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had the dead sultan's young son, Mulai Abdul Aziz, proclaimed at once as ruler, with himself as grand vizier. This post Si Ahmed contrived

to hold until his death, in April, 1900. "Under the régime of Si Ahmed, Mulai Abdul Aziz' personality never made itself felt. There

is no doubt that the masterful vizier awed and frightened the young Sultan, thus persuading him to appear as little as possible in public, and to grant interviews to no one. By this means all the power lay in Si Ahmed's hands, and he was not slow to make use of it. He amassed a fortune, the extent of which was only known by the Sultan when his property, confiscated at his death, as is the custom with all officials in Morocco, came to be counted-and then Mulai Abdul Aziz' eyes were opened as to the manner in which he had been served by this most trusted of servants. A temporary grand vizier, Haj Mukhtar, was put in his place, while Mulai Abdul Aziz began to assert his own authority. Many sensational events have happened in the last year in Morocco. One grand vizier has died, another has been retired with confiscation of all his property, a lord chamberlain, a master of the horse, the governor of Morocco City, and its mayor have all in turn been arrested and their property seized by the crown."

To-day, the power behind the throne is Kaid Mehedi-el-Menebhi, the Sultan's favorite adviser and grand vizier, who went to London at the head of the special embassy. The revolutionary changes of the past year mark the successive steps of El Menebhi's rise to supreme power in the



As to the character of Abdul Aziz himself, Mr Harris says:

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He is very young still, probably not more than twenty, and with all the temptations and want of restraint with which he is surrounded it is little to be wondered at, though much to be regretted, that his pursuits are frivolous and ill suited to the almost holy position which he fills. That he has plenty of intelligence, there is no doubt. He has taken to photography with such a will that he obtains the most excellent results. He develops and prints his own photographs, and even mounts them himself-and very excellent specimens of art they are. He shows a great interest in all new inventions, and is not content in being merely shown their workings, but insists upon understanding their method of construction.

"In person, Mulai Abdul Aziz is tall and well built. His expression is intelligent, and were his complexion a little healthier in color he

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pears most regal. He is apparently an expert rider, and the writer has seldom seen a finer picture than the young Sultan fighting a rearing roan horse that he was riding. He showed no sign of fear, and sat his saddle of apple-green silk and gold embroidery with a firmness that was really excellent.

"The every-day life of a Sultan of Morocco is a simple one, and most of his days are passed within the palace walls. It is seldom, except at the great religious feasts or at the reception of some European minister, that his Shereefian majesty appears in public, though he daily passes some of his time in a courtyard which is surrounded by the offices of the various government officials. Here in a small room he is visited by his viziers and matters of state are placed before him, though in this respect Mulai Abdul Aziz gives less time to public affairs than did his father, the late sultan. Five times in the twen ty-four hours, when the Mueddin chants the call to prayer from the mosque towers, it is the duty of the Ameer el-Mumenin-Commander of the Faithful to be present, and to lead the prostrations of the worshipers."

EL-MENEBHI'S POLITICAL PROSPECTS. "The ministers of the Sultan who come actually in contact with him are the grand vizier, the chamberlain, the master of the horse, and the vizier of war and foreign affairs. It is the grand vizier, however, Kaid Mehedi el-Menebhi, who explains matters to his majesty, and all the others are but instruments in his hands, and unable to arrange even the simplest matters without his sanction. El-Menebhi has rendered vacant nearly all these above-mentioned posts, within a year or so, by arresting their holders, and has skillfully appointed himself and his relations to fill them, and unless any very unforeseen event occurs his power and influence are likely to be paramount for a long time to come. He has youth, energy, wealth, and ambition, the four necessary qualifications for a successful political career in Morocco."

Mr. Harris says in conclusion :

There is little hope for Morocco from within. No reforms will be introduced voluntarily. Whether Europe could insist upon some amelioration in the condition of the country is too large a question to discuss here. The young Sultan is intelligent, but his intelligence wants guiding in the right direction."



HE Monthly Review has already done good service in publishing the diary of the Ameer of Afghanistan. This month it publishes a document of almost equal interest, being the advice given by the Ameer to his son Nasrullah, on the eve of his visit to England. The advice is contained in a series of thirty-five paragraphs, each signed by the Ameer, and giving the most minute instructions as to what Nasrullah must say and do when brought into contact with Europeans. Both politics and manners are dealt with in detail, negative prohibition taking up the greater part.


The Ameer evidently values reticence.

XI. If you are asked about the construction of railways and telegraphs in Afghanistan, you must say: "I am not authorized to discuss this ubject, and therefore I am not prepared to say anything about it one way or the other."-Signed by me.

XII. If you are asked about the commerce and trade in Afghanistan, or if it be mentioned that it has decreased, you must give the answer: "Before this foreigners have had the control of commerce in Afghanistan, which the Afghan merchants have taken up themselves now, and I hope it will make good progress under the merchants of the Afghan nation."-Signed by me.

XVI. If you are asked whether the Afghanistan people are displeased with their government or not, you must answer as follows: That you have not heard about their displeasure or discontent, "but if you people hear no more about it than we do in Afghanistan, then you need not ask me."-Signed by me.

If Nasrullah met the Czar he was to say that he was very pleased with his frontier officials. If asked in general about Russia, he was to say, "If Russia should not be aggressive toward Afghanistan, we would not be aggressive toward


There are further instructions as to the giving of money in charity, and also as to presents, and modes of address. The Ameer also told his son to engage a good mining engineer, and to buy from two thousand to ten thousand magazine rifles, with two thousand cartridges each

But some of the most interesting paragraphs deal with European manners:

XXVII. When you are in the company of other gentlemen, and especially when any ladies are présent, you must take care not to spit and not to put fingers into your nose, etc. You can smoke in the presence of gentlemen, but when ladies are present you must take their permission before smoking.-Signed by me.

XXVIII. You may shake hands with gentlemen at the time of first introduction, but with the ladies you must only make a bow when you are first introduced, but not shake hands till you meet them a second time.Signed by me.

XXIX. Ladies can shake hands with their gloves on, but a gentleman ought to take off the glove of his right hand to shake hands, and for this reason generally the gentlemen wear gloves on their left hand and keep the glove of the right hand off to be able to shake hands without any delay; but they can shake hands with gloves on after it is evening.-Signed by me.


The advice as to Nasrullah's bearing with the Queen is a model:

II. On your going to see her majesty the Queen in London, you must look upon her with the same dignity and respect as you look upon our "Royal Court;" to respect her majesty more than myself is unnecessary show of flattery, and to pay her less respect than myself is rudeness and against courtesy. I need not give you more details and full particulars in this respect, as you daily practise how to pay your respects and in what manner to appear before my royal court.-Signed by


The son of the Sultan of Turkey alone was to be shown "special marks of friendship and affection:

You must respect him as you respect your elder brother, and inquire after the health of the Sultan on my behalf repeatedly, and you must tell him that you are thankful to Almighty God that you have had the good luck to have the pleasure of making his acquaintance.


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AN AUSTRALIAN MAFFIA. DLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE for July contains a very interesting article on • Push Larrikinism in Australia," written by a gentleman who acted as solicitor for one of these pecul iar societies, and who, being in England, feels safe enough from their vengeance to make an exposé of their organization and methods. The Pushes, which are very widespread and numerous, are a sort of vulgarized Maffia, and they possess a political influence which reminds us of Tammany Hall. The members of the Pushes are primarily larrikins" and Hooligans," but the persecution to which they are subjected by the police has driven them to adopt a formal organization, which makes them a terror both to harmless civilians and aspiring politicians. In Sydney, many parts of the city are so infested with these larrikins that for years it has been impossible for unarmed civilians to venture out after dusk. Formerly the Pushes were insolent and open in their methods, for they dealt with an unarmed police. Now the police are armed with revolvers, and the Pushes have in consequence adopted secret and cunning methods for attaining their ends. For the police, on being armed, undertook a series of ferocious reprisals against their enemies. Some years ago, the Pushes beat their victims openly to death in presence of policemen; now the victims disappear mysteriously, until they are found in some lonely spot beaten to death. As to the methods by which the Pushes take vengeance on their enemies, the writer says:

The first and most stringent principle of push law enforces obedience to constituted authority. What the king says goes,' is their own phrase, and contravention of the maxim is punishable in the first instance with the 'sock,' in the second with death. The sock is not an entirely original species of torture, but it is popu lar with all larrikins, who dearly love an opportunity of witnessing its infliction. The offender is stripped, gagged, and strapped face downward along an ordinary wooden bench, whereupon the executioners beat him in turn with a stocking filled with wet sand until his flesh is completely raw. He is then salted, and kept in durance until recovery. On such occasions proceedings are conducted with the gravest decorum,—no one is permitted to speak, and unnecessary violence is sternly prohibited. No sympathy is manifested for the victim, and such a circumstance as a protest against the barbarity of the punishment is absolutely unknown. The death penalty is rarely exacted, except against outsid ers who have incurred the push vengeance; but in either case the method employed is the same.

The king chooses for executioners a score of his subjects, of whom at least seven are the latest recruits of the order. The victim, who is often stalked for months before he can be found in or

decoyed to a favorable spot, is, when caught, surrounded, stunned, and thrown to the ground. No lethal weapon is employed, but each of the push silently kicks, and continues to kick, the body of the prostrate wretch until life is extinct. The whole twenty are thus equally rendered guilty of murder, and probably no member of any push has been enrolled for a longer period than two years without being thus stamped with the hall-mark of pushdom, which is the brand of Cain."

The methods by which they prevent betrayal on the part of ex-members of the societies are equally ingenious:

"If a member desires to sever his connection with his push, or to depart from the push district in order to reside elsewhere, he is allowed to do so only after signing a confession of having single-handed committed the last capital crime of which the push is jointly and severally guilty. This document-and there are many such-is handed to the king, who files it in the Push Book, which precious porfolio is naturally kept in a place of security. This book is the one really weak spot in the push system."


The Pushes are active in politics. The Australian constituencies are small, and a couple of hundred Pushes may easily turn the scale. When a candidate for Parliament is announced, the Pushes immediately take him in hand. Hints are conveyed to him to modify his platform in order to fall in with the larrikin interest. If he does so, his meetings are well attended. But if he refuses, and is rejected by the Push, his meetings are broken up, and can only be held under police protection. Respectable persons will not attend his meetings for fear of riots, and his cause is practically lost.


The primary ambitions of all Pushes are identical. They seek amusement. At one time they formed themselves into clubs to which in mockery they gave fashionable titles. It was their rough and violent methods of amusing themselves that made them social pariahs, and police persecution gradually turned them into criminal secret societies. So far did they go that the New South Wales Legislature found it necessary to constitute assault with intent" a capital offense, and two have actually been executed for this offense.


Yet the Pushes have a strict discipline of their own. Drunkenness is absolutely forbidden, and sometimes even punished with death. The Pushes are obliged to lead continent lives, and if they marry, to maintain their families to the best of their ability. Gambling is encouraged, but failure to pay a gambling debt is punished by clipping the offender's right ear, and strict honesty is enforced among the members themselves. Few larrikins

are professional criminals, and they are singularly fond of animals-so fond, indeed, that "Flash as a Chinkey's horse, fat as a larrikin's dog," has become an Australian proverb.



ITH all the scientific research now going on in the world, the complaint is made that the study of living man as he is to-day is sadly neglected. This would certainly seem to be a practical and even necessary line of inquiry, especially as regards the period of childhood and youth; but we are told by Mr. Arthur MacDonald, in the American Journal of Sociology for May, that child-study receives as yet but scant support, and that the first case in all history of a thorough scientific study of a human being is that made on the French novelist, Zola, in 1897, by a group of French specialists.

To illustrate some of the results from recent incomplete studies of modern man undertaken by investigators in various parts of the world, Mr. MacDonald gives a number of their conclusions. These statements are to be taken in a general sense only-i.e., as true in most of the cases investigated. Following are some of the more important conclusions of these investigators,

as stated by Mr. MacDonald :

"Maximum growth in height and weight occurs in boys two years later than in girls (Bowditch).

"First born children excel later-born in stature and weight (Boas).

"Healthy men ought to weigh an additional 5 pounds for every inch in height beyond 61 inches, at which height they ought to weight 120 pounds (Lancaster).

Chest-girth increases constantly with height, and is generally half the length of the body (Landsberger).

"Chest-girth and circumference of head increase in parallel lines (Daffner).

The relatively large size of head as compared with body in children may be due to the fact that from birth on the child needs its brain and senses as much as when grown (Weissenberg).

"Boys grow more regularly than girls, but the growth of girls during school years is greater than that of boys (Schmidt).

"In boys in school the muscles of the upper extremities increase with age as compared with those of the lower extremities, because of their sitting more than standing (Kotelmann).

"Children born in summer are taller than those born in winter (Combe).

"Boys of small frames often have large heads and are deficient in repose of character, and when the chest is contracted and mental action slow, this mental condition is due, probably, to lack of supply of purified blood (Liharzik).

"Delicate, slender people are much more subject to typhoid fever than to consumption (Hil derbrand).

"Some defective children are overnormalthat is, they are taller and heavier than other children (Hasse).

"Growth degenerates as we go lower in the social scale (British Association for Advancement of Science).

"Dull children are lighter and precocious children heavier than the average child (Porter).

"As circumference of head increases, mental ability increases; it being understood that race and sex are the same (MacDonald).

Urban life decreases stature from five years of age on (Peckham).

Truant boys are inferior in weight, height, and chest girth to boys in general (Kline).

"City children are more vivacious, but have less power of endurance, than country children (Liharzik)."


IN the course of a readable sketch of Prof.

Ernst Haeckel in the August McClure's, Mr. Ray Stannard Baker tells something of the Proscientist's mission in the island of Java. fessor Haeckel went to Java in September of last year to investigate further along the lines of discoveries of Dr. Dubois, a Dutch army surgeon.


Dr. Dubois "found some fossilized bones, which upon careful examination proved to be the remains of a hitherto unknown animal partaking of some of the characteristics of the ape and some of man. Dr. Dubois gave this animal the name Pithecanthropus erectus (ape-man), and upon its exhibition at the zoological congress at Leyden in 1895 a number of the world's greatest zoologists and paleontologists at once declared that it was of a certainty one of the missing links' connecting man with his ape-like ancestors. Judged

by the length of the femur, or thigh-bone-that of the left leg-the creature must have been nearly equal in size to a modern man. But the shape of the skull indicates that he was only a little more intelligent than the apes, the size of his brain being only about two-thirds that of a civilized man, although equal to that of a modern Veddah woman of Ceylon, the human being lowest in the scale of intelligence. This ancestor of ours was probably well covered with hair, was tailless, like the present-day baboons and men, and had the power of walking upright. His arms were doubtless long, so that he might climb and swing about among the trees of his native jungle. Curiously enough, also, certain growths on the thigh-bone of this ages-dead creature indicate that during life he was lame, suffering from a malady to cure which in man requires the most careful hospital treatment. And yet there are evidences that the creature recovered, though possibly remaining lame, and it may have been that it was on account of this serious handicap in life that his skeleton reached the place where it was preserved through all the centuries, while his fellow-ape-men wholly disappeared.


"In the jungles of southeastern Asia and the islands near by, which have long been known to science as the cradle of the human race, and which are still inhabited by the very lowest orders of human beings, the pithecanthropus lived with the elephant, tapir, rhinoceros, lion, hippopotamus, gigantic pangolin, hyena, and other animals, remains of which were found round about him. It has been computed that this ancestor lived somewhere about the beginning of our last glacial epoch, some 270,000 years ago. In other words, about 17,000 generations have been born and have died between him and ourselves. It will assist our understanding of what this relationship really means to know that merely 250 generations carry us back beyond the dawn of history, 5,000 years ago.

"To the discovery of these few bones the


scientific world attached the utmost importance, as giving indisputable visual evidence of one of the steps by which the ape-form of creature has developed through the processes of evolution to the man-form. Yet the discovery, though immensely significant, was meager enough. were two bits of bone, a skull-cap and a femur and two teeth, very dark of color and thoroughly petrified-all too little to satisfy the knowledgeseeking appetite of the zoologist. Consequently, Dr. Dubois pursued his investigations in Java, spending much money in making further excava

tions, but to no purpose so far as the discovery of other remains of the ape-man was concerned. And finally Professor Haeckel himself determined to go to Java, hoping, yet hardly expecting, to find some further evidences of the 'missing link.'


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"It is significant that, although he is now in the land of the pithecanthropus on such an errand, Professor Haeckel has long asserted that the story of the origin of man is complete in all of its essential details; all that remains to be done is to fill in here and there such concrete evidences as paleontological and zoological research shall reveal. This belief in the thorough establishment of the law of development is vigorously expressed in all of Professor Haeckel's later books, especially in his great work, Systematic Phylogeny,' which comprehends in three volumes, on an immense scale, a systematic arrangement of the vegetable and animal worlds, living and extinct, on the basis of the law of evolution-a vast pedigree-tree, with man at the top and the lowest, non-nucleated cell at the bottom. To such a scientist as Professor Haeckel, therefore, there is in theory no missing link,' -the scheme of creation is complete. If there are links between different species of animals which have been lost in the lapse of the agesand there are many such-the scientist may name and describe them with great accuracy, fitting them into his pedigree as hypothetical species. The search for the missing link,' therefore, becomes a search either for the actual fossil bones of missing species, or else for the living representative of those species, already anticipated by scientists. Twenty-five years before Dubois unearthed the bones of the ape-man in Java, Professor Haeckel had foreseen just such a creature, and had given it in his pedigree the name Pithecanthropus allalus."


S. EARDLEY WILMOT, in the July Temple Bar, writes upon the supernatural in India. The particulars he gives about the power possessed by some of the natives over wild animals will give rise to many incredulous questionings. The charm-vender, who in this case was a wizened, emaciated, feeble old person, would make no promises to Mr. Wilmot and his friend that tigers would be forthcoming on the morrow, but he consented to join the hunt. Mr. Wilmot gives the following description of the events which then took place:

"I was both astonished and angry when the

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