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Among European expositions of a European practical character may be mentioned Expositions. the one at Lodi, in Italy, which is to be held in the present month of September under the united management of the Italian chambers of commerce. It is international in its scope. and its principal exhibits will be of agricultural machines, and of machinery for making butter and cheese, together with the dairy products themselves; and there will also be a department devoted to automobiles. A still more important automobile exposition is to be held this fall in Germany, at the Crystal Palace of Leipsic. is to be hoped that American inventors and manufacturers may be suitably represented. An exposition and congress relating to means for the extinguishment of fire was held at Berlin earlier in the season, and various exhibitions of a practical nature were held in Paris. Looking ahead a little, it may be noted that six months hence, at St. Petersburg, Russia, there is to be opened a universal international exposition of fisheries, which is to have nine departments and be very elaborate, and which is to be attended by an international congress on various questions relating to fisheries. Expositions of the fine arts, or of art as related to decoration and industry, have been almost countless in European countries during the past summer. The most important, probably, of these art expositions has been the one at Munich. One of the small art exhibitions of Germany was interestingly described in our issue of last month by a prominent American artist. An interesting exhibition at Brussels is of a purely historical character, and includes only objects that pertain to the primitive history of Belgium. At Rouen, in France, from July to September, there was held an exposition of the arts applied to the decoration of textile fabrics. On the 1st of November there will be opened at Nimes, in France, an exposition of decorative and industrial art. It is announced that a con


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Fetes, Monu


Many French The French pecple have always been ments, and the leaders in the art of creating expositions, and almost all of the provincial towns of France have recently held, or will hold, exhibitions of their own, either of a special or general nature, the majority of them being strongest on the side of art. In connection with local fêtes, celebrations, or expositions,

there have also of late been

a remarkable number of public monuments and statues erected and dedicated in French towns. Most of these monuments are of high artistic merit. Among them we may cite a monument recently erected at Asnières in memory of the youths of that place who once bore arms in defense of France. It is a striking piece of work, as may be inferred from the small illustration presented herewith. To


revert again to the exposition movement as indicating activity, vigor, and a zeal for progress, it may be noted that a French exposition of fine arts and of the arts industrial is to be opened this month at Helsingfors, the capital of Finland. The French are doing all they can to stimulate interest in the development of their colonies, and an exposition is to be held for the edification of the natives, and others whom it may concern, in the capital town of Tonking. Thus, as the great Paris Exposition of last year is in the last stages of demo. lition, its influence is being felt in the establishment of numerous smaller French expositions, both at home and abroad.


An Exposition in the Azores.


One of these, about which, perhaps, few Americans have heard anything at all, is in the Azore Islands, a small group belonging to Portugal, composed of a cluster of nine little islands with a total area of about a thousand square miles and a population of about a quarter of a million, lying 800 miles due west from the Portuguese mainland, and about twice as far due east from New York.

This expo

sition at Ponta Delgada, the principal town of the Azores, was inaugurated early in July by the King and Queen of Portugal in person, who had made the voyage in the Portuguese cruiser Dom Carlos. The occasion was the greatest in the history of the islands. Elaborate preparations were made, and the fashionable tradespeople imported quantities of Parisian finery to enable the inhabitants to receive their majesties in a becom ing manner. The Azores seem to us somewhat remote from the centers of the world's great life; but from their own point of view, the Azoreans are this summer at the very heart of activity and progress.

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spirit, and the result will be a permanent development of Russian trade. Having made their exhibit by far the most popular foreign section in the exposition, the Russians are following it up by opening a great Russian magazine, or store, in one of the principal streets of Glasgow, where various articles of export, particularly in the nature of food supplies, will be on permanent exhibition and sale. To the outside visitor, of course, the most valuable thing about the Glasgow Exhibition is the manner in which it serves to illustrate the varied industrial, intellectual, and æsthetic development of Scotland itself.

Visit the Pan-American!

As the season advances, the PanAmerican Exposition at Buffalo grows steadily in its power of attraction; and visitors are attending it in increasing numbers from all parts of the country. To those who do not care for the latest achievements of the new era of electrical invention, it is worth while to offer the reminder that the Pan-American Exposition, with its embellishments of statuary and its collections of paintings and other works of art, is the most noteworthy embodiment ever yet made of the progress of the United States in the fine arts. From this point of view. alone. it will abundantly repay the visitor.

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DUKE OF CORNWALL'S CHILDREN. (From the latest photograph.)

tributed generously toward the fund which is to be expended by a committee of distinguished statesmen in commemorating the personality and reign of the late Queen Victoria. It is expected that the fund will reach $1,000,000, two-thirds of which has now been subscribed. The great monument is to be placed between Buckingham Palace and the Mall of the neighboring Park. The accepted design is that of the English sculp tor, Brock. A large pedestal is to be surmounted by a figure of Victory," in front of which the Queen is to be seated. Various symbolical figures and groups, all in bronze and three times life size, will go to make up a very impressive addition to the public monuments of London. The whole affair will rise to a height perhaps seventy-five feet above the ground level. At the base is to be a fountain. The whole design is so elaborate that a full explanation would require a page. If the committee should receive enough money, it is understood that a triumphal arch will also be erected in memory of Queen Victoria, perhaps at the entrance of the new roadway, now in process of construction, leading into Charing Cross. Various improvements are in progress or in contemplation in London, which is shown by the new census to have made impressive growth.

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tical lie to gloomy forebodings. England's chief need is the courage to get rid of useless and harmful survivals and anomalies. Agriculture suffers not so much from American competition as from the wretched land system of the country. The army suf fers from the system under which the officers' commissions go to incompetent scions of an absurd aristocracy. Education suffers through the unprofitable controversy between the Established Church and the friends of the secular public-school system. Progress in almost every direction suffers through the obstructive nature of the House of Lords, with its hereditary power to veto the measures passed by the people's representatives in the House of

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Commons. Progress in many directions is checked through the false ideals that prevail under a monarchical régime. In a land where the average intelligence is low, monarchy may serve a useful purpose. Where it is high, as in England, the institution has a detrimental effect upon character. At a time when questions of deep national moment ought to have had frank consideration, the Houses of Parliament have been frittering away their time in silly discussions of the form of the oath which King Edward must take on occasion of his coronation, and, further, as to changes in his title.

The Question


The oath question grows out of the of the fact that under the existing statutes Royal Oath the sovereign is obliged to brand the tenets of the Catholic Church as superstitious and idolatrous," with much to the same effect. It happens that there are Catholics enough in the British empire to form a very.considerable nation of themselves, at least twelve millions. Religious tests have gradually been relaxed until in most respects a member of the Catholic Church has as large a range of liberty and civic opportunity as a member of the Established Church of England. So long as there is an Established Church, with the sovereign of the country as its nominal head, it is at least understandable that the law should require the sover

eign to be a member of that church. But why it should require him in his oath of office to insult and denounce a religion which is not only tolerated but respected throughout his dominions, and to which many millions of his subjects belong, is not understandable. It is all, of course, a mere traditional form. But it is the maintenance of this sort of thing, in which nobody really believes, that renders the survival of medieval institutions like royalty so essentially degrading to the character of a highly intelligent modern nation. Compromises that have been proposed by Lord Salisbury and others in mitigation of the anti-Catholic oath are more absurd than the original. In the one case, we have merely a surviving form rendered meaningless by the progress of civilization. In the other case, we have a palpably insincere and ridiculous statement devised by modern politicians who do not take it seriously. The whole incident merely serves to illustrate the many fictions that must needs mark the survival of monarchical institutions in an essentially democratic country. In Westminster itself, not far from the Parliament Houses and Westminster Abbey, the Roman Catholics are now building a fine new cathedral, a picture of which in its present condition we reproduce herewith. Incidentally, students of history may like to be reminded that by authority of the Pope there have now been removed to

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