Page images

supposed that there are from 15,000 to 20,000 Boers still in the field, operating ordinarily in very small commandoes, a number of which occasionally unite, however, to form a column equal in numbers to a full European regiment. There was more fighting and there were more British losses last month up to the time of our going to press than for several months previous; and the advantage seemed in the majority of cases to be on the side of the Boers. The attempt of General Kitchener to keep them cornered in the northeastern part of the Transvaal proved wholly unsuccessful, for-divided into small companiesthe Boers easily broke through the British cordon and carried the war into Cape Colony itself. is not necessary to recapitulate here the engagements in detail, the most important of which was on May 30, at Vlackfontein, fifty miles from Johannesburg, in which the British lost more than 50 killed and about 120 wounded.


Victory by


The Boers, of course, are not in a position to hold prisoners; and they Depopulation. are therefore obliged to release as many as they capture. The British, on the other hand, have now no prospects whatever of success apart from their careful sequestration of all the men they can possibly capture, in order to bring the male fighting population to the vanishing point. All the Boers in existence would not populate an average ward of New York or Chicago. If only there were Boers to populate two such wards instead of one, they would defeat the British in the end. But as matters stand it is probable that the Boers must in a few months give up through lack of men and ammunition. Prisoners are being deported to Ceylon, St. Helena, Bermuda, and elsewhere, in great numbers. Lord Kitchener reported that in the month of May 2, 640 Boers were either killed or captured. Weyler's Cuban policy of concentrating the non-combatant Boer population in specified camps has been put into force by Lord Kitchener, with the result of a deplorable amount of disease and suffering. In due time the British will win through the grim policy of depopulation.

[blocks in formation]


It is

peerage under the title of Lord Milner of Ca Town, all in recognition of his alleged gr services to the empire. The rest of the wor has been looking on with curiosity and wonde ing what these services can have been. prevailing opinion outside of England that M ner's unfortunate conduct of the negotiatio with President Krüger did more than almost a other one thing to bring upon England this i glorious and disastrous war, which can now ha no possible outcome that would justify it as profitable or fortunate thing for England. U doubtedly, Milner is an excellent and uprig gentleman, full of honest zeal for the extensi of the British empire everywhere and by a means. He has served his masters to the best his ability. But he has cut an unenviable figu in the eyes of the world; and his elevation the peerage at this particular juncture was pro ably as remarkable an instance of trying to pu a good face on a bad matter as history has eve recorded. Lord Milner is booked to return t South Africa in August.

[blocks in formation]

ity of South Africa to pay the cost of England's devastating war. It is proposed, among other things, by Sir David to levy a 10-per-cent. tax on the net profits of the gold mines. This is not very agreeable to the English holders of mining stocks, and it is even less pleasant news to the French, German, and other Continental investors who own a great part of the shares of the mining companies of the Rand. The general work of the parliamentary session is not proving very productive of results, although there have been floods of fruitless talk and plenty of evidence of discord in the ranks of both British parties.


With the amount of indemnity prac The Chinese tically agreed upon, and also the details of the scheme by which China is to raise the money and pay it over, the great episode of the international expedition to Peking is rounding out the second chapter. Four hundred and fifty million taels, equal to $315,000,000, is the sum that is said to have been fixed upon. The method adopted, it seems, is an issue of Chinese 4 per cent. bonds which will be received at par and distributed among the powers in such proportion as they will themselves determine. The United States and England successfully resisted the proposal urged by Russia and Japan that these bonds should be jointly guaranteed by the group of creditor powers. An increase of the tariff duties at the treaty ports, and the income from certain other specified taxes, will provide money enough to pay the yearly interest charge and to accumulate a sinking fund for the ultimate liquidation of the principal. Thus, China will have paid very heavily in the end for the folly and villainy of the high officials who encouraged the Boxers.

It is not reassuring to think of the An Unpleasant withdrawal of the European forces Prospect. with the atrocious old Empress Dowager still exercising absolute power; and it would seem as if China's worst troubles were only beginning, rather than ending. It will be strange, indeed, if formidable revolutions against the Manchu dynasty do not occur in the early future. Count von Waldersee, the commander-in-chief, left Peking on June 3, and the British, French, and Germans are retaining in the disturbed region of China, chiefly around Tientsin, only about 3,000 troops each, the Italians leaving 1,200. We have no American troops in China except a legation guard at Peking of about 150 men. The Russian troops left Peking months ago, but of course a great Russian army is maintained in Manchuria, without the slightest prospect of withdrawal either now

[blocks in formation]

Famine and pestilence usually follow Famine and war, and China affords no exception Its Relief. to that rule. Starvation prevails in some extensive regions, particularly in the province of Shansi. The Christian Herald, of New York, always so energetic in relief work, is raising a large fund, and has already sent $20,000. In helping the suffering Chinese women and children in this time of their great emergency, we are not only showing kindness to a gentle and patient people who have never done us any wrong even in thought,—for these people were not Boxers, but we are also doing some thing to insure good relations between this country and China, a consummation much to be desired. The distribution of the Christian Herald's fund is intrusted to a committee of leading missionaries than whom no men could possibly handle it more wisely. The brother of the Emperor is to visit Berlin to apologize officially for the murder of the Baron von Ketteler, and a statue of the ambassador is to be erected by the Chinese Government in Peking on the spot where he was slain a year ago. Our special commissioner, Mr. Rockhill, who has been representing us in China during the visit of Mr. Conger to the United States, will soon return; and Mr. Conger, on the other hand, has announced that he will sail early in July to resume his duties as United States minister at Peking. It is regarded as possible that Mr. Conger may be nominated for the governorship of Iowa in September, in which case he would presumably resign his diplomatic post.

Germany in

the Center of the Stage.

Berlin is now the great center of European influence and activity, and our American newspapers ought to have

a much better and fuller news service from Germany than they are now giving their readers. By far the most energetic and conspicuous figure in all Europe is the Emperor William; and his movements and utterances alone each month comprise a large proportion of the month's current history. The Emperor has of late been in a pacific mood, and he continues on all occasions to declare that the joint expedition to China has cemented Europe for years to come in the bonds of comradeship and mutual esteem. In connec tion with one or two fresh incidents carefully managed, the Kaiser has paid compliments to the French army that have pleasantly affected the Gallic susceptibilities. It is the studious policy of Germany to cultivate the friendship of Holland in all possible ways, and every attention



was shown Queen Wilhelmina and her German husband last month on the occasion of their visit to Berlin. The most explicit denials have been officially made in Germany of the rumors about the proposed purchase of Margarita Island from Venezuela. It is declared that Germany is under no temptation whatever to seek an acquisition that would arouse antagonism in the United States; nor has Germany, it is added, any use for an island in those waters. On June 16, the great Reinhold statue of Bismarck, which has been placed in front of the Reichstag building in Berlin, was unveiled in presence of the Emperor and Empress and a vast and imposing array of notabilities and visiting delegates. A very eioquent address was delivered by Chancellor von Bülow. The statue represents Bismarck in military dress, helmeted and stern. While bountiful harvests are general throughout the United States, serious crop failures are reported in Prussia, and the government departments have been ordered to provide state aid in one way and another.

The spirit of France is illustrated in French Topics the fact that a greater popular interof the Month. est was aroused by the election last month of two Immortals" to fill vacancies in the Academy than by any current events of a political, industrial, or financial nature, although there were many passing public topics of a considerable

degree of importance.

One of the places in Academy that had to be filled was that of late Duc de Broglie; and the Marquis de Vog though obliged to make a hard fight, was cho after a number of ballots. The public was n concerned, however, with the contest for the maining seat, the leading candidate being popular young poet, M. Edmond Rostand, wh

Cyrano de Bergerac" had made him wid known throughout the world. Against him pitted the serious historian, Frederic Mass The situation was deadlocked until M. P Deschanel, the most fastidious and popular of the younger school of French scholars in polit had to leave the Academy to take his place presiding officer of the Chamber of Deput: He was persistently against Rostand. M. Freycinet, to break the deadlock, changed vote, and the young poet was successful, to great joy of Madame Bernhardt and the Paris public. The general parliamentary elections France do not come off until May of next ye but every sign points to a determined strugg The monarchical parties are dead, and the m significant phenomenon is the rapid rise of Radicals and Socialists as against the Moder Republicans. Domestic questions, rather th foreign. are engrossing the French mind. T anti-Semitic leader Drumont has been expel from the Chamber of Deputies; and mutual ac sations of the other leaders of the so-called tionalist movement have brought to light mu that has tended to the discredit of that dang ous menace to the republic.

On June 1 there occurred the bir A Daughter to the House of the first child of the young Ki of Savoy. of Italy. The arrival of a daught instead of a son was a keen disappointme chiefly because the Salic law excludes all wom from succession to the throne. The young son the Duke of Aosta, cousin of the King, thus mains heir presumptive for the present. In sp of the large and constant immigration from Ital the population of the peninsula continues to crease substantially. The statistics of the rece census give the total population as 32,449,75 The last census was taken twenty years ago, a disclosed a total of 28,460,000. Italy, like mo other European countries, especially Franc Spain, and Russia, has been the scene of pr tracted and very disturbing labor strikes, wi riotous accompaniments.

[blocks in formation]

had been ardently hoped for, and Dr. Schenck's theories are again discredited. Little Anastasia will not be neglected, however, and will doubtless be as carefully and wisely reared and taught as her sisters, who are: Olga, now six years old; Tatiana, now four, and Marie, aged two years. The Grand Duke Michael, the Czar's brother, is still the heir apparent. It is a pity that Salic laws should stand in the way of the accession of women to several European thrones, for they make quite as useful sovereigns as men ; and there ought not to be any ground for unhappiness over the birth of royal daughters. England's experience is in everybody's memory, and Holland would not exchange Wilhelmina for a veritable paragon of the other sex. The Queen Regent of Spain is a better ruler than any of her Peninsular statesmen, and it is to be regretted that she is so soon to retire. New Spanish elections have been held, the Ministerialists winning by a considerable majority. On the 11th of June the Queen Regent opened the Cortes for the last time, inasmuch as the young King will have attained the legal age of sixteen next year, and the

[blocks in formation]

It is reported, by the

regency will terminate. way, that he witnessed his first bull fight on a certain Sunday last month. Speaking of disappointments in the matter of royal heirs, the one that has made the most extraordinary sensation pertains to the unhappy. reigning house of Servia. The accompanying cartoon from a German paper shows the woe-begone face of King Alexander as he turns his back on the paraphernalia that had been provided for the expected son and heir. It is reported that an arrangement has been made between this same King Alexander of Servia and the Russian Government by which Russia is to resume the overshadowing influence of twenty years ago. Ever since the Russo-Turkish War, there has been intense and incessant rivalry between Austro-Hungary and Russia for the vir tual domination of the Balkan states.

Mr. Carnegie's bestowal of $10,000Mr. Carnegie's 000, announced in our issue of last Scotch Gift. month, upon the four Scottish universities is the largest outright and completed gift to education ever made by any individual. Mr. Rockefeller's successive gifts to the University of Chicago-that institution having just now celebrated its tenth anniversary with great éclat have now amounted in less than a dozen years to about as great a total; and statements made by Mr. Rockefeller himself last month made it clear that his giving is not at an end. But the Scotch universities were poor, and they were in danger of falling far behind the new standards of university life and work. As finally arranged after much discussion, the proceeds of Mr. Carnegie's gift, which will be $500,000 a year, will be divided into two parts, one of which, according to the deed of gift itself, is to be applied as follows:

One-half of the net annual income is to be applied toward the improvement and expansion of the universities of Scotland in the faculties of science and medicine, also for improving and extending the opportunities for scientific research and for increasing the facilities for acquiring a knowledge of history, economics, English literature, and modern languages, and such other subjects cognate to a technical or commercial education as can be brought within the scope of the university curriculum; by the erection of buildings, laboratories, class-rooms, museums, or libraries, the providing of efficient apparatus, books, and equipment, the institution and endowment of professorships and lectureships, including post-graduate lectureships, and scholarships-more especially scholarships for the purpose of encouraging research in any one or more of the subjects before named, or in such other manner as the committee may from time to time decide.


It was at first Mr. Carnegie's idea to use his endowment for the sake of making tuition free

[graphic][merged small]

to all Scotch students in the universities. This idea was greatly modified, however, and it is now arranged that the universities will continue to charge such tuition fees as they like, but that the trustees of the Carnegie fund will pay the whole or a part of the tuition of such deserving students as may thus be enabled to obtain a higher education. The trustees have the right also in their discretion to use a part of this second half of the fund to promote university-extension lectures, and other educational objects.

[blocks in formation]

Ira Remsen had been at the head of the depa ment of chemistry ever since the university w opened, and in absences of Dr. Gilman on vario occasions he had served as acting president. I Rowland, whose death we noted last month, a Professor Gildersleeve, like Dr. Remsen, had be associated with President Gilman for a quart of a century in the brilliant work of creating t most widely famed of all American universiti Although even then a distinguished specialist an professor, Dr. Remsen was only thirty years age when he organized the department of cher istry at Baltimore, and his reputation at hom and abroad has steadily grown. He is still in h prime at fifty-five. As we have said more tha once before, there is no one institution for highe education in this country where at the present tim a large increase of endowment would be so pr

« PreviousContinue »