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alleged to be corrupt, in both city and State, has been due to the open or secret alliance of Democratic politicians with the Republican machine. Good government in local affairs can never be secured until those who desire it can learn to work together without any reference to the words Republican and Democrat. The same observation is of course true in the city of New York. During the past month, the newspapers of New York have been full of reports of a new crusade against police corruption and participa tion in the earnings of crime, -a crusade directed with telling effect by three upright, able, and eminently practical men-namely, Mr. Philoin, the district attorney; Mr. Frank Moss, formerly a police commissioner and active in what is known as the Parkhurst Society; and Mr. Jerome, of the Justices' bench. Every important newspaper in the city has been outspoken in supporting the reform movement. Under these circumstances, if good citizens do not unite this year to elect a worthy administration for the Greater New York, they will be without the smallest shadow of an excuse. There is at least a fair prospect that they may both unite in action and prevail in the struggle at the polls in November.


The lowa Republicans.

The Republican State convention of Iowa, held at Cedar Rapids, on August 7, resulted in an easy victory for the Hon. A. B. Cummins, of Des Moines, as candi date for governor. Mr. Cummins, who is in the prime of life, has for a good many years been one of the most virile and influential factors of the political life of the State, while also one of the foremost lawyers of the entire West. The most significant clause in the Iowa platform is the one which favors such tariff changes as may be made advisable by changing conditions, while at the same time reiterating adherence to protection and pointing to the readjustments possible under reciprocity. Since the chairman of the resolu tions committee who reported the platform was the Hon. George E. Roberts, director of the mint and a trusted adviser of President McKinley, we may take it for granted that this Iowa platform is another of the numerous indications that a strong effort will be made next winter by the Administration to persuade the Senate to ratify some of the pending reciprocity treaties which hitherto have been accumulating dust in Senatorial committee rooms. It is not very likely, on the other hand, that much effort will be made to secure a general revision of the tariff. The State of Iowa is strong in its present Republican leadership, and the excellent administration of Governor Shaw has paved the way for an easy victory this autumn.

Politics in Other States.


The Alabama constitutional convention has adopted the expected restrictions on suffrage, intended to exclude the negro vote. Against the plan which is ul. timately to make educational and property tests apply to all citizens alike, there is nothing to be said. Nor does the much-talked-about "grandfather clause" amount to enough in practice to be a serious affair. The clause, however, which makes it allowable for three appointed men in each county to exclude such people as in their judgment lack "good character," and who "do not understand the duties and obligations of citizenship," grants a dangerous and improper discretion. The Virginia constitutional convention has been working toward a plan similar to that adopted in Alabama. The Democrats of Maryland, who have already practically disfranchised negroes by means of a complicated registration system, have now openly avowed their intention, if they carry the State legislature this fall, to place Maryland in line with the disfranchising States farther South. The Maryland Republicans are taking the other side of the question, and a vigorous campaign has now begun. In Ohio, the Bryan Democrats have inaugurated a small independent movement; but almost everywhere the striking party fact of the season is the repudiation of free silver and the return of the conservative wing of the Democrats to party control. The complete change in the position of the Virginia Democrats, as indicated in convention

speeches and in the platform adopted at Norfolk last month, is quite as significant as the repudiation of Bryanism in Ohio.



General MacArthur arrived at San Porto Rico, Francisco on August 18; and it is and Cuba. somewhat startling to discover-so swift has been the flight of time-that he had actually been on Philippine duty for the period of three years and two months. He had not lost a single day through illness in all this time. He declared on his arrival-and his statements have come to be regarded as possessing great weight -that a very satisfactory condition exists in the islands." He went on to say, regarding this condition:

It is not perfect, but it is such as to be gratifying to both army and civil officers. The insurrection is almost entirely extinguished. A few groups of armed insurgents are still at large and give some trouble, but they will undoubtedly surrender within a short time. The campaigning is practically confined to scouting and occasional movements in force against some large party. These movements generally result in the surrender of the natives with their rifles, and it has the effect of bringing in other natives who, through fear, ave kept away. The natives have now learned that to rrender does not mean death, torture, and other punishment, but the securing of larger liberty, freedom, and protection.

Recent reports on the work of Governor Taft and the commission are encouraging. Financial statistics from Porto Rico show a strikingly large gain in trade between that island and this country; and the inauguration of free trade will doubtless result in rapid further development within the next year or two. Gov. William H. Hunt succeeds Governor Allen, his appointment being a promotion from the office of Secretary of Porto Rico. He hails from Montana, where his talents gained him high political, legal, and judicial positions. The Cubans have been slow in completing their election law, but its general provisions were accepted in a preliminary way early in August. The outcome has been a triumph for the friends of full and unrestricted popular suffrage. Limitations are not placed upon the voters, but upon the candidates for office.

The Cubans are now anxious to get their new government at work, in order that they may proceed to negotiate either commercial reciprocity r else annexation with the United States.

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From Leslie's Weekly.


(Governor Allen seated in chair.)

the gain has been almost exactly at the rate of 1 per cent. a year, which is only half the rate of gain that has prevailed in the United States during the past decade. Most of the Canadian gain of half a million souls has been in the far west. The maritime provinces of the east have remained stationary, and the great province of Ontario shows only a slight gain. The French province of Quebec has gained about 130,000, and has now a population of 1,620,974. Ontario has 2,167,978. Manitoba and British Columbia have each gained about 100,000, and so have the territories, taken in the aggregate. The principal cities have not grown notably. Montreal now has 266,826 people; Toronto has 207,971; Quebec has 68,834; Ottawa, 59,902; Hamilton, 52,550; and Winnipeg, Halifax, and St. John have each about 40,000. The Canadians are a healthy and prolific people, and the French element especially is famous for large families. The small increase in the aggregate population,less than in either of the two preceding decades, --must be accounted for by the continued mi

gration to the United States. At the present rate of increase, it will take Canada one hundred years to double her population. In proroguing Parliament on the day that the Canadian census was announced, King Edward referred in a sweeping way to what he termed my dominions beyond the seas." A competent Canadian authority in an English journal, not long ago, stated that Canada's best immigrants were those who were coming from the United States, and her poorest those who were coming from England; and it was predicted that many thousands of Western American farmers would go this year and next to take up land on the northern side of the boundary line. But Canada must not expect this tide of migration to be large or permanent so long as she is participating in the wars of a European monarchy.

Farms by Lot in

The rush of sturdy settlers last month on occasion of the opening of an Oklahoma. Indian reservation in Oklahoma shows how great is the instinctive land-hunger of the American farmers and their sons. But very few of them could be induced to expatriate themselves. After allotments to about 3,000 Indians, there remained 13,000 quarter-section (160-acre) farms to be allotted to bona fide white settlers, with 167,000 people present and registered. The occasion was one of great picturesque interest, although much hardship was incurred by

scores of thousands of the disappointed landseekers, some of whom had been waiting for months on the fringes of the reservation.

The Wireless

On August 16, when the Cunarder Telegraph Actu- Lucania approached America on her ally Working. western trip, there was a practical trial of the Marconi wireless telegraph system which, in its complete success, truly marks a new era in the maritime world. Twelve hours before the first news could have been received from the steamer off Fire Island, the Marconi station at Siasconset, Mass., received notice that the Nantucket lightship had signaled the Lucania, and that messages were to follow from the passengers. The great ship slowed up to allow the telegrams to be sent, and for two hours they were received at the rate of ten words per minute. There is said to have been no hitch in the proceedings. The essential instruments of Mr. Marconi's system are two very high poles, fitted with vertical wires, and a device to record the aërial vibrations originated from electric sparks. In the circuit used in connection with the Nantucket lightship there is a huge pole on the steel mast of the lightship itself, rising 106 feet above the level of the sea, and another mast in the village of Siasconset with its point no less than 250 feet above the ocean. The vessel communicates with the lightship, the lightship with Siasconset, and Siasconset with the rest of the world.

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struggle between the Constitution and Columbia for the honor of meeting Shamrock II. in the final races was going on in nip-and-tuck fashion. Out of thirteen races altogether, when this note was written, seven were won by the Constitution and six by the Columbia. Most yachtsmen thought last year's defender had improved over her 1900 form." However this may be, it is certain that there seems to be little choice between the Columbia and the Constitution in a good wind, although the changes that have been made from time to time in the rigging of the new boat may finally show a clear superiority for her. In light airs, the Constitution has


"Shamrock II."


Sir Thomas Lipton's new challenger Comes for for the America's Cup, Shamrock II., the Cup. arrived at New York on August 12, after a very quick passage of fifteen days from England. Over some two-thirds of the distance she was towed by her steam tender, the Erin. The new boat arrived in excellent condition; she was at once put into dry dock, and later her enormous mast was stepped in,-the largest single spar, it is said, that has ever been put into a yacht. Naturally,

the hull of the new challenger was the object of much interest as she lay in dry dock exposed to the public gaze. The unanimous verdict is that the boat is very much handsomer in her lines than the first Shamrock and is altogether a most commendable product. Her overhang is much more marked than the first Shamrock's, and on the whole she looks more like the Columbia, but with longer and finer lines. In the meantime, the

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clearly demonstrated her greater speed; in fact, her performances are under such conditions remarkable. It is worth while noting that at the time of the year the championship races are held a considerable majority of instances show just such light breezes and weather as the Constitution excels in. Mr. Lawson's Independence, after demonstrating that she was a good fast yacht in a heavy blow, was withdrawn from the competition. Our picture of the America's Cup shows the object for the possession of which there has been expended, between Sir Thomas Lipton, Mr. Lawson, and the Constitution's owners, probably threequarters of a million dollars this year. There is in one of the departments of this issue of the REVIEW an excellent personal sketch of the plucky Englishman who is willing to devote his time and wealth in such large measure to his country's glory in maritime sport. It will be remembered that as a result of the dismasting of the new challenger in a squall, last May, the races were postp ned till September 21.

Famine and Plenty in


Russia is assuredly a land of mysteries and contrasts. We received last month almost simultaneously a most alarming report as to the widely extended failure of this year's crops due to excessive drought and heat, and a highly optimistic report on Russia's confident expectation of soon being able to supply England and western Europe with breadstuffs and provisions in boundless quantities at prices to cut out the American farmer. Paradoxical as it may seem, it is true that Russia, like India, is a country that exports food supplies in years of famine at home. This results from two very simple facts: first, that famine-stricken neighborhoods lack the money to buy the surplus food of distant provinces; and, second, that the network of highways and railroads is not sufficiently minute to admit the ready distribution of supplies. Thus, railways and rivers will bring to exporting points great quantities of wheat, while vast districts lying remote from lines of travel are starving. This year's crop failure is said to affect provinces having an area twice as great as France and a population of 43,000,000. Russia is now endeavoring to colonize her territory along the Amur River, and the Japanese are freshly alarmed over the indications that Russia means to stay permanently in

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elections in
France, with
the result of
general and im-
portant Repub-
lican gains;
that is to say,
decided losses
for the Royal-
ists on the one
hand and the
Socialists on the
other. This
augurs well for stable conditions, and is a deserved
compliment to the admirable presidency of M. Lou-
bet, and to the patriotic and efficient premiership
of M. Waldeck-Rousseau. It also serves to give
popular ratification to the great legislative meas-
ure of the recent parliamentary session-namely,
the bill for the suppression of illegal religious
orders and the termination of their educational
work. The more important of these orders


are said to have shown a disposition to sulk. A month or two hence it will be possible to summarize the action that the Jesuits, the Assumptionists, the Benedictines, and the Dominicans have concluded to take. French activity in northern Africa seems to be making steady gains. The distinguished French diplomatist, M. Pichon, who passed through New York a few weeks ago on his way home after great perils and arduous


duties in Peking, was received with the highest tokens of official honor and acclaim at Paris, and is destined to the important post

of governor of Algeria. An arrangement has been reached between the Moorish legation and the French minister of foreign affairs by virtue of which French control is acknowledged in southern Algeria. Morocco further agrees to

abandon the Sahara


to France; the opening of new regions for French trade is promised; more favorable conditions are granted for pushing forward the construction by the French of their notable African railway projects, and other advantages are secured which it will fall to the lot of M. Pichon to oversee and energize. Apropos of the serious criticisms passed upon the French judicial system at the time of the Dreyfus trial, we may note the death of M. Edouard Laferrière, procureur général of the Court of Cassation, and the appointment to take his place of M. Baudoin. Both of these men have enjoyed great eminence at the Parisian bar, and we find the French press unanimous in their praise. Prince Henry of Orleans, who had renounced all pretensions to the throne and become an avowed Republican, died in French Cochin China on August 9, at the age of thirtyfour. He was an indefatigable traveler and explorer, and was popular in France. His father, the Duc de Chartres, was on General McClellan's staff in our Civil War.

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