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Monthly report of freight operation of steam railways, September, 1917-Continued.

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Monthly report of freight operation of steam railways, September, 1917-Continued.

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1 Averages based on revenue ton-miles; nonrevenue ton-miles not reported.

2 Returns not filed.

Senator WATSON. You spoke of the intensive loading. What do you mean by that?

Mr. KRUTTSCHNITT. I mean that we adopted a policy of never being satisfied with the loading of a car. If it had 20 tons we wanted them to put on 21, and if we got 21 we wanted them to put on 22.

Senator WATSON. What had been the custom theretofore; that is to say, you had not loaded cars to their full capacity?

Mr. KRUTTSCHNITT. I will give you the results and then the explanation. In the six months the car loading increased from 24.8 tons in 1916 to 27 tons in 1917-about 9 per cent increase.

Senator WATSON. Who determined the amount that should be put into the car, the railroad or the shipper?

Mr. KRUTTSCHNITT. The railroad determined the amount allowable to a car. The shipper determines very largely the amount that is put in. The railroad tariffs prescribe what are called carload rates, a lower rate applying to the full carload, and the full carload is defined in the tariff for different commodities.

Now, it has been our aim, regardless of these tariffs, by persuasion, to get the shipper to give up his advantage of calling for cars to load, the minimum carload-say, 30 tons. We said to him, "We are hard up; the cars are at a premium, and we want to increase efficiency. Now, won't you waive your legal right to put only 30 tons in the car, and fill it up; put in all it will hold?" In some cases shippers have demurred a little because they said that commercial practices really forbade their doing this; that they were accustomed to sell, we will say, in 30,000-pound units and could not very well get away from it. Take some of the cement manufacturers, they have been selling, as I remember it, in 30,000-pound units, and almost universally; they fully loaded the cars and got the averages up to sixty-five, seventyfive, and eighty thousand pounds per car. Take, for instance, the American Sugar Refinery, which ships the larger part of its refined sugar in the United States, and controls the New Orleans refineries, which I think are the largest in the country; they had been shipping 30,000 pounds to the car. At our request, or the request of our local committee down there, they increased their loading until they shipped seventy-five to eighty thousand pounds per car. In other words, one car did the work of two and one-fourth cars theretofore.

The lumber men responded. The grain men were very slow to respond until Mr. Hoover took the matter in hand and issued instructions, which he could do, but we could not, that no cars of grain were to be moved unless they were fully loaded.

Well, the loading jumped up at once from 30,000 and 40,000 pounds to the car to 100.000 and 110.000 pounds to the car. In other words, we got the shippers to cease loading in less than carloads; that is the feature that pulled down the efficiency of the roads the most. The practice had been to send cars with ordinary merchandise-that is, the every-day railroad package freight-with 10,000 and 12,000 pounds to the car. A number of the eastern roads, notably the Pennsylvania, began to adopt what they called sailing dates; that is, instead of sending out a local car for a local station every day loaded with this amount of package freight they would send it out, say, three times a week. In other words, certain days were specified for that car to move, and they increased the load per car

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