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cards into one head. It would be better to use more Heads, and to have a smaller Grist: this would require less weight on the rolls and prevent injury to the staple.
The sliver is now taken to the second drawing, or, as it is called, the first Drawing frame, and passes between the back rolls in an elliptic form. The bosses of these rolls are usually about four inches long, with a traverse of about two inches ; leaving an inch at each end, which acts as a gear to help drive the roll; this causes in a short time the top roll to be of a less diameter in the centre of the boss; and if the ends of the Top roll rest upon the Fluted or Bottom roll, as it must do after it becomes a little hollowing, the velocity of the centre must be less than that of the ends ; which causes a slipping somewhere, and a crimping of the under side of the sliver, and more than counteracts all the good that is expected from the drawing. Another bad effect of long boss rolls, is the manner in which the weight operates upon the sliver.
The weight is usually attached to the middle of the top roll, with one or more slivers under each end, and the traverse motion causing each sliver alternately to come nearer the weight, while that at the opposite end recedes from it; the result is, that the effective weight is continually changing; but, as it must at all times be equal to the work required, it will be double what is wanted when the sliver is nearest the centre.
This continual changing of the weight has a tendency to change the amount of cotton drawn in, by indentation of the rolls, and the weight of the sliver on the front side, or at the Calender rolls. When the speed is uniform, both rolls, being geared, must also be affected in the same ratio. The draft of a Drawing frame is not, as is generally understood, between the back and front rolls, but between the back and Calender rolls; and a little slipping of the front top roll, will not effect the weight of the sliver, yard by yard, but has much to do with its general evenness, owing to the great distance between the front and Calender rolls. This same reasoning will apply to all the drawing frames.
How sensitive and liable the Top roll is to be retarded, may be seen and demonstrated daily and hourly, on our Roving frames, by the operator pressing his thumbs against the roll, to retard its motion when the roving is running loose. A small percentage of slipping is not observed by the operator, or, if observed, he cares
but little, unless the frame given him trouble ; consequently, small variations are only noticed, if noticed at all, after the roving leaves the Carding room, and too late to trace them to their cause.
If we wish to have a smooth and even thread, I consider it of vital importance that every means should be used to overcome this evil, as it is sure to appear in the cloth and in the salesroom.
I think it is generally admitted by all manufacturers, that the less we draw and press cotton, to get an even thread, the better it is for the staple, and the stronger the yarn. If, therefore, by any arrangement of machinery, we can dispense with a large part of the weight, we have taken a step in the right direction.
The “ Anti-Friction Top Roll,” a sample of which I have here to-day, I have run in the Nashua Manufacturing Company's Mills for about two years, with the most perfect success; it having more than answered our most sanguine expectations, in remedying and, in some instances, entirely doing away with many of the evils that I have referred to.
It will be seen by the model, that the spindle, upon which the loose boss runs, is geared at one end, and driven by a similar gear on the Bottom or Fluted roll,—the gears being so arranged that the spindle in the top roll runs some five or ten per cent. faster than the boss.
The effect of this increased speed, is not only to do away with all the retarding effect of the friction caused by want of oil and the collection of foreign substances; but to actually help drive the boss of the roll, and thus cause good to come out of evil.
By this arrangement, no power to force the top roll to revolve has to be transmitted through the cotton or sliver; and consequently a less amount of weight is required, less electricity is generated, and the coverings of the rolls are made to last at least twice as long, and are less liable to be made hollow and to destroy the undercoat of cloth.
ENGLISH COTTON MANUFACTURES.
REMARKS OF A. D. LOCKWOOD, Esq., LEWISTON, ME.
Mr. Lockwood observed that, from the terms of the invitation given him to speak, he inferred that gentlemen did not expect very definite and positive conclusions, or decisive recommendations of new machinery ; which would not be warranted by the brief time thus far employed in observation and experiment: but rather desired to learn, in general, the impressions received by him, and be guided by their own judgment in adopting them.
His visit was a business one. Its purpose was to examine the various improvements alleged to have been made in machinery, with a view to their possible adoption in the mills under his charge ; and he is now preparing to test some of them at home, under such circumstances as will enable him to form a definite and positive opinion as to their merits. He would with pleasure give briefly the results thus far reached.
of the several Openers in use, he saw chiefly the Cylinder Opener, as built by Messrs. Platt Brothers & Co., of Oldham, and many other parties, and the Crighton. Both performed to very good satisfaction, but his own preference is decidedly for the Crighton. In its latest make, it is simple, compact, and requires but little power. He ordered several for his mills, and their use has fully confirmed his good opinion.
To determine the best Card, was a matter of no little difficulty. Specific advantages belong to each.
That most commonly in use was the Roller Card ; in some instances having the Gambrel principle attached, in others, without it. It is what is known among us as the Worker and Clearer
The Evan Leigh Card was being extensively introduced, and growing in public favor. One which the speaker imported three or four years ago proved very unsatisfactory. In England, how
. ever, they were found working much better. He examined some of them made by Evan Leigh & Son, by Platt Bros., by William Higgins & Sons; all of which performed very satisfactorily, and on all numbers from 16 to 150.
The Wellman Card has a good reputation ; but is regarded as perhaps less economical than the others mentioned. More of these are exported to France, and other parts of the Continent, than are used in England.
The conclusion arrived at was, that there are objections to the Roller Card which are likely to preclude its general adoption among us.
These are not lack of economy in its working, but chiefly that more skill is required for its proper management, demanding a class of labor which we cannot readily command. This, of course, is not an objection in England.
The Leigh Card is simple, and well adapted for us, so far as Single and Finisher carding are concerned.
Practical difficulties occur in applying them as Breaker Cards. The choice, therefore, seems to lie between the Leigh and the Wellman Cards. The speaker purchased 12 Leigh Cards for Single work, and 28 for Finishers, to be used in connection with Wellman Cards for Breakers. They are not fully tested; but he hoped to present some definite results of their working, at the next meeting of the Association. Another Carding Engine, he understood, is soon to be introduced, with new devices to aid the carding process; but of this he was not at liberty to give a description.
In Spinning, the speaker saw nothing to induce him to go back from his present practice to Throstle spinning; nor, on the other hand, do the English manufacturers seem disposed to adopt Ring spinning.
Some general characteristics of the manufacture were then
Their shafting is run at much slower speed, which necessitates a much greater weight of iron. Our new Mills contain scarcely one-fourth of the amount used there.
They employ Gearing almost exclusively for driving their shafting; and have little idea of our system of Belting. Indeed, they cannot conceive of our running a Cotton Mill by a “ Strap.' ”
They insist on the superiority of their Gearing system, as making the Mill much more permanent, and less subject to accidents and stoppages. But the first Mill visited by the speaker, at Carlisle, had been stopped by a breakage for two or three days ; so with the Mill at Staley Bridge, a short time previous to his visit ; and likewise at Blackburn. His conclusion was, that the exemption from accidents and interruptions was no greater there than here ; and that the remedy under our system was much more prompt, and quite as effective.
In reply to questions from several gentlemen, the speaker stated that, if he were to use the Leigh Card, or any card requiring a very large amount of carding, he should use a Licker-in. It is used almost universally in England. Was not prepared to say that the carding was better for its use, provided the cotton be well prepared beforehand. He now uses a Licker-in with the Leigh Card; rather for the sake of adopting the English process entire, than because convinced of its necessity.
Very few Mills there do less than 500 lbs. per week, for cards 40 inches wide. Thinks that there would be economy in using more machines, and doing less on each.
Our market calls for more nicely-finished surface and smoother goods than the English.