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BY S. J. WETHRELL, Esq.
Recognizing as I do, in common with all manufacturers, the important place occupied by Drawing Frames in the preparation of cotton for spinning, and believing that those in common use in this country are not constructed so as to enable us to realize the full benefits which should be derived from them, I invite your attention to a brief description of English Drawing Frames.
There are usually in these frames four lines of rollers, eighteen inches in length from centre to centre of stands, with two bosses, five inches long, to each roller. Each line is adjustable; the front rollers are one and one-fourth, and the others one and one-eighth inches in diameter. The top back rollers are fluted The top clearers, instead of being as with us flat pieces of wood covered with cloth, are in the form of an endless band mounted on rollers, which have their bearings in a polished iron cover hinged at the back. The cloth traverses with the top rollers, upon which it rests, and collects the dust and flyings on its entire surface in a sheet, instead of in lumps.as with the stationary flannels, so that little or no trouble is occasioned by its dropping between the rollers. The stop motions are connected with the delivering trumpets, as well as with the receiving guides.
There is one delivery to each length of roller; the slivers from the two bosses being brought together through a trumpet at the calender or delivering rollers, and passed, through a coiler, into a can usually nine inches in diameter.
The coilers are much more simple in construction than were those formerly in use to a limited extent in this country, and which were in many respects very objectionable.
In the English coilers, the sliver passes from the calender rollers of the drawing frames through a tube about four inches long and one and one-fourth inches diameter; the lower end of
the tube is fastened to a polished circular plate, which acts as a presser to the drawing in the can. The tube is inclined, so that in its revolution the lower or delivering end describes a circle about five and a half inches in diameter. The centre of the can table and can is so fixed, that this circle touches the inside of the can at one point, the other side of the circle being a little past the centre, so that, while the can revolves with a slow motion, the drawing is delivered into it in a series of circular layers, and all the interior space is completely and uniformly filled.
The construction and operation of these coilers may be better understood by reference to the diagram in which A is the axis of the can, B, of the coiler; CC are the calender rollers, D is a polished cover easily removable; the revolving plate P runs in a groove, in the fixed circular framing E. The mode of driving the plate with its attached tube, and also that of driving the can table, will be readily understood. A stopping motion is applied to stop the frame when the can is sufficiently filled.
The doublings are usually six ends into one, three ends runping on each boss of the rollers.
This style of drawing frames, with coilers, is almost universally used in England; and the consequent facilities for greatly increasing the number of doublings constitutes an important difference between the English and American systems.
There are generally three sets of frames in use, even on the coarsest work, giving two hundred and sixteen doublings in the drawing frames alone; and to this practice I attribute what seems to me to be the fact, that English yarns are more even than ours, although made from poorer cotton and with less care in the carding. Whether this is or is not the case, all will admit that doublings are necessary for making level yarns, and that the use of coilers would enable us to increase the doublings, with the same number of machines and extent of floor space.
The nine-inch cans will contain as much weight of properly coiled drawing as do the twelve-inch, when filled in the usual imperfect manner. They can be made of lighter tin, giving equal strength, and can be placed at the back of the slubber or speeder in two rows, taking up a floor space of seventeen inches; while the twelve-inch cans must be placed in three rows, occupying thirty-four inches. In addition to the actual saving of
space, the convenience of handling and the greater facilities of access to examine and change them, are material advantages which will be appreciated by the practical manufacturer.
The small cans also allow a quantity of drawing at the bottom to be readily transferred from a nearly empty to a full one. There is also less liability of the coiled drawing breaking or stretching in running out, as is often the case with cans filled in the common way when the work is pressed down by careless or inexperienced hands; or, which often occurs, from the piling up and falling over and consequent entanglement of the sliver, when run loosely into large cans.
It is sometimes urged as an argument against the adoption of coilers, that they are troublesome to use, and are liable to frequent breakages, causing repeated stoppage of the frames and expensive repairs. These difficulties resulted from the old, and are entirely obviated by the new modes of construction.
Another and, if well founded, more serious objection frequently brought forward is, that the action of the pressing plate injures the sliver. This objection will, I think, be found to come oftener from speculation, or supposition, than from any practical observation or test; and a sufficient answer to it is, that nearly all English drawing is thus acted upon, and with no apparent injury; and it seems that we might safely use on our coarser work a process that is employed in making yarns for the finest muslins, threads and laces.
It will be evident that, until the can is filled, the pressing plate does not touch and cannot injure the drawing; and when any degree of pressure is exerted, such as would be likely to produce a bad effect, the lately contrived stop motion comes into use, and informs the attendant that it is time to change the
full for an empty can.
In calling your attention to the construction and peculiarities of English Drawing Frames, it is not assumed or supposed that they are perfect. No machine is so perfect but that a better can and will be made; and my object is to suggest to maufacturers, to call for, and to machine builders to construct from new patterns, frames that shall combine more good qualities than can be found in any now in operation.