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tiger charmer stopped at the edge of a small patch of grass which might have concealed a pig or deer, but certainly could not, in my opinion,

afford suitable cover for a tiger. When I represented this to the old man, he merely replied: " The tiger is there;' and we, traversing the grass, passed out on the other side without discovering any living creature. We again appealed to our leader to cease his fooling and take us to a more suitable spot, but were met by the same stolid reply.

SIX TIGERS IN FIVE DAYS.

"There was nothing to be done but to try again, and this time we discovered an immense tiger lying crouched between two elephants. He arose on being discovered, and walked slowly in front of the howdah to the edge of the patch of grass; there turning in a dazed way, he calmly regarded us, and fell at once with a bullet behind the shoulder. The extraordinary behavior of this tiger impressed me more as a sportsman than the proceedings of the old man; but we both acknowledged that the incident was in every way uncanny. It was yet early in the day, and the bell again sounding, we were led in a bee line to another tiger, which suffered itself to be slaughtered in a similar manner. In five days we bagged six tigers, and only desisted because the old man explained that if we killed all the tigers his trade in charms would be ruined. Concluding that virtue lay in the bell, we offered large sums for its purchase; these were sternly declined, the owner protesting that he would not part with it till his death, and then only to his

son."

EFFICACY OF A "CHARM."

The tiger charmer, however, taught Mr. Wilmot's orderly a charm which he said would deliver tigers into their hands. A few days later they tried the charm on an old and cunning tiger, with the following results:

"I was full of faith in our venture, resolved in my own mind that if nothing happened it would be due to some error in our incantations; and in this frame of mind I was not surprised to see our tiger arise from beneath a thorn bush in a most unlikely locality and walk in the usual dazed condition in front of the line of elephants. His appearance and behavior were greeted with a murmur of satisfaction by the elephant-drivers; here, they said, is a beast we have all known for years, and who has already shown himself superior to our calculations; to-day he is indifferent to his fate; what manner of charm is this that can destroy his sense?"

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and forests, and in tribal tales and myths. Her tools are a rude knife, a pointed bone; that is all.

"Yet her art has meanings that lie beyond the obvious beauties of the workmanship. The triangles on one of her specimens are mountainpeaks; every one with a name. This bold cycloid, ascending like a stairway from bottom to top of another bowl, is the trail over which weary feet must pass up the shining steps of nature. The whole basket country is a range of verdure-clad mountains, where the ideal vegetation for the basket-makerthe redbud, the Hind's willow, and the carex roots-reach perfection in certain valleys. For these baskets the sounding beaches of the Pacific are visited for their pearly shells, and the forests hunted for birds of brightcolored plumage. The basket-maker must be mineralogist, botanist, geologist, spinner, weaver, colorist, designer, poet, and sorcerer."

A SQUARE INCH FROM THE ZUNI BASKET JAR.

MARVELOUS EFFECTS IN MOSAIC.

Indian basketry is either plicated with the Angers or sewed with an awl or needle. It is the needle or 'point' basketry, to use a lacemaker's term, that is under consideration here. You will find it in northern Africa in the soft, thick ware of the Moors; in Siam, done in rattan, wherein the regular glossy fiber conspires with the small, delicate hand of the artist; but in perfection you will find it on the Pacific

coast.

There, varied materials take away the monotony of Africa and Asia. Different-colored materials, dyes and pigments, overlaying and appliqué work, feather and quill work, shell and bead work, ai d, above all, the primitive mythology dominating the ornamentation, produce the myriad effects over which the collector is in ecstasies. Coiled basketry is a mosaic, the elements being stitches all of the same width and length. The marvel is that such bold effects as clouds, flames, mountain-chains, and water are successfully produced within these limits.

The most delicately woven coiled basket in the world is the work of a Yokiaia woman, living on Russian River, California. Her name is Keshbim, and if she had lived long ago she would have been one of the dryads, for all wood lore is hers. She knows where the slender willows grow, and can see beneath the ground the tough white roots of the sedge. Keshbim worked seven months continuously on the little treasure,

no bigger than a pint cup, which is now in the National Museum. It is beyond all price, this basket; for the magic in Keshbim's stubby fingers is an unequaled gift that will die with her.

"The foundation of the basket is of willow rods, and the sewing is done, not with linen thread, but with roots split so fine that in some parts there are sixty stitches to the inch. The design is the pictograph of a feast at which Keshbim would give this basket to her dearest friend, demanding something equally precious in return. On the bottom are black-and-white squares in checkerwork. These represent the mats that she will spread on the ground at the feast. The band of rhomboid figures around the bottom is the roof of the dance-lodge, with rafters crossed and interlaced. The human figures about the top are Keshbim and her friends, men and women dancing and celebrating the food-falling, or acorn-harvest."

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A KING WHO CAN WRITE.

IN the July Pearson's, most people will turn

with interest to Mr. Robert Sherard's paper on "King Oscar of Sweden," who, however, insists strongly on being known as King of Sweden and Norway. Mr. Sherard says:

"All things taken into consideration, one may justly describe King Oscar as the most accomplished king in the world. He is an excellent musician, he is a great traveler, he is a doctor of philosophy, he is a popular poet and a splendid speaker. He has the reputation, also, of being a wit. And he has found time to distinguish himself in all these ways in spite of the fact that he has had, as a king, one of the most difficult tasks that has fallen to the lot of any monarch of recent years. For he has to wear two crowns,

and whatever may be the case with a single crown, there can be no disputing the fact that the head that wears two crowns always lies uneasy."

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"There is no king in Europe who is more accessible in his kingly capacity than King Oscar. It is true that during the summer months anybody who seeks after the conversation of kings can enjoy a chat any day on the front at Ostend with Leopold of Belgium, who is always ready for a crack' with strangers of respectable appearance, but there the King of the Belgians is under an incognito.

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The audience-room at Stockholm is open to all. No other form of presentation is needed than the mere formality of writing one's name in a book three days before the open reception is held, which takes place every week, while the King is in Stockholm, on Tuesday afternoons. Here people of every class and of all parts of the two kingdoms, to say nothing of curious foreign ers with their red guide-books in their hands, may be seen in communion with their monarch, -bulky farmers from the north, squat Lapps, bronzed sailors, and frock-coated townsmen. He has a word for them all."

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BEHIND THE SCENES OF THE FRENCH
THEATER.

M. D'AVENEL, in continuation of his series

of articles on the machinery of modern life, begins in the second June number of the Revue des Deux Mondes a section on the theater. Although, as is well known, the mounting of stage plays in Paris is, as a rule, much less expensive than in New York and London, it is still interesting to see in what directions French man. agers spend the money that they have available. In one respect there can be no doubt that English and American theaters compare favorably with French ones namely, in the precautions against fire. The French fireman is a soldier who is serving his three years with the colors, and counts the days before his release with the impatience of a schoolboy awaiting the holidays. M. d'Avenel found in one of the Paris theaters the scribbled words, 318 days more to-morrow morning; indeed, the firemen are so fond of writing on the walls these pathetic inscriptions that one often sees notices posted forbidding the practice. Further, by an extraordinary piece of adminis trative stupidity, there are never the same firemen at a given theater on two successive nights, with the natural resuit that they are not suffi ciently acquainted with the geography of each theater to be of much use in the event of a fire.

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To pass on to the actual arrangements behind the scenes, M. d'Avenel complains of the smallness of the wings in French theaters; this is particularly the case in the new Opéra Comique, the architect of which was so anxious to provide staircases and corridors and foyers in front that anything like a procession passing across the stage has to go through the manager's office. The accommodation for scenery is not less meager; in most of the French theaters, as a rule, it will only take the necessary scenery for four or five acts, and if more is wanted it must be brought from the quarters at Clichy, where is situated the storehouse of scenery which is common to all the theaters which receive a subvention from the state. Recently the government sold the other storehouse which it possessed.

SHIFTING SCENERY.

It is a curious and perhaps rather melancholy experience to go through a miscellaneous assort. ment of scenery; here is a bit of bosky dell carefully numbered "Romeo IV. 3," which means that it is wanted for the fourth act of "Romeo and Juliet." Of course, the more elaborate pieces of scenery require a large number of workmen to operate them. At one theater, where a piece was played in as many as twenty scenes, the staff of mechanists numbered 80 men, of whom only 12 were employed in the day-time, while at the Opéra the workmen at night vary from 100 to 130, with 75 men employed all day.

M. d'Avenel describes in great detail the ingenious devices adopted by theatrical managers to produce the various illusions on the stage, and it is curious to note the strength of tradition which, for example, will firmly prevent the change from day into night or from night into day, which may be demanded by the play, from being effected with a reasonable gradation, which, though only taking a few minutes longer, would greatly assist the illusion in the spectator's mind.

176,000 POUNDS OF HAIR.

As regards the dresses of the actors and actresses, the theaters which receive a state subvention have workrooms in which the clothes are made, while the other theaters order them from various shops. Among other interesting facts which M. d'Avenel tells us is that concerned with the amount of hair required for theatrical wigs and beards; the mere weight of hair annually required in France for this purpose is not less than 80,000 kilogrammes, or about 176,000 pounds avoirdupois. About half this vast mass of hair comes from French heads, the other half from Scandinavia, Hungary, Italy, and, above all, from China and Japan.

THE CHILDREN'S EXHIBITION AT PARIS.

IN

N the Revue de Paris, Madame Tinayer de scribes delightfully a delightful exhibition. By a happy inspiration, the charming "Little Palace," which is one of the permanent buildings erected in connection with last year's great exhibition, has been filled with every kind of exhibit connected with children and infancy. The French, as a nation, are devoted to children-some people think too devoted; for the French child, save in some exceptional cases, really lives with his parents, even one-year-old babies being often, for instance, present at all the family meals. Accordingly, in this exhibition the tastes of all those interested in children, from the practical and from the sentimental point of view, have been consulted; and side by side with model cradles, patent feeding-bottles, and all kinds of baby incubators may be seen a marvelous collection of toys, ancient and modern, and a unique set of paintings and portraits of lovely and famous children of both past and modern days.

"WHEN I WAS LITTLE."

"Every visitor to this exhibition," says the writer, "cannot but feel, as he walks through the room, recollections of his own childhood crowd upon him, and even the most frivolous cannot but be impressed by the curiously fleeting character of childhood." Nowhere is this more shown than in the section of the exhibition where are gathered together the portraits of famous people in early youth, including touching counterfeit presentments of the luckless Louis VII., the King of Rome (the Eaglet), and the Prince Imperial.

DOLLS WHO ARE ORPHANS.

Every woman who remembers how great a part dolls played in her life will look tenderly at the great collection of orphan dolls here gathered together, and which range from medieval wooden images, dressed in gorgeous brocades and cloths of gold and silver, to the modern poupée, who bears an almost startling resemblance to real life. The little arms which once nursed these dolls so tenderly are now, for the most part, dust; and yet these orphan dolls seem surrounded by an atmosphere of love and protection far more than do their modern sisters, who, however perfect and lifelike in appearance, have never been played with, and are, when all is said and done, only trade exhibits.

OLD-TIME SCHOLARS.

One section of the exhibition shows us schools and scholars of every century, and it is pleasing to learn that in this matter the world has become

really more humane. Those pictures, for instance, which show medieval schools nearly always chose to describe the unfortunate scholar being severely punished. Royal children were not exempt from blows, and Louis XIII. probably owed his lifelong delicacy to the brutality with which he was treated by his tutors. Near by may be seen curious drawings done by children who afterward developed into the great painters of their day.

THE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS
TENDENCIES OF YOUNG FRANCE.

THE editor of La Revue, thinking that France

may be at a turning-point, and certainly is at a critical period, of her history, has conceived the idea of collecting, through their presidents, the views of all the chief associations-political, religious, and social-into which French youth has banded itself together. The results, given in the number for June 15, are as instructive as the views expressed are contradictory. Monarchists and socialists, Catholics, anti-religionists, and ecstatic advocates of a new religion, antiSemites crying d bas les Juifs," and federalists. On the whole, the tone of the French youth is hopeful, but the brightness is twice overcast by the darkness of the most hopeless pessimism. The general opinion, indeed, is that there is much rotten in the state of France. This is quietly taken for granted by one and all. WHO IS TO BE THE MOTHER OF THE NEW FRANCE?

Coöperation, association, taking power from the state to give it to organized, intelligent labor, -in some form or other the coöperative idea has considerably more votes than any other.

Republicanism also finds many fervent advocates, the monarchists' claim being voiced by a solitary individual. France, says one writer, is to fulfill Victor Hugo's ideal and be a Christ among the nations. Republicanism, provided that it unites with the necessary strength the maximum of justice, is more likely to give France the glorious future the dawn of which seems to him already breaking.

Religion is naturally held by some, and especially by Catholic associations, to be the one solution for all France's difficulties. One representative thinks that the old religious principles being dead, a new religion must be founded. Another pleads for a religion of humanity; a third for

socialism transformed into a religion," "able to glorify life on earth and exalt human dignity," adds a fourth. Besides the advocates of the new religions, those of orthodox Catholicism are arrayed in considerable force.

"Republicanism, strongly tinged with socialism," that is the dominant note of young France of the twentieth century.

GERMAN SCHOOLS.

"THE English School and Its German Rivals"

In

manual training a place in its curriculum.
deed, the German teacher is perfectly candid; he
laughs at what he calls these new fads of the
English teachers,-manual training, technical edu-
cation, and what not. Now, I hope you will not
misunderstand me. I am speaking of the aver-
age German teacher, neither conservative nor
revolutionary, but typical. If Germany ousts
England from the markets of the world, it will
not be because her technical training is better
than ours,-in fact, I think it is not, but be-
cause either her primary or secondary schools,
or both, are superior, as training-grounds, to the
corresponding English schools. Personally, I
believe that if England loses her commercial
supremacy it will be because of her inefficient and

is the title of a very interesting article in
the Contemporary Review for July. The writer
is Mr. R. E. Hughes, and his views are all the
more interesting because he apportions praise and
blame very impartially, and is by no means a
partisan of the educational system of either coun-
try. The first thing he notes is that the German
school is philosophical and logical, whereas the
British school is like the British constitution,
it works well, but nobody knows how or why.
Mr. Hughes by no means thinks that everything inadequate system of secondary schools."

is in favor of the German system.

He says:

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"I believe that the most valuable factors, such as the elasticity, originality, and self-help, which characterize the democratic system, and which cannot be summed up and estimated in a comparison such as I am making, are of much greater value than that beautiful symmetry and philosophical unity that undoubtedly characterize the more highly organized system of Germany."

KINDERGARTENS.

In Germany, infant schools do not exist, being replaced in large towns by kindergartens, for children under six years old. The German kindergarten class has never more than ten pupils, which is a great advantage over the British class, which contains sometimes sixty.

Mr. Hughes says that it is a mistake to think that French and German children get more schooling and leave school at a later age than English children. In France, a child may leave school at eleven if he pass certain examinations. Where the English child has eight or nine years' schooling, the French or German child has only seven or eight. In one respect the Germans are, however, much superior, and that is in average attendance.

CURRICULA.

As to curricula, Mr. Hughes says:

First, that there is a philosophical basis to German education; and, second, that no practical work in science worth speaking of is done in German primary or higher primary schools, and indeed I may add in but a few secondary schools either. Neither do we find that the girls are taught either cookery or laundry work, nor is manual instruction taken up in the German schools to anything like the extent that we might imagine; for example, in the wealthy and progressive city of Cologne not a single school gives

German children are taught their own language very carefully, and all dialectical idioms eliminated. Handwriting is generally very good. Arithmetic is taught on the blackboard and orally, rarely with books and slates. In elementary science England is ahead of Germany, but in modern languages she is, of course, behind. Germany, teaching is a fine art; but there is, says Mr. Hughes, a certain amount of formalism in it.

In

"The teaching is sometimes too stereotyped in character, and the originality and resourcefulness characteristic of the finest teaching are often lacking in the German teaching of to-day. Still, with all this, the more I study and think about the German teacher, the more I admire the care with which he builds up the new knowledge firmly upon the old, the honesty with which he performs his task, never allowing a sense of injustice or injury to interfere with the due discharge of his duties; the enthusiasm with which he is imbued, the high conception he has formed of the obligations of his profession, the candor with which he gives his opinion, and the selfrespect that animates him in all his actions,— these are traits which unite him, in my mind, to all that is best in our English teacher."

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