, 1815, No. 27.) ART.
TABLE. Preamble. 1. Division of Diplomatic Characters. 2. Representative Character. 3. Special Missions. 4. Diplomatic Precedence. Representatives of the Pope. 5. Form for Reception of Diplomatic Agents. 6. Diplomatic Agents of Courts Allied by Family or other Ties. 7. Alternation of Signatures in Acts or Treaties. (Translation as laid before Parliament.*)
Preamble. In order to prevent in future the inconveniences which have frequently occurred, and which may still occur, from the claims of Precedence among the different Diplomatic Characters, the Plenipotentiaries of the Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris (No. 1) have agreed on the following Articles, and think it their duty to invite those of the other Crowned Heads to adopt the same regulations.
Division of Diplomatic Characters. ART. I. Diplomatic Characters are divided into Three classes. That of Ambassadors, Legates, or Nuncios.
That of Envoys, Ministers, or other persons accredited to Sovereigns.
That of Chargé d'Affaires, accredited only to the Ministers for Foreign Affairs.
Representative Character. Art. II. Ambassadors, Legates, or Nuncios only shall have a Representative character.
Spccial Jissions. Art. III. Diplomatic characters charged with any Special Mission shall not on that account assume any superiority of Rank.
Diplomatic Precedence. Art. IV. Diplomatic characters shall rank in their respective classes, according to the date of the official notification of their arrival.
* For French version, see "State Papers," rol. ii, p. 179.
Representatives of the Pope. The present Regulation shall not occasion any change respecting the Representatives of the Pope.
Form for Reception of Diplomatic Agents. ART. V. There shall be a regular form adopted by each State for the reception of Diplomatic Characters of every Class.
Diplomatic Agents of Courts Allied by Family or other Ties.
ART. VI. Ties of consanguinity or family alliances between Courts confer no Rank on their Diplomatic Agents. The same rule also applies to political alliances.
Alternation of Signatures in Acts or Treaties. ART. VII. In Acts or Treaties between several Powers that admit the alternity, the order which is to be observed in the signatures of Ministers shall be decided by ballot.
The present regulation is inserted in the Protocol of the Plenipotentiaries of the eight Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, at their sitting of the 19th March, 1815.
(The signatures follow in the Alphabetical order of the Courts.)
(L.S.) The PRINCE DE METTERNICH.
(L.S.) The BARON DE WESSENBERG. SPAIN (ESPAGNE). (L.S.) P. GOMEZ LABRADOR. FRANCE.
(L.S.) The PRINCE DE TALLEYRAND.
(L.S.) COUNT ALEXIS DE NOAILLES. GREAT BRITAIN. (L.S.) CLANCARTY.
(L.S.) STEWART, Lt.-Gen. PORTUGAL. (L.S.) The COUNT PALMELLA.
(L.S.) LOBO. PRUSSIA.
(L.S.) PRINCE IIARDENBERG.
(L.S.) BARON IIUMBOLDT. Russia.
(L.S.) COUNT RASOU MOFFSKY.
(L.S.) COUNT NESSELRODE. SWEDEN.
(L.S.) LOWENHIELM. See Protocol of 5 Powers of 21st November, 1818, respecting Ministers Resident.