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this new English cathedral the remains of the martyred St. Edmund, King of the East Angles, who was put to death by the invading Danes for his adherence to the Christian religion. His body was removed from Bury St. Edmunds to Toulouse, in France, by Louis VIII., seven hundred years ago.

A Strange

Earl

A curious instance of medievalism Survival of was the recent trial by the House of Jurisdiction. Lords of one of its members for the crime of bigamy. Under the English law, a man is entitled to be tried by his peers; and a "lord" may, if he demand it, decline to be tried for felony by an ordinary judge and jury. Russell had come to this country and obtained a Nevada divorce, and remarried. His divorce was not recognized in England, although he seems to have acted in good faith. Some hundreds of very ordinary and well-meaning gentlemen, most of them of scanty attainments and rather limited and dubious pedigree, who call themselves lords," and who seriously accept and adhere to special privileges and prerogatives among their fellow-citizens even in this opening year of the twentieth century, took upon themselves the functions of judge and jury, and listened solemnly to the case of this alleged bigamous young gentleman known as Earl Russell. The accused was in due course found guilty and sentenced to thirteen weeks' detention in Holloway Jail, where he has luxurious quarters and every attention.

Honors

While the men who should be govto Conquering erning England were engaged in this Heroes. child's play of punishing a matrimonial adventurer, revising the phraseology of the anti-Catholic oath, and trying to invent larger titles for Edward than had been permitted to Victoria, they were also busy with one or two other transactions which both puzzled and amazed the civilized world outside of Great Britain. First they were heaping every form of honor and adulation upon the head of Alfred Milner, who now wears the ermine of a lord,-an able young journalist who has developed into so bad a politician and so unskillful a diplomatist that he was largely responsible for plunging his country into a disastrous war that can bring neither profit nor credit, and that might readily enough have been averted. Besides honoring Lord Milner, they have voted a bonus of half a million dollars to General Roberts, who was also some time ago made a lord, on the theory of rewarding the great conqueror of South Africa. But Lord Roberts stands almost unique in history as a commanderin-chief who came home to receive plaudits, hon

ors, and rewards a good while before the war was ended; and the present Parliament is absolutely unique in voting this reward to Lord Roberts while the war is still going on, many months after the return of the veteran commander, and while that war is still taxing the military ener gies and financial resources of the country. Our British cousins seem to have lost all sense of proportion. As precedents for their great gift to Lord Roberts, they have cited the fact that the nation presented to the Duke of Marlborough the site for Blenheim House; that the nation built Trafalgar House at Salisbury for Nelson; that the nation presented Apsley House to the Duke of Wellington after he had completely conquered Napoleon, besides the great statues and monuments in commemoration of the services of

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Kitchener Remains.

Undoubtedly, it was the intention a few weeks ago to gratify Sir Alfred Milner's alleged dislike of General Kitchener, who is also a lord, by having that grim warrior return to England for such honors as might await him; and it was said that General Lyttelton might take his place. But it has now been officially denied that General Kitchener is to return to England. Evidently, he is still needed in South Africa. It would probably be hard to replace him with a commander whose methods would be so drastic and so little scrupulous as regards the laws and customs of civilized

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The portion of these maps which is colored black denotes the occupation of the British. Map 1 in September, 1990; Map 2 in May, 1901.

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South Africn "9

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warfare. Yet even General Kitchener was ready to make peace with the Boers on terms that Mr. Chamberlain and Lord Milner regarded as too lenient to be considered for a moment. We present (see facing page) two maps that will bear close examination. They have been prepared on the authority of Mr. Methuen, the well-known London publisher, who, though not identified with the opposition to the party that is in power, has written a very powerful indictment of the South African policy. He holds that if the government is allowed to pursue this policy of mingled drift and violence, the result will be disaster." He elaborates the analogy between the war which cost England its American colonies more than a century ago and the present war, which he seems to think may end in the loss to England of all her South African possessions. His tone is that of an Edmund Burke.

Hopelessness of the

These maps are intended to show at a glance, by comparison, the extent of Boer Cause. the country in which the war has been raging that was in effective British occupation early in the past summer, as compared with that which the British effectively occupied at the end of the summer preceding. Obviously, the Boers have been roaming freely over a much wider range of territory this year than last year. There are, however, two great and fundamental differences between the South

African situation and that of the American colonies, which powerful English writers like Mr. Methuen, Mr. Stead, and others always seem to overlook. First is the great fact of the French alliance. Fighting the American colonies was one thing, while fighting those colonies plus the armies and navies of France was a different thing altogether. The Boers have been hoping in vain for some such alliance or interposition as the American colonies were so fortunate as to secure in Europe. The second great fact has to do with the extreme paucity of the Boer population. Although South Africa is a large country, it has few towns of any size, and a very sparse farming population. The people of the Dutch republics who have been fighting the British empire are

perhaps hardly more than an eighth or a tenth as numerous as the population of the thirteen American colonies in the Revolutionary period. If the Boer prisoners now in St. Helena, Ceylon, Bermuda, and elsewhere could be put back on the veldt, the British situation would be hopeless. As matters stand, it is impossible to see any hope for the Boer cause. The English now have perhaps twenty-five times as many men under arms as have the Boers. Yet Mr. Balfour could only say to Parliament, as the session was approaching its end, that he felt confident that when Parliament met next year the war would be over.

Parliament Prorogued.

Parliament was prorogued on August 17, in deference to the opening of the shooting season, after a session that men of all parties admitted to have been far from brilliant in its achievements. Nothing of importance had been accomplished in domestic legislation. Due financial provision was made for royalty, and for the army and navy, with further increase of taxation. The Tory majority, though enormous, was without enthusiasm; and the Liberal minority was paralyzed by personal and factional differences. The strongest and most coherent element was that of the reunited Irish group, led by Mr. Redmond. Lord Rosebery has left the Liberals and become a political party all by himself.

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THE LONE, LONG FURROW.

"I must plow my furrow alone. That is my fate, agreeable or the reverse, but before I get to the end of the furrow it is possible that I may find myself not alone."-Lord Rosebery at the City Liberal Club, July 19, 1901.

Mr. Gibson Bowles on Monday evening, in the House of Commons, quoted, apropos of Lord Rosebery's position, from Cowper's lines on Alexander Selkirk :

I am out of humanity's reach,

I must finish my journey alone;

Never hear the sweet music of speech-
I start at the sound of my own.

(Our artist declines to say whose is the footprint on the sand.)
From the Westminster Gazette, July 24.

MAJOR-GENERAL BADEN-POWELL. (From a photograph taken on the day of his arrival home from South Africa on sick leave, July 26.)

The Schley

A good many of our newspaper paraSampson Con- graphers and cartoonists have been troversy. making pungent comments, apropos of the honors paid in England to Lord Roberts and the enthusiasm over returning heroes like Baden-Powell,-upon the difference between the English and American way of treating men who have fought valiantly for their country. The especial point of all this comment is the selection by the Navy Department of a court of inquiry to investigate certain criticisms that involve the personal honor and professional reputation of Rear Admiral Schley. We shall not at this moment discuss the matter further than may be necessary to aid some of our readers to an understanding of what it is all about. In the first place, there should be an end of the curious misapprehension that Admiral Schley is about to undergo trial by court-martial. Nothing could be further from the facts. Who Admiral Schley is, and what services he has rendered to the country during his forty years of activity as an officer in our navy, are recounted elsewhere in this number of the REVIEW by Mr. Park Benja. min, the well-known authority and writer on naval matters. Mr. Benjamin carefully avoids any discussion whatsoever of matters which will come this month before the court of inquiry. These matters have to do with Schley's actions

when in charge of the Flying Squadron, at the beginning of the Spanish-American War, and subsequently in the great naval battle off Santiago, in which he bore a more conspicuous personal part than any other man on the American side. Two fleets, which had been under the charge, respectively, of Schley and Sampson, had been for the time being merged in the pursuit and blockade of Cervera's fleet, and had been placed under the supreme command of Sampson. Ever since the fight there has been a controversy between the friends of Schley and the friends of Sampson over the relative right of these two men to receive honor and acclaim for the crushing of the Spanish fleet. So far as we have observed it, this controversy has not been of Schley's seeking. His friends, who seem to be extremely numerous and to include a majority of the newspapers of the country, have declared stoutly that his reputation was being assailed as part of a plan to build up for Sampson a position as naval hero and conqueror, which, for some reason that nobody can explain, the public opinion of the country has quietly but persistently refused to

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accord to him.

Maclay's Book Under all the attacks upon him, AdBecame Impor- miral Schley had kept silence. His at

and Why It

tant. titude was reluctantly changed, however, by something that transpired in July. Several narrative histories of the American navy have been written within the last two or three years in a popular style, and one of these is by a Mr. Maclay, who recently added a new volume, in order to include the naval events of our Spanish War. In this volume he attacks Schley with great virulence. He uses terms of reprobation that are not usual in calm historical writing. The Maclay attack was noted by the newspapers, and Schley was urged to bring an action of some kind against the writer, who had directly charged him with being a coward, and had said other things still worse. This, however, was not what led to Admiral Schley's request, on July 22, for an official inquiry, although most people seem to suppose that it was. The admiral would prob ably have paid no attention to Mr. Maclay himself. The incident that led to the court of inquiry was something as different as possible from all this. It was the fact that the proof-sheets of Maclay's chapters in which Schley was defamed had been submitted in advance to Admiral Sampson, who is understood virtually, if not expressly and in set terms, to have set the seal of his approval upon these aspersions. Sampson thus appeared to Schley to have put himself in the position of abetting an attack upon the character and reputation of a fellow-officer.

Inquiry

versus

Admiral Schley retires from the navy under the age limit next month. His Court-Martial. professional reputation is doubtless dearer to him than his life. When Maclay, in self-justification, informed the newspaper reporters that he had been careful to have his manuscript or proof-sheets read in advance by naval officers, Admiral Sampson found himself placed under the painful and embarrassing necessity of admitting that he had been fully consulted. This fact being unexpectedly brought to light, a wholly new importance was attached to the Maclay book. Since no charges had been brought officially against Schley, and his standing in the naval service was therefore without flaw, it would seem as if he might have proceeded in a different manner. Instead of asking for a court of inquiry to establish his reputation, which had never been officially brought into question, he might have demanded that Sampson be tried by court-martial for conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman in helping Maclay to put on record, in what purports to be a serious and carefully written history, an attack upon Schley which

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ADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY, U.S.N. (President of the Court of Inquiry.)

A Reminder of

Admiral Sampson has long enjoyed the Experiences the reputation of being an exceedof Paul Jones. ingly intelligent, methodical, and painstaking officer of high practical efficiency. Schley has had the reputation of a seafaring man of all-round accomplishments and capability, belonging especially to the traditional type of the fighting man conspicuous for the qualities of courage and personal leadership. That Schley should have demanded an investigation into his own conduct rather than a court-martial for his rival seems to us rather impulsive and quixotic, but a mark both of self-respect and of generosity. It is probably just what our greatest naval hero, the incomparable Paul Jones, would himself have done. Nobody who has ever served the United States in a distinguished way was so much traduced by enemies and jealous rivals as Commodore Paul Jones; yet history has been able to separate truth from falsehood, and in the new biography by Buell,-which, by the way, is probably the greatest contribution to American

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