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anxious to bring this crude machine to my notice. (You cannot imagine how simple and crude a machine can be got up in the first place, that will show the principles of an invention which a man has thought out. I was induced to advance him money, and bring him on to Philadelphia, in order to advance the undertaking.)

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The cuts represent each side of the Ralston Cotton Cleaner. In its operation the cotton, as it has been hastily gathered from the fields, is placed upon the apron of the independent feeder, which carries and drops it upon the apron of the feeder proper of the cleaner; the speed of each being adjustable by means of ratchet-wheels and pawl levers moved by cranks on the main shaft of each machine, which cranks can be lengthened or shortened so as to regulate the proper supply by driving the slatted aprons at any required speed. Thus the seed-cotton is carried and distributed to the saws of the cleaner, which are of sixteen inches diameter, with peculiarly cut teeth, being five-eighths of an inch long, and of such form as to project forward nearly horizontally when they are at the extreme top in revolving. These saws pass between peculiarly shaped ribs, which are firmly fixed to a cross-beam framed into the frame of the machine, and are suspended downward, being only fixed in place at one end. These ribs are flanged or recessed on the side opposite the saws, and catch the hulls and coarse trash as the saws take the cotton, with seed attached, forward, the hulls and trash dropping downward, from their own weight, upon another set of flattened ribs, inclined and carried forward, which carries them entirely ahead of the cotton not yet carried forward, so as to not get mixed with it again. This trash then falls on the forward end of the apron of the cleaner, which, constantly revolving, drops it upon the floor. A peculiar stripper is placed in front of the saws, with long and strong steel teeth, revolving between the ribs, just above the point on which the saws pass, and prevents the cotton from clogging. These teeth are set spirally upon a cylinder, and thus pick up any burrs that may be in the cotton, forcing them sideways from tooth to tooth, until they are thrown out of the machine. The steel tooth-bladed fan-stripper, which takes and strikes the cotton, with its seed attached, upon apex of the saws, as each tooth reaches there, stands directly over the saws, and is calculated to run fast enough to give each seed, with its fibre attached, a powerful blow; the seed, from its specific gravity, receiving the blow like the base of a shuttlecock; and the fibre is thereby distended, and bangs backward in feathery form, and is urged forward by the current of air produced by the fan-blades to a short distance, where the powerful force of an independent blower, through a trunk that joins


the screen.


the fan-stripper trunk, drives it forward through a trunk slightly ascending, with screen bottom, over tight-fitting boxes, like the opener in factories.

The seed and cotton are thus driven forward, while the sand, dust, leaf, and all extraneous matter which have been detached by the process, fall into the boxes through

We have these machines set upon a platform raised some three feet above the floor, on which the gin is placed, and thus utilize the force of the wind from the fans of the cleaner to drive the cleaned cotton against a screen, where it drops down upon another feeder of ours that has been attached to the gin, and which brings it forward and feeds the gin with regularity; the whole being adjusted and worked by belts and pulleys, so as to work automatically, and save handling.

All the difficulty we have experienced thus far has been in trying to make these planters believe that we will not get out too much of their dirt. Thousands of times it has been said to

"Those manufacturers do not care; they have machines to get out this dirt.” I said to them, "Just put that dirt into a bag and mark it twenty pounds, and say we must have our pay for it at the same rate as for the cotton,' and the manufacturers will be glad to pay it, if you will only send it to them separately." Still we keep on and get the dirt out, and we are very willing to bring forward the samples of our cotton, and show every Southerner that we do it, and can do it easily and freely, at the rate of ten bales of cotton to a machine per day.

In the first place, the peculiarity of these ribs is that they separate or pick out these hulls or burrs, etc. There is a peculiarity about it where the cotton passes into that point which I now indicate on the drawing. There is a peculiarity about the stripping, that it picks those burrs out and throws them over the rail on either side. This inventor worked a great many years on it, and he succeeded. We are now moving along gradually with the enterprise. We have put up three machines in Texas, and we are getting on as fast as possible. We have, unfortunately, " slipped up” in regard to our capital, through one of our proprietors who was connected with the great American Sorew Company, and in going into another operation in another line, he came out short ; and the consequence has been that we have been obliged, since then, to work along with one or two machines at a time. We thought we had capital enough,

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