« PreviousContinue »
magnificent head from this bill, but to put the | February 28, 1799, which is the basis of the present I have not the time to allude now to all the proposition of the Senator from Alabama, not at system, contains but a partial and imperfect fee abuses that prevail in other respects. I hold in the end of it, but just immediately after the title. bill. For attorneys, it prescribes the fees in admi- my hand an official report from the First CompI would not disturb that title for the world. I do | ralty cases only, with a per diem for attending troller's Office, which shows that a clerk in Misnot think that in the next century there will be court, and a small annual salary; and for services sissippi charged more than $3,000 for his per diem found any combination of talent that will put, in not specially provided for, it allows the same com- in attending court in three old bankrupt cases, from the six lines composing this title, such an amount pensation to attorneys and marshals as is allowed February, 1846, to November, 1849; an amount of magnificent promises and such a speedy elec- || by the State statutes to attorneys and sheriffs for that is greater than the whole average annual extrical result as follows immediately afterwards. I similar services rendered in the supreme court of penditures for the United States judiciary in the think it is unique, and ought not to be disturbed. the respective States. For clerks, in addition to great State of Georgia. In another district, a clerk That is the magnificent head. The body I look the per diem of five dollars for attending court, it charged his per diem for some ninety-two days upon as exceedingly decrepit, and I think if the adopts the same rule, with one third added to the more than the whole time the court could have graduation system of my friend from Alabama amount. It will hence be seen that the compensa- been held. could be adopted, it would come in admirably after tion of the officers, and the costs taxed in civil It is to correct the evils and remedy the defects this head. If the bill were legitimately before us, suits, is made to depend in a great degree on that of the present system, that the bill has been prethat would be the amendment which I would pro- | allowed in the State courts. There are no two pared and passed by the House of Representatives. pose to make. States where the allowance is the same.
It attempts to simplify the taxation of fees, by preThis graduation system was commented on and When this system was adopted, it had the scribing a limited number of definite items to be advocated by Mr. Calhoun and other wise legis- semblance of equality, which does not now exist. allowed. It is not in all respects such a bill as I lators and eminent statesmen, and I do not think There were then but sixteen States, in all of which would have preferred, but it is believed to be an there can be any reasonable objection to it. I do the laws prescribed certain taxable costs to attor- improvement upon the present system. I think it not think any man can object if he can purchase | neys for the prosecution and defense of suits. In would be a still greater improvement to substitute by his own industry, at a merely nominal sum, the several of the States which have since been added for district attorneys fixed salaries, proportionate public land of the country. It is the duty and the to the Union, no such cost is allowed; and in to their services in the different districts, in place policy of the Government to dispose of the public | others the amount is inconsiderable. As the State of the fees now received. There would be no difjand as soon as practicable. If it cannot receive fee bills are made so far the rule of compensation ficulty in ascertaining such an amount as would be $1 25 per acre, after the lapse of so many years, in the Federal courts, the Senate will perceive that a fair and adequate compensation in the respective it should fall in price so much percent. and so on, || totally different systems of taxation prevail in the districts, and the advantage to the Government of until it gets down to twelve-and-a-half cents per | different districts. In some, the district attorney having officers to look after its interests, not deacre. if I were a poor man I would rather own receives no compensation beyond his small salary pendent upon the multiplication of processes and an acre of land by the payment of twelve-and-a- || and per diem for a large portion of his most im- suits to secure a fair compensation for their serhalf cents, and would feel myself more independ- || portant services; while in others his fees are enor- vices, must be obvious to every one. ent and more of a man than I would by taking a mous, and the amount of cost which the losing The amendments recommended by the Senate quarter section of land from the public for noth- | party is made to pay to the attorney on the other committee are, with one exception, designed to ing, clogged with the restriction that I could not side in civil suits, is so large as to be flagrantly remedy defects in the bill where fees were omitted, sell, but that I must live upon it and cultivate it oppressive. It is not only the officers of the or placed too low to be compensatory for the sermyself. I think the true policy of this Govern- | courts, but the suitors alsó, that are affected by vice rendered. Experience will undoubtedly prove ment is to dispose of the public land as soon as it | the present unequal, extravagant, and often op- | the necessity of further amendments. It is becan, at the prices which it can get for it, falling pressive system.
lieved, however, that the bill will remedy the enorgradually as the lapse of time admonishes us that Take, for example, the case of the district attor- mous abuses to which I have referred, that have the lands are not wanted, or are not rich in their neys. In some of the States, where no taxable grown out of the indefinite and unequal system character.
costs are allowed to attorneys, a large amount of I had intended to go into the constitutional ar
that now prevails. The increased and increasing business has been thrown upon the district attorgument on the subject, but I do not wish to delay | neys, in the settlement of land titles in which the
expenses of the courts of the United States may
be accounted for, in some degree, by the growth of the Senate any longer, particularly as the Senator | United States were interested, and no compensa- these abuses, as well as by the natural increase of from Mississippi has paid particular attention to tion whatever can be allowed to these officers for business before the courts. These abuses attach to that branch of it, and I will therefore not trespass | their services in such cases. In other States, where the system, and not generally to the courts. I will further upon the Senate at this time.
a different system prevails in the State courts, ad- refer the Senate on this subject, to a statement furequate, and even extravagant fees are allowed for
nished by the First Comptroller of the Treasury, THE FEE BILL.
the same services. So, too, in criminal cases, great | in a communication to the Secretary of the Inte
inequality prevails. In Georgia, for instance, the rior, under date of November 21, 1851. Here it is: SPEECH OF HON.J. W. BRADBURY, district attorney's fees for attending to a criminal Statement showing the aggregate amounts of erpenses of OF MAINE,
prosecution are five dollars; in Pennsylvania they courts of the United States paid out of the judiciary fund, are six dollars; in New York, charges have been
with the salaries and compensation of the marshals and IN THE SENATE, February 12, 1853, made to the amount of three, four, and five hun
district attorneys added thereto, for specified periods from On the bill to regulate the Fees and Costs in the
1791 to 1851, and the average amount paid annuolly; dred dollars for precisely the same services. In Circuit and District Courts of the United States.
also, the increase per centum of population, and expenses Virginia a still different rule prevai.s, and twen- of courts, from the year 1800 to 1851. Mr. BRADBURY said: Mr. President, this ty dollars are usually allowed for an indictment, bill is designed to accomplish an important object, and from fifty to one hundred dollars for attending
Aggregateamounts and I hope it will not be defeated, or its efficiency to a criminal prosecution, under a discretionary
of expenses of destroyed by amendments. It seeks reform where l authority given to the court to determine the com
ted States paid
Average reform is very much needed; and while I ask the pensation in the districts in that State.
out of the judi friends of the measure not to allow its defeat by The abuses that have grown up in the taxation
paid anamendments, I will avoid bringing about the same of attorneys' fees which the losing party has been
nually. result by too much speaking on my part. A few compelled to pay in civil suits, have been a matter
the marshals and remarks may be necessary, and I will be as brief of serious complaint, The papers before the com
district attorneys as possible. This bill comes to us from the House; | mittee show that in some cases those costs have and having been confided to my charge by the com- been swelled to an amount exceedingly oppressive From 1791 to 1793... 3 834,875 86 $11,625 28 mittee of the Senate to whom it was referred, I to suitors, and altogether disproportionate to the From 1794 to 1799...
153,497 97 have felt it to be my duty to urge its consideration | magnitude and importance of the causes in which
Years 1800 and 1801. 2 upon the Senate.' Beyond this, I have no other they are taxed, or the labor bestowed. I have a
From 1802 to 1805...
174,443 69 43,610 92
From 1806 to 1809. solicitude than that which should be common to
299,908 89 bill before me where, upon a recovery of some From 1810 to 1813...4 282,640 49 70,660 12 every Senator. $36 damages in a case of no complicated or expen- From 1814 to 1817...
321,030 69 80,257 67 The bill is designed to regulate the fees and com- | sive litigation, the attorney's fees are swelled with
From 1818 to 1821..
117,187 24 pensation of district attorneys, marshals, clerks, | motions, orders, briefs, and attendances, &c., to
From 1822 to 1825...
513,700 90 128,425 22 From 18:26 to 1829...
598,333 62 149,583 40 commissioners, jurors, and witnesses in the circuit more than $240, and the clerk's and commission- Years 1830 and 1831. 2 408,865 03 204,432 51 and district courts of the United States, and to er's fees are nearly $100 more. This was all taxed From 1832 to 1837... 1,559,161 49 259,860 24 prescribe the costs which shall be taxed and re- against the losing party, who was thus compelled
Years 1838 and 1839. 2 642,703 43 321,351 71 covered in these courts against the losing party in to pay for the services of the attorney employed
Years 1840 and 1811. 2 747,390 26 373,695 13
2,555,427 77 464,623 23 civil suits. The bill has, then, two objects in view; | against him. This was in the southern district of Years 1848 and 1849. 2 938,446 05 469,223 02 and a brief reference to the existing state of things, New York; and I notice it to illustrate the fault of Year 1850
564,854 04 and the flagrant abuses that have grown up under the system, and not as matter of censure of the court
616,279 89 the present system, will demonstrate the necessity for administering the law under such a system.
Increase per centuar of population, and expenses of the of some measure of the kind. Jurists of great eminence have made these abuses
courts since the year 1800. There is now no uniform rule either for com- the subject of complaint, and they urge upon us pensating the ministerial officers of the courts, or
Year. Population. Increase. Expen. of courts. Increase. the importance of providing a remedy. I have anfor the regulation of the costs in actions between other bill of costs before me, allowed in an admiralty
Per cent. private suitors. One system prevails in one dis- | case in Florida, some years ago, in which there is
$42,214 00 trict, and a totally different one in another; and in taxed against the libelant, who failed to sustain
117,187 24 12,866,920
204.432 51 some cases it would be difficult to ascertain that his libel, more than $5,000; of this sum $2,500 is
373,695 13 any attention had been paid to any law whatever for the counsel fees of the prevailing party! Com
469,223 02 1,011 designed to regulate such proceedings. The act of Il ment on such proceedings is unnecessary.
courts of the Uni.
No. of years.
the salaries and
25,589 99 42,214 39
81 142 221 314 333
177 384 785
561,854 04 1,237
32D CONG.....2D SESS.
The Fee Bill-Mr. Bradbury.
....... 237 12%
I now refer to another table showing the expenditures in the different districts:
Indicted for perjury, prior to April
vs. Statement of the amounts (exclusive of fractions of a dollar) advanced and paid to marshals to pay the expenses of the ANTHOXY FAOLAC.
term, 1849. circuit and distriel courts of the United States respectively, during the undermentioned years, being for six months of Mr. Hall charges as follows: the year 1843, and for the fiscal years 1844 to 1851.*
1849—Retaining fee, 88 00 ; DISTRICTS. 1840. 1841. 1842. Hf. '43.) 1844. 1845. 1846. 1847. 1848. 1849. 1850. 1851. warrant of attorney,37% $8 37% $8 37 * $8 37%
Motion for trial, $3 00; at Maine... $10,023 $8,835 $4,961 $3,000 811,223 $8,552 $13,500 $9,500 $11,002 $5,257 $7,944 $9,321
torney and counsel and
to New Hampshire.. 3,000 8,701 5,065
motion 1,500 3,000 2,500 2,899 2,000 2,000 1,600 2,822 3,335
postpone, Massachusetts..... 12,000 22,995 30,000 14,959 20,744 61,687 55,000 35,000 100,360
$300... 18,031 17,596 27,000
6 00 6 00 Connecticut.. 6,000 7,450 6,400 1,500 4,100 1,498 1,680 2,900 2,825 2,655 2,602 3,939
Brief, attorney and coun
9 00 9 00 Rhode Island 7,979, 6,33) 6,566
9 00 2,500 4,000 4,700
sel fee, prepared....
9,380 11,000 4,000 9,800 10,357 6,000 Vermont... 700 1,108 1,200 800 1,120 2,900 2,261 1,100
Drawing costs, copying,
1,700 2,200 1,468 1,226 4,109 10,000 8,500
1 75 New York, northern dist.. 2,500
and attorney's taxes.... 6,000 17,298 31,595 36,372 38,408 36,492 43,682 43,920
1 75 New York, southern dist.. 42,000 51,820 30,000 22,000 37,405 45,000 55,172 37,788 44,000 45,700 57,525 45,000
One term fee............
62% 62% New Jersey..
Attorney and colleague, on Pennsylvania, east. dist... 20,500 15,733 15,528 9,831 17,000 20,600 22,316 19.700 28,693 15,379 28,000 26,500
motion to extend recog
3 00 3 00 Pennsylvania, west. dist.. 7,435' 18,219 11,000
nizance, (forfeited). 9,000 7,000 4,907 12,500 9,800 9,478 4,285 16,729 13,086 Delaware..
806 2,625 Meryland... 10,342 11,110 10,789 4,000 7,500/12,000 9,000 7,500 8,200, 12,679 9,986 22,450
35 25 29 00 Total...
25 75 Virginia, eastern district.. 3,717 2,500 4,575 3,300 5,900 3,500 3,210' 4,235 5,494 1,950 4,100 16,197 Virginia, western district.
61 25 6,720 4,800 7,836 6,500 10,652 13,000 8,667 18,894 29,372, 29,214 19,150 21,850
For May and June terms, as above..
July term, retig $8 37%; for 3 items above, South Carolina......
29 25 4,000 5,450 7,100 500 4.250 4,500 5,500! 3,700
3,900' 5.397 6,025 4,826 Georgia... 5,500 3,700 1,500 1,392 4,728 4,500 1,134 3,500 3,000 1,685 3,840
September term, 1st, 2d, and 3d items, same as Alabama, northern dist.... 1,500 500 500
35 00 800 882 1,400 972 500
578 Alabama, southern dist... 5,900 3,500' 8,500 4,431 4,000 6,300 4,500 8,000 5,000 6,500 4,075 9,206
October term, Ist, 2d, and 3d items, same as
32 00 Mississippi, northern dist. 2,000 1,222 7,100
April term- total.
3,500 7,298 7,716
November term, Ist, 2d, and 3d items, same as
26 00 Louisiana, eastern dist. ... 11,664 12,643 26,596 8,000 24,045 21,000 15,405 25,000 15,151 22,000 10,935 26,052
December term, Ist, 2d, and 3d items, same as Tennessee, eastern dist... 1,437 1,800 122
36 23 884 2,182
April term-total... Tennessee, middle dist.... 4,000 3,000 4,325 1,994 4,000 3,968 3,016 2,712 2,121 2,500 3,833 2,790
1850— January term, Ist, 2d, and 3d items, same as Tennessee, western dist..
35 00 Indiana..
3,680 853 6,510 1,000 2,000 2,400 2,70 1,825 2,398 1,450 14,180 9,000 Mlinois.. 9,500 12,970. 15,000 3,000 11,975 4,612 11,000 6,045 11,352 3,700 19,594 18,412
Mr. Hall's charges at nine terms of court..$280 50 Kentucky
2,000 4,498 7,500
2,010, 3,000 4,900 4,425 The charges of Lorenzo B. Shepherd, the predecessor of Ohio
7,000 9,185 10,580 10,000 4,355 15,000 1,232 12,922 14,989 21,044 7,350 17,425 Mr. Hall in the same cause, are as follows: Missouri.. 3,585 8,394 5,104 9,000 9,969 10,700 7,142 5,091 6,100 4,900 8,423 12,336 Date.
9,177 9,264 10,090 2,500 10,282 14,213 6,470 15,514 10,300 8,000 7,716 22,173 1849—February term, Shepherd's charges, (which Michigan...
15,500 19,837 13,000 5,003 15,174 18,500 6,383 9,000 9,27% 6,612 9,155 16,000 include ist and 3d items, $3 00 for motion Florida, districts of. 25,000 21,870 58,271 26,697 86,000 72,993 19,969 19,177 19,117 6.995 13,964 12,262 to postpone trial; $50 06 for drawing in
6,000 8,000 13,950 10,760, 10,996 dictment of 200 folios ; $50 00 for engrossing Wisconsin...... 4,939 15,519 12,467 7,600 9,000 15,000 31,953 25,000 24,948 2,260 7,991 6,276
and copying; and $25 00 for copies for the 19,000 16,011 28,300 9,5 0 23,700 45.000 29,950 26,500 4,377 3.610 3,487 361
.8178 25 Diatrict of Columbia..... 45,009) 46,53455,000 40,000 50,000/ 45,500 50,000 55,000 39,403 66,000 73,000 55,526 March term, 1st, 2d, and 3d items, same as
April term above..
29 00 district attorneys, every year audited in the name of the claimants, and paid to them directly, in addition to the sums advanced and paid to the marshals, the principal and largest of which are the following, allowed by my predecessor, and Total charge taxed and paid to Shepherd for paid during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1849, to wit:
three terms.............. To Thomas J. Durant, district attorney of Louisiana, for professional services rendered by him, from July 1, 1846, to June 30, 1848.........
Total attorneys' fees taxed and paid for eleven To S. W. 'Downs, for professional services in the same district..
517 62% To Bailie Peyton. for services in the same district, from 1811 to 1845.
12,834 56 The amount of all such payments appears annually in the published accounts of the expenditures of the Government,
Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Hall both charged for the April to which reference can be made.
term, 1849-the former 829, and the latter $25 75. To illustrate the mode in which costs are taxed || which I find in the letter of the First Comptroller 1842, which confines the taxation in criminal cases
In taxing these bills, the act of Congress of in some of the districts, and to account in some of the 26th of November, 1851, to the Secretary degree perhaps for this increase of expenditures of the Interior:
to that of the criminal fee bill of the Slate, is wholly for the judiciary, I will refer to one or two cases
disregarded. The latter allows no retajning fees, and no term fees for attending to try a cause un.
less it is actually tried, and yet not less than eight Statement of the bills and items of costs charged by Prescott Hall, district attorney of the United States, and tazed by
or nine retaining fees are charged in a single cause. Judge Betts, in the district court of the United States
for the southern district of New York, in the causes and al. To show the different practice under the same law the terms herein stated, to wit :
in the State courts, one of the accounts of a district THE UNITED STATES
attorney for one of the counties of the State of New On a charge of perjury in the year 1849, at the following terms: LEONARD DYER.
York, is furnished by the Comptroller. This account includes all the ordinary services of a term,
including the drawing three indictments, five trials, Date, Bills and items.
June, July. August. and preparation for the trial of thirteen causes; and 1849.
yet the aggregate amount for the term is $62 06. June 27, Retaining fee, $8; warrant of attorney, 37% cents....
$8 37% $8 37% 88 37%
I refer to another table furnished from the same Drawing affidavits to found warrant, 6 folins, engrossing and copy.
to exhibit the mode of charging adopted Motion for warrant, $3; drawing and engrossing do. 81 50.
4 50 Motion for temporary commitment....
in some cases by the clerks:
4 00 July 5, Motion for cominitment of J. Pelby, a witness.
Clerk's fees for attending district court for the southern Drawing and engrossing commitment..
district of Mississippi in bankruptcy : The same as to J. B Ackeman, a witness..
Accounts of William Burns, clerk, for his per diem from Drawing subpena for examination, $1; drawing and engrossing ticket, $1 12%;
May 19, 1845, to November 18, 1848, for 890 days' sitting and two copies, 50 cents.......
. 84,450 00 Order to marshal to bring up prisoner....
20 00 July 13, Motion for examination...
3 00 Motion to adjourn same...
84,470 00 July 20, Drawing subpena for examination, $1; drawing and engrossing ticket, $1 12x: and two copies, 50 cents........
The whole number of days within that period was Order to marshal to bring up prisoner....
25 July 23, Attending examination and motion to adjourn same..,
182 July 25, Attending examination and motion to adjourn same.
894 Jwy 30, Drawing additional subpena ticket, and iwo copies, (August)...
204 Order 10 marshal to bring up prisoner.......
25 Attending examination, motion to adjourn to 31st, (August 1)..
3 00 3 00
1.280 Attending examination, motion to adjourn to 31st, (August 2).
3 00 3 00 Drawing indictment, 240 folios, $61 25; engrossing and copying, $61 25.
On the 7th February, 1846, the clerk reported to the SecretaCounsel perusing and amending......
2 00 ry of state of the United States that the number of appliFair copy for grand jury, (bill dismissed)..
cants for relief under the bankrupt act was, cases..., 872 4 affidavits of attendance of witnesses..
2 50 4, costs indorsed...
1 00 Number discharged ....
861 Drawing costs, copying and attending transaction....
1 75 1 75 1 75 Proceedings withdrawn in cases.....
Abated by death of party...
Number of cases then pending...
872 Amount charged, taxed by the judge, 1849, and certified by the clerk as legal and proper, per June term....... $21 25 Do. do. per July term
Mr. Burns charged from February 7, 1846. (the date of that Do. do. per August term..
178 50 report,) to November 18, 1848, for his attendance on the
court in bankruptcy to dispose of those three cases, 662 Total attorneys' fees charged and taxed.......
246 12% days, at $5 per day...
46 37 %
882 75 914 85 914 85
95 85 433 35 417 30
the same vessel,
S. J. Gholson, judge of that district, certified to the ac- Date.
Charges of the Marshal.
nent like ours, where the poor have as much count, and “that the attendance upon said court sitting in 1849.-April and May, service one warrant to bankruptcy of Willian Burns, clerk thereof, as specified
political power as the rich, and where the rela
commit, and one habeas corpus for three in the foregoing abstract, was expressly required by me,
witnesses, charged at $8 55 on each
tive positions of men in this respect are daily and said clerk did actually so attend for the performance
changing of the duties of his office.”
April and May, service one warrant and one “Given under my hand and seal,” &c.
I beg leave to express my dissent both from the habeas corpus, each for seven witnesses,
premises and conclusions of that gentleman. I now refer to an account for services rendered
at 818 55 each...
37 10 by the marshal of the district of Massachusetts,
Serving 29 warrants to commit, and 28
Ist. There are no millionaires and few capitalists
writs of habeas corpus for six witnesses in order that I may correct an erroneous impres
among sugar planters; the latter generally underat each time-charge at $16 05 on each
stand their own interest too well to embark in so sion that prevails in some quarters in regard to it.
uncertain and precarious a business. The Comptroller gives the account in the commu
20. The interest of the sugar planter is not opnication to which I have already referred under Serving 29 warrants to commit Wilson, and
posed to the interest of the laboring classes; on the the following caption:
28 writs of habeas corpus, for each $3'55.. 209 45
contrary, as I shall, I think, be able
to demonstrate. Abstract of costs tared and certified by the district judge Charged for serving subpenas on witnesses.
When I speak of capitalists, I mean men who and clerk in the district of Massachusetts.
Total marshal's charges in this cause. 1. Indictment for combining and
wield cash capital. I do not pretend to say that UNITED STATES
Do. conspiring with other persons to
No. 1, bro't forward. 1,085 10 there is no capital invested in sugar plantations. procure the ship Franklin to be
1,085 10 James W. Wilson.
The aggregate capital is very large, consisting, cast away and destroyed.
first, of the plantations previously employed in Do.
the cultivation of rice and cotton changed to the Charges of the Marshal. Amount.
culture of sugar-cane for reasons hereinafter stated; 1849.-April.-1. Warrant to arrest Wilson-ser
Total marshal's charges in the six causes..$6,147 55 vice $2; copy, $1; commitment, 50 cts.;
second, of the steam-engines, sugar-mills, kettles, travel, 5 cents.. $3 55
&c., &c., necessary to manufacture the cane into 2. Habeas corpus for Wilson-service, $2;
Judge Sprague, the judge of the district court for sugar, chiefly obtained from Ohio, Kentucky, copy $1; discharge, 50 cents; travel, 5
the district of Massachusetts, upon being informed || Tennessee, Virginia, and New York, which, at a 3. Warrant to commit Wilson-service, 92;
of this communication of the Comptroller, imme- fair estimate, must have cost at least $16,500,000, copy, $l; commitment, 50 cents; travel,
diately denied having certified and allowed the nearly all originally borrowed, and a considerable 5 cents......
account as there presented. He alleges that he || portion of which yet remains unpaid. 4. Warrant to commit 6 witnesses-service,
certified and allowed but one of the accounts, My friend (Mr. Meade) said that " in his opin. $12; copy, 81; 6 commitments, $3;
under one of the indictments; and that when he ion, for every dollar pocketed by the capitalist about travel, 5 cents 5. Habeas corpus for 6 witnesses-service,
certified it, it was not connected with the other one cent goes into that of the laborer." Now, I beg $12; copy, $1; 6 discharges, $3; travel,
accounts, which were upon separate sheets. It || leave to assure the gentleman and the House, that
appears that they were subsequently put together whatever may be the case in other branches of During the months of April and May said
and paged, with the certified sheet placed last in business, it will not apply to sugar planters in charges were repeated in the said cause
order, and thus presented to the Comptroller, who Louisiana; almost the very reverse is the fact, as as follows: Charge No. 2, 27 times, amounting to...... 95 85
was thereby erroneously but naturally led to sup. I will show by a simple statement of facts. No. 3, 27 do.
pose, that all had been certified and allowed by the I am guardian to a minor who owns part of a No. 4, 27 do. do.
court. It is difficult to perceive, in a proceeding sugar plantation in partnership with others. One No.5, 26 do.
of this kind, where there would seem to be sub- of the owners, who manages the concerns of the Total Marshal's fees charged in that suit..... $1,085 10
stantially but one offense charged, and but one partnership, is a capable, attentive, and discreet
trial in progress, any apparent object for bringing || person. The accounts are settled annually, and
| up each witness on six different writs of habeas dividends of the profits, if any, made on making 2. Indictment for the same offense, corpus, and committing him on six different war- the settlement. For the crop of 1851, it was found UNITED STATES
charging him with conspiring rants, daily, week after week, except that of in- that nearly the whole net proceeds of the crop had JAME, W. WILSON.
with Charles Smith to destroy creasing the emoluments of the officers of the been expended in procuring the necessary sup: Date. Charges of the Marshal. Amount.
court. I shall here dismiss this subject with the plies for the plantation, leaving but about five cents 1849.-The same number of charges, in precisely
remarks of the Comptroller on this point: in the dollar to the proprietors for their own attenthe same words, and during the same
“The names of the witnesses are not given, but the facts tion, industry, and interest on the capital invested. time, April and May, and for the same
and all the accounts indicate that there was but one set of The balance went to labor, about in the following amount each, are made in this case as
witnesses in all the six causes, and but one examination, proportion, viz: Twenty per cent. to the manager, in indictment No. 1, the marshal's fees amounting to.....
month of April, and part of the month of May; that six of sugar-boiler, engineer, carpenters, bricklayers, the eight witnesses committed to prison were all brought out coopers, and other laborers; five per cent, to phy
of prison daily on six writs of habeas corpus—one in each sicians and others; twenty per cent. for pork, UNITED STATES 13. Indictment for the same offense, cause-coinmilled at night on six warrants-one in each Aour, and other provisions, principally from the
charging him with conspiring cause; that this proceeding, was repeated on twenty-eight State of Ohio. The balance was paid for clothJAMES W. Wilson.
with John W. Crafts to destroy different days; and although only one of the ninety-two
ing, hats, shoes, axes, hoes, plows, &c., princiCharges of the Marshal. Amount.
witnesses must be brought up daily on six different writs of pally from the eastern States; sugar-kettles, grate1849.-The charges of marshal's fees in the third
habeas corpus, to be present on the examination of each of
bars, &c., as repairs, from Tennessee; hoop-poles cause or indictinent is for serving no less than 28 warrants to commit six witnesses torney were but $13 25 in each of these causes, amounting from Kentucky; horses and mules from Missouri
; to jail, each time, during the same months, in the six causes to only $79 50."
wagons and carts from Wheeling, Virginia, &c.; April and May, charged at $16 05 each, as
together with the cost of transporting those supcharge No.3... . $449 40
plies to the plantation. This, too, was exclusive For serving 27 writs of habeas corpus, each
SUGAR INTERESTS OF LOUISIANA.
of the freight, insurance, and charges on the sugar on six witnesses, charged at $16 05 on each
and molasses to market, deducted from the sales writ.
REMARKS OF HON. JOHN MOORE, by the factors before rendering the accounts on Total in third suit.. $882 75
which our settlement was made. The freight OF LOUISIANA,
alone amounted to about $2,300, paid principally
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, to vessels owned in the New England States. UNITED STATES > 4. Indictinent for combining and con spiring with persons unknown, 10
February 24, 1853.
. It will be perceived by this statement that about John W. CRAFTB.)
destroy the ship Franklin. The House being in the Committee of the Whole twenty-five per cent. went to labor in Louisiana, Charges of the Marshal. Amount.
on the state of the Union
and about seventy per cent. to labor in other States, 1849.--Marshal's fees charged in April and May for
over and above the freight and charges of the crop serving 29 warrants to commit 6 witnesses Mr. MOORE said:
to market. to jail, each time, on each writ, $10 05,
Mr. CHAIRMAN: I do not wish to consume the It is true, that the season of 1851-'52 was rather amounting to...
$465 45 time of the committee at this late stage of the unprofitable; for, although the production was an For serving 28 writs of habeas corpus, each on six witnesses, charged at $16 05, on each
session, yet not having had an opportunity pre average crop, the quality was inferior, and the writ.......
449 40 viously, I feel impelled by a sense of duty towards prices low. Better results are anticipated from the
a large portion of the people of Louisiana, a State Total on 4th suit.
crop of 1852. $914 85 that I have the honor in part to represent, to ask I can assure all who take an interest in the mat
permission to reply to some very erroneous opin- ter, that in order to succeed well in sugar planting, UNITED STATES
ions expressed by my friend from Virginia, (Mr. a knowledge of the business, together with close ing with C. Smith to destroy said MEADE,) in debate in the early part of the session attention and strict economy, are required. I John W. Crafts. S ship.
in relation to the sugar planters of Louisiana, by would not advise persons entertaining the opinion Date. Charges of the Marshal.
holding them up as " millionaire capitalists, whose expressed by the gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. 1849.-- April and May. The charges in this case are interest is opposed to the interest of the laboring Meade,) to engage in sugar planting: they would precisely the same as in No. 4, for serving
classes." 29 warrants to commit and 28 writs of
most assuredly deceive themselves, and fail, as I habeas corpus, each on six witnesses,
I was surprised that he, being a southern man, have known many to do. charged on each writ 816 05, amounting
one of the favored classes, and having near rela- I have shown, from facts, that the interest of the $914 85 tions and friends engaged in that culture, should sugar planters is not opposed to labor, but is in
have singled out a southern agricultural interest as reality an auxiliary to, and rewards labor. It inUNITED STATES 6. Indicted for combining and conspir- | a theme for an obnoxious method of attempting to creases the internal carrying-trade to a great ex
with James W. Wilson to destroy array the poor against the rich—a method, in my || tent. Two hundred and thirty thousand hogsJohn W. Crafts. S the same ship
opinion, not warranted in a country and Govern- I heads of sugar, with the molasses therefrom, New SERIES.No. 14.
320 CONG.....20 Sess.
Reciprocal Trade with Canada–Mr. Townshend.
HO. OF REPs.
(being about the average crop of Louisiana,) gives The imports of brown sugars in 1847-'48 were
RECIPROCAL TRADE. à carrying-trade about equal to 1,000,000 bales of 248,000,000 pounds. The average foreign value was cotton, although the net proceeds will not exceed three and sixty-one hundredths cents per pound. REMARKS OF MR. TOWNSHEND, the
net proceeds of 230,000 bales of cotton. The crop of Louisiana that year was 240,000 There is another view of the subject that may hogsheads. The average prices of homemade
OF OHIO, be fairly taken; it is this: there are now from sixty sugar in New Orleans, during the season,
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, thousand to seventy thousand hands employed in from two and three quarters to four cents per pound,
+ February 24, 1853, the cultivation of sugar in Louisiana. 'Destroy and sold as low as two and a quarter in April, that cultivation, and those hands will be employed, one and three quarters in May, and one and a
On the " Bill establishing Reciprocal Trade with
the British North American Provinces on certain most probably, in the cultivation of cotton; if not half cents per pound in June.
conditions." on the same lands, they will be removed to better In 1849–50 the imports of brown sugars were cotton lands—say to Texas, the fairest portion of 198,000,000 pounds. The average foreign value
Mr. TOWNSHEND said: these United States for planting. That number was three and forty-two one hundredths cents per Mr. SPEAKER: At this late day of the session of hands will produce 400,000 bales of cotton, on pound. The crop of Louisiana was 247,000 I would not tax the patience of the House by any an average, on good cotton lands. There is al- hogsheads. The average prices of homemade further discussion of this question, were it not that ready a sufficient quantity, if not too much cotton sugar in New Orleans, during the twelve months, no gentleman representing any part of the valley produced, and it is a well-known axiom in trade, were three and one twelfth to four and one third of the St. Lawrence—the region especially interthat an over supply reduces prices more than the cents per pound; and during five months, from ested in some of the most important provisions of proportion of the excess. January to Maỹ, inclusive, it sold as low as two
this bill—has yet been heard upon the subject. Our wisest men have over again and often re- and a half cents per pound.
AGRICULTURAL INTEREST. commended that a portion of the labor now em- In 1850-51 the imports of brown sugars were ployed in the cultivation of cotton be diverted to 363,537,861 pounds; the average foreign value
And in the first place I beg to offer a remark or some other branch of industry, in order to prevent three and fifty-four one hundredths cents; the crop
two for the purpose of quieting the fears of some an over supply. Then, if this view be correct, of Louisiana was 211,000 hogsheads, a consider gentlemen here-opponents of the measure-who the cotton planters, not only in Louisiana, but in able portion of which sold on the levee in New
seem to imagine that reciprocal free trade with and a ,
Canada is likely to be prejudicial to the agriculStates, have a direct interest in maintaining the quarters, and two cents per pound.
tural interest of the country, and especially to that cultivation of sugar-not by any unreasonable pro
of the Northwest. Perhaps I may venture to
According to a document published by Contection, (it is not asked,) but by extending to that gress in 1830, the consumption of sugar in the speak for this interest. l'am myself a farmer, branch of industry the same incidental encourage- United States in the year 1829, was estimated at
and I represent, in part, one of the best agriculment that may be extended to others, in any ad- 136,000,000 pounds; and it was estimated that in tural regions of the whole country. justment of the tariff that may be required to fix twenty-five years it would be increased to 300,- millions of bushels of wheat, not more than one
The Canadas annually produce some fifteen the revenues to the standard necessary to carry on 000,000 pounds, and that probably by that time the Government under an economical administra- Louisiana would produce nearly that quantity. third of which can be spared for exportation. This tion, being the point promised to and expected by The result, however, has been widely different surplus, it is supposed, may come into competithe people. From the best authority, the quantity consumed in
tion with the wheat grown in Ohio, Indiana, WiThe culture of sugar in the United States did the United States in the year ending 30th of June, 1 nois, and Michigan. But when it is recollected not take its rise under any tariff intended to protect 1851, is estimated to have exceeded 640,000,000 that the price of wheat in those States, and also that interest. I find that, in 1789, the first-Con- pounds, and the amount produced in Louisiana in Canada, is governed by the European, and pargress under the present Constitution imposed spe- was about 230,000,000 pounds.
ticularly the English market, to which our surcific duties on sugar, molasses, tea, and coffee. These facts and figures, taken from the best au- | plus, together with that of Canada, is sent, it is
In 1800, the duties on sugar were fixed at two and thorities, the reports of commerce and navigation, easily seen that it cannot be possible for Canadian a half cents per pound on brown, three cents on De Bow's Review, Champonier's Reports, the producers to undersell us in our own market. But clayed, five cents on loaf, five cents per gallon on prices-current of New Orleans, &c., sustain the
all these fears are utterly groundless in view of the molasses, and four cents per pound on coffee. This position that I have taken, that the cultivation of fact that the production of wheat in the British was some years before the acquisition of Loui
American Provinces is necessarily limited by the sugar to its present xtent in the United States has siana. reduced the prices to the consumers to a very con
rigors of the climate, a part of Canada only being During the war with Great Britain, the duties siderable extent; they show, too, that if the freight adapted for wheat culture, while the amount that on all articles were doubled, to defray the expenses and charges on the foreign brown sugar be added may be produced in our northwestern States is of the war. After the expiration of the war, in to the cost, that the Louisiana sugar uniformly of the Congressional district in which I reside, the 1816, the duty on brown sugar was fixed at three sells in New Orleans at a lower rate, except when cents per pound. there is a considerable falling off in the Louisiana
county of Wayne, had, last year, seventy thouVery little sugar cane was grown in Louisiana crop; and yet the best. Louisiana brown sugar is a
sand acres of wheat, the crop of which averaged previous to the war of 1812. It began to be culti- || cleaner and more desirable article for family use
thirty bushels an acre, or in the aggregate, amount
In Ohio vated as a crop during that war, because of the than the foreign brown sugars. It will no doubting to over two millions of bushels. difficulty of its importation and high price, and be asked why it is? The only reasons obvious to
there are eighty-five counties, each one of which because there was no demand for cotton, then the me are, that ihe production falls short of the ne
could readily produce one million of bushels a principal production of Louisiana. cessary quantity for the consumption of the coun
year, without interfering in any inconvenient deIn 1816, the amount of sugar produced in Loui- try, and that a large quantity must be imported, gree with other agricultural products. Under siana did not exceed 16,000 hogsheads. The cul- and that the West India sugar, being made from a
these circumstances, docs any one fear the comtivation then declined until about the year 1820, more matured plant, is dryer, less liable to lose in petition of the Canadas? The idea is absurd. when a disease in the cotton plant called the rot, weight, and therefore betier as an article of com
All that the agricultural interest of the Northinduced many planters to turn their attention to
west demands is, the removal of the obstacles merce for speculation, as it can be kept on hand a sugar. longer time to wait a favorable market.
thrown in the way of trade by a high and unequal In 1828, the crop of sugar in Louisiana had in- In the course of the discussion, several gentie. tariff
, and to secure the free navigation of the rivcreased to 88,000 hogsheads. It again fell off to men favorable to free trade advocated direct tax
er St. Lawrence. Only permit us to sell where 30,000 hogsheads in 1835. That short crop in-ation for the support of the General Government
we can sell dearest, and to buy where we can buy creased the price to double previous rates, which as the true policy. That will do to talk about—to
cheapest-permit us to avail ourselves of any margave a stimulus to its further and more successful || demagogue a little. I am old enough to know
ket we can find for our wheat and pork, beef, cultivation.
cheese, and other articles—permit us to buy lumsomething about direct taxation for that purpose. In 1849, the crop in Louisiana amounted to
ber, fish, and whatever else we need without reI lived during the embargo and war of 1812, when 247,000 hogsheads. It again fell off to 211,000 resort was had to that means, and am therefore
strictions, and we ask no favors of this Governhogsheads in 1850.
ment or of the rest of mankind. We have no privileged to give an opinion. Put it in practice, I have made some investigations in relation to
conscious weakness to excite our fears of comand you will throw the whole burden on the inthe imports of foreign sugar, and the foreign dustrial classes, principally the agricultural. The petition; we are not contending against the econprices as compared with the home, and the prob- politicians, office holders, moneyed men, and pop
omy and laws of nature and therefore we ask for able quantity consumed in the United States, that injays about towns and cities, that wear foreign
no artificial protection. This point settled, I come are both curious and instructive, and which, in finery and consume foreign luxuries, will contrib
now to consider briefly the bearings of reciprocity my opinion, prove conclusively, that the inciden- ute nothing. The industrial classes now pay town,
on the coal trade. tal encouragement given to that branch of industry city, county, and State direct taxes. Add direci
COAL INTEREST. by the duties on imports, intended entirely as taxes for the support of the Federal Government, It is to be regretted that the bill reported by the revenue measures, have tended to reduce the price send your Federal tax-collector down among the committee does not provide for the free exportato the consumers very considerably.
people, and let him begin to seize the cattle, horses, tion and importation of coal. I sincerely hope it In 1815, Louisiana sugar sold on the levee in agricultural implements, &c., for the payment of will be amended in this particular. My anxiety New Orleans, at fifteen cents per pound. The taxes. I would not like to be in the place of that for this amendment does not arise simply from quantity then produced did not exceed 15,000 officer, nor of the party that imposed the tax. That the fact that the shipping interest of the lakes hogsheads. In 1831 the sugar crop in Louisiana party, sir, would be hurled from power like a trap- || desires the profits of the trade, nor merely from was estimated at about 70,000 hogsheads. Prices ball; it would vanish, as the old Federal party did my conviction that it will directly promote the in New Orleans ranged at from four to five cents more than half a century ago, when it imposed general interests of the country; but also from the per pound. In 1835, the crop fell off to 30,000 the excise law, the stamp act, the alien and sedi- fact which is, or which ought to be, perfectly hogsheads. In the early part of 1836, prices went tion law, and others of like nature.
understood, that without this provision for free up to ten and twelve cents per pound.
trade in coal, our proposed reciprocity will not be 320 Cong....20 Sess.
Reciprocal Trade with Canada—M:. Townshend.
HO. OF REPS.
accepted by the Provincial Parliament. To obtain the only fuel. Now, the question is, shall we, Canada are not in a condition to compete with a market for this coal is the principal object with | by legislation preventing competition, compel the ours, and of course ours do not need to be proNova Scotia and New Brunswick, and the only millions who want coal and must have it to pay an tected against them. On the other hand, many of consideration that will induce then to concede to extra and exorbitant price in order that a few our wares will find in Canada an excellent marus the benefits of their coast fisheries.
brokers, owning coal stocks, may realize enor- ket, and eastern manufacturers are, some of them, At present, Pennsylvania almost monopolizes the mous profits? At this age of the world, will a already becoming convinced that the Canadian coal trade of the country. That State sells some five monopoly which bears with such crushing weight market is worth more to them than any protective millions of tons annually, at a cost to consumers on the working classes, longer be tolerated? I duty they will be likely to obtain. Our manufacof $20,000,000. It is not, therefore, surprising think not. And I believe I may safely leave this turers will also be benefited by the free introducthat the coal interest there should resist the free | matter and proceed to speak of the lumber interest. tion of various kinds of raw material. To cheapen importation of coals from Nova Scotia, where they
these is to increase the manufacturer's profits, or are found in great abundance and of excellent The British Provinces have almost inexhaustible | what is the same thing, it enables him to enter into quality. It may, however, be seriously doubted || supplies of pine lumber. This is greatly needed competition more successfully with the foreign whether the coal interest of Pennsylvania has
for building purposes in most of the western cities, article. And further, by establishing an extenanything to fear from free trade in this article, and through the prairie country of the West im- sive free list of Canadian unmanufactured articles, though if it has it is just as certain that other im
mense quantities would be used could it be freely the more tariff must be raised from those articles portant interests of that great State would be pro- imported. It is needed, also, in the eastern States by which come mone into competition with our own. portionately promoted.
those of our manufacturers whose wares are made The manufacturing interest, in fact, loses nothing The coal imported from Nova Scotia and New wholly or in part of this material; and in all the by reciprocity with Canada, but gains much. Brunswick is highly bituminous, some of it con
eastern cities it is as absolutely needed as in the Having said thus much in reply to some of the taining as much as sixty per cent. of volatile mat
West for building purposes; in fact, it is there a objections to this measure, let us now consider ter. Such coal as this can never come into com
necessary of life; house and home, which cannot some of its advantages. petition with the anthracite of Pennsylvania. The be built without lumber, are just as necessary as
TRADE WITH CANADA. latter will always be preferred for domestic and food and fire.
Some idea of the beneficial character of our Casome other purposes; and in confirmation of this,
Maine and North Carolina have pine lumber for nadian trade, and the still greater benefits to be I may refer to the fact, that the British Cunard
exportation. The lumber from these States, and derived from a liberal reciprocity, may be obtained steamers, which stop at Halifax, do not and can
particularly that from North Carolina, finds a by a view of the extent to which this trade has not use the Nova Scotia coal, but obtain the coal
market in our Atlantic cities, and also in the already reached, in spite of all obstacles and rethey use from Pennsylvania, though at a much British West India islands, where it is received | strictions. I will not consume the time of the higher price. It is also equally notorious, that all without any discrimination being made in favor House by reading tabular statements, but content the anthracite in Pennsylvania would not make
of Canadian lumber. This West India market is | myself with giving amounts in round numbers, gas enough to supply the city of Philadelphia for so valuable that North Carolina makes little or no a single evening; nor from the Cumberland coal || objection to the free admission of Canadian lum- registered exports to the British North American
securing, however, substantial accuracy. Our can gas be made without the admixture of some
ber into those sections of the Union that could Provinces for the last year exceed $12,000,000, more bituminous variety. Free trade in coal will
, from their position and want and the registered imports from the quarter therefore result in the exportation of Pennsylvania coals to be used for purposes to which they are State, the West India market being an equivalent sible to watch thoroughly by Government officials best adapted, and in the importation of coals from
for, and better than that of the western States. | aborder of two thousand miles in extent, it is certhe Provinces to be used for the special purposes But Maine, from which a large share of the best tain that the actual trade is much greater. We to which they are suited. It is also true that an
timber is already cut, wants to exclude the lumber may safely set down the aggregate at $20,000,000. increased consumption of anthracite will, to some of the Canadas, and to force her spruce and infe- | This trade has all sprung up within a few years. extent, take place, for it is known that some fac- rior pine on the market at high prices. It is astories in the East are now lying idle, because they serted, that unless competition from the Provinces
It is now rapidly increasing, and would continue cannot, without paying a high duty, obtain a cer
to increase beyond any previous ratio, were it not is prevented, and the absolute monopoly of the for the obstacles interposed by unwise legislation. tain amount of Pictou coal, which they find it ben
trade be secured to Maine, her hardy lumbermen The average rate of duties levied by Canada on eficial to use in connection with that from Pennsylvania. Such is the difference in the qualities of it, “stumpage is so high.” This stumpage is and-a-half per cent., while the average of duties
cannot make fair wages, because, as they express goods imported from the United States is twelvethese coals, and so different the purposes for which the price paid by the lumbermen to the landed | levied by the United States on goods imported from each is especially adapted, that Pennsylvania and proprietors for the privilege of cutting the time the Canadas is twenty-three per cent. This inNova Scotia can scarcely come into direct compe- || ber, and varies, as I am told, according to quality equality of duties accounts in part for the difference tition. But the Liverpool coal, which more closely || and location, from two dollars up to eight dollars between our exports and imports, which in a great resembles that from Nova Scotia, will suffer more by this competition, and must ultimately be driven || cluding foreign lumber that enables the Maine land
a thousand feet. It is the monopoly of the trade ex- measure destroys the mutual advantage of the fiom our market.
trade. But the worst effect of such high duties is holders to charge so much for stumpage. Increase The importance of the western coal trade can
to stop trade in many articles altogether. Our scarcely have been taken into consideration by rise still higher; reduce the duties, and then stump: | much it may be needed, unless it will pay a suffi
the duty on imported lumber, and stumpage will merchants cannot now import an article, however those representing the coal interest here. This is already of great consequence, but it is speedily | the lumbermen will not be affected, whether stump- cent., nor can they carry there the productions of
age will be lower. Prices regulate stumpage, and cient profit over and above the twenty-three per destined to be immensely increased. Our lake lage be high or low. The hardy lumbermen, over our skill and industry unless they can make on trade now employs about seventy-four thousand tons of steam-vessels mostly using coal, and the the least, but rather injured by those high duties, cent. duty charged in Canada, and consequently
whom tears are almost shed, are not benefited in them a living profit over and above the twelve per whole of the Canadas are entirely destitute of the
and all this humbug of protection is not designed the exchange of many articles is entirely prevented article, so that Toronto and other growing cities
for their benefit, but for the benefit of the wealthy which else might be exchanged with great mutual will be compelled to obtain their supplies from the
few. western part of Pennsylvania and from Ohio. The
benefit. These restrictions on our trade are of
The Provinces are ready to concede to the Unidemand in this direction will be an equivalent for
course highly injurious to our shipping interest. ted States the free navigation of the St. John; | Freights have to be increased, as the certainty of any competition or diminution of demand in the
but with this bonus Maine is not satisfied. She return cargoes is lessened. But let trade be free eastern cities.
Pennsylvania is also largely engaged in the demands, in addition, not only the West India and the number of articles of exchange increased, manufaciure of iron; this is, in fact, her especial | the ports of the British islands shall be open to
and freights might be greatly reduced, and yet manufacturing interest. The iron manufacturers
larger profits be made. her lumber. Of course, we do not object to the And when these restrictions are removed, other are now compelled to compete with those of Eng: opening of the ports of Great Britain. We do i sections of the Union will share with the lake land at a great disadvantage, not only on account
not in the least object to Maine getting a good bar. of the difference in the price of labor, but also on
country in the benefits of the Canadian trade. Kengain. On the contrary, we would be glad to see account of the difference in the price of coal. In
tucky will find a new market for her tobacco and England, iron can be afforded cheap, mainly be it; but we protest against loading down this bill hemp. Louisiana secures a market for her raw
with provisions which are probably designed, and sugar. South Carolina gains admission for her rice; cause in many localities the iron and coal and a clay suitable for fire bricks, and of which furna
certainly calculated, to defeat the whole measure and in addition to these products from opposite ces can be built, are found in alternate layers; it | Shall the St. Lawrence remain closed to our com
by making it impossible for the Provinces to agree. sides of the Union, our manufacturing States wili therefore costs nothing to bring the iron and coal
find a new and profitable market for their wares. together. Should, therefore, the introduction of coal sacrificed? Shall the whole country be taxed, merce, and the interests of the whole North be
FREE NAVIGATION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE. from the British Provinces have the effect to reand its progress arrested for the sake of this
But the principal obstacle in the way of the duce the price of coals, as some suppose, it will in monopoly, when the whole value of the entire
commerce of the lakes will only be removed the same ratio increase the profits of the iron-maslumber trade of Maine bears such an insignificant
when Great Britain shall be induced to concede ters. The manufacturers of the East are also equally interested with the iron men in obtaining | liberal reciprocity? Assuredly not. And now a
to us the free navigation of the river St. Lawrence, proportion to the interests to be promoted by a
What are these great lakes but expansions of this cheap fuel. But there is another consideration which, of word or two in reference to manufactures.
magnificent river? It is the natural outlet to the
ocean, and not less is it the natural highway for itself, ought to be conclusive in favor of free
our commerce with the world. But because this trade in this article. Fuel is about as much a I am happy to see that but little opposition to river has been closed against us, other a d artifinecessary of life as food; and for those that live this measure comes from the representatives of cial channels of communication between the lakes in the great Atlantic cities, coal is fast becoming the manufacturing interest. The manufactures of and the sea-board have been constructed at enor.