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American patent, is offered manufacturers—for which it is claimed, that it performs better carding than any other in use.
The importance of the features secured in these cards will be readily appreciated when once understood; and having fully sustained the claims put forth in their behalf, under severe practical tests, for several years, they are confidently put forward as the best to be obtained.
Respecting these features, we say :
First. It will not blister on the cylinder. It is elastic and tenacious, and retains its uniformity under all changes of the atmosphere, and other incidents of use, and does not require restretching
Secondly. It cushions the teeth; the wire is held firmly at the base, and passes through substances graduated so as to promote the elasticity of the wire; its soft surface protects the teeth, preventing the “breaking out " which must attend the bending of wire over the sharp hard angle of leather clothing. The attempt to overcome this breaking out in leather by setting the wire loosely, has, more than in any other way, exhibited its unfitness for use; so set, it permits a loose action of the wire at the base ; when perforated so largely, the play of the print is too great, as there is not proper support of the wire to the surface. If set firmly, the teeth must break out in grinding:
Thirdly. These cards take a better edge, and require less grinding ; the teeth are held in an elastic surface, which allows freedom of motion, and at the same time retains the pitch while being ground, and afterwards, so that a sharp point and even surface are preserved.
Fourthly. The peculiar qualities of the American patent Card Clothing impart a certain life, or spring, to the teeth; which enables them in a great measure to clean themselves, and make less work for the Carder.
Fifthly. The qualities above enumerated, combine with the unchangeable nature of the material, to make them the most perfect working cards ever produced.
A gain in production is sure to result from their use. ing of the “flyings” will perceptibly diminish the cost of manufacturing, and this may be secured without any additional expense.
As a result of the change, simply of Card Clothing, a consider
ably larger proportion of the cotton manufactured will find its way to the table in yards of finished fabrics.
A fancied difficulty in the setting (now completely overcome by the exercise of a little resolution and skill by the best card makers) has hitherto led to a determined opposition to the proper introduction of this fabric to the manufacturers. Now, the situation is changed, and the fabric is becoming known, and approval everywhere follows its working.
Among other mills, the “Pacific" has given the clothing a severe trial of three years, with very gratifying results.
The next topic in order was a further discussion upon the subject of recent improvements in Ring Spindles.
Mr. DRAPER, of Hopedale, Mass., said that so much courtesy had been shown to the proprietors of the Sawyer spindle at previous meetings, and so much space occupied, in the publications of the Association, referring to this spindle, that they felt disinclined to occupy the time of the meeting with any further discussion on this subject, and they should be pleased to hear anything that might be said in regard to other spindles; but since the last meeting of the Association a series of experiments have been made by Mr. WEBBER, to determine the power required for driving mules and throstle frames, in comparison with the Sawyer spindle, which, if agreeable to the meeting, would be presented.
[Paper by SAMUEL WEBBER, Esq., of Manchester, N. H.] At the request of J. H. SAWYER, Esq., I have made the following tests of power required to drive various machinery at the mills of the Appleton Company, Lowell, commencing April 10, 1872.
These tests have been made with a dynamometer, constructed at the machine shop of the Amoskeag Company, Manchester, N. H., from the designs and calculations of Mr. STRAW, which has been verified by comparisons with that of Mr. Francis, long received as the standard, and also by over 200 tests with a “Prony brake " prepared for the purpose by Mr. STRAW.
The net weight was ascertained by driving the shafting and frames together, and then deducting the weight required for the shafting; and is an average of four tests on two ordinary ring frames of 15 inch ring, and of nine tests of three Sawyer frames, of 18 inch ring, all on No. 12} warp yarn.
The common ring frames are the lightest I have tested at this speed, and on this No. of yarn.
I have also made the following tests of the altered frame of 128 spindles on No. 13 filling.
The overseer of the mill tells me that the steps of this frame lave not been oiled since September, 1871. All the above tests have been made with the bobbin half full of yarn.
I have also made, at the request of Mr. Sawyer, a test of the power required to drive a self-acting mule of 600 spindles, 13 gauge, 61', oz. weight of spindle, built by Platt Bros. of Oldham, of their pattern of 1868, and running at the Appleton Mills since September, 1871.
This mule was making four stretches of 64 inches each in 62 seconds, on No. 13 filling, and making 2,460 actual revolutions of spindle per minute, giving 10 turns of twist per inch, and producing about five hanks of yarn per day, to the spindle, and I find the power required to drive it as follows:
Average weight raised for 154 sec.,
1,700 lbs. = 3,091 horse-power, or 2.83 lbs. per spindle = 194 spindles per horse-power.
The same mule changed to warp, making four stretches in 70 seconds, and 3,220 revolutions of spindle per minute, required as follows:
Average for 171 sec., .
2,031 ft. Ibs. = 3.693 horse-power, or 3.38 lbs. per spindle = 163 spindles per horse-power.
Mr. GEORGE W. WEEKS, of Clinton, in answer to a question from Mr. DRAPER, stated that trials made at Lancaster Mills with the Sawyer spindle, and the Fales & Jenks spindle, show that the former spindle, as compared with the latter, produced 29-3.5
100 per cent. more yarn, and required 35,6% per cent. less power; equal to twice the amount of yarn per horse-power, and reducing it 20 per cent., less cost for attention. The Sawyer spindle made 6,627 revolutions per minute, the front rolls 96; the number of foot lbs. 360%, equal to 152 spindles per horse-power. The Fales & Jenks spindle runs at 5,460 revolutions per minute, front roll, 76 ; number of foot lbs. 5786, equal to 98 spindles per horse-power.
In answer to inquiries made by Mr. McMULLAN,
Mr. Sawyer said, the frame at Manchaug was reported as spinning number 46 warp; the front-rolls running at 54 and the spindles at 5,857 revolutions per minute, and requiring 3.72 foot pounds per second per spindle.
A frame at the Ashton Mills having the Sawyer spindles, spinning number 42 warp, the front rolls running at 72} and the spindles at 7,003 revolutions per minute, was reported by Mr. KilBURN as requiring 3.44 foot pounds per second per spindle.
Comparing the above, it will be seen that the front rolls of the Manchaug frame make at the rate of 141 turns, and those of tlie Ashton frame 21° turns, for each foot pound of power; showing a difference of forty-five per cent. in favor of the Ashton frame, estimated by the production in yards.
In answer to an objection, that the comparison should be based on the speeds of spindles instead of the rolls, Mr. Sawyer showed that the spindles of the Ashton frame were running 19 per cent. faster, and required (even at the increased speed) eight per cent. less power than the Manchaug frame.
In answer to a question by the PRESIDENT, Mr. SAWYER made a statement, showing the cost of spinners' wages, and the relative amount of power required to spin 100 pounds of No. 13 warp on various machines; the cost of wages being based on the average working of the various machines, and the estimates of power on the experiments reported by Mr. Webber.