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320 Cong.....20 Sess.

Railroad to the PacificMr. Smith.


co.n nerce.

mous expense, which has been justified by the say nothing of the various rapids between the head act in concert, and whatever is not obtained at this incalculable benefit some of these, as the Erie canal, waters of the St. Lawrence and its mouth, there is session will be secured at the next. have been to the country and to the West. But be Niagara, where alone seems to be power enough Before taking my seat, Mr. Speaker, I would sides the expensiveness of using these artificial to turn all the wheels in the world. Hitherto this move an amendment to the bill by inserting the channeis—and that is no trifle, for the Erie canal || prodigious accumulation of power has run to word “coal” among the articles enumerated in

levied $3,000,000 last year in tolls on produce go- waste. This cannot be suffered longer. The people the first section. I desire also to move an amend. ,ing east and on merchandise going west-there is who tame the lightning, and compel it to run on ment in reference to lumber, but as there is now

another and still more serious objection: they are errands, will soon pul bands on this old giant, and pending a motion to commit, these amendinents, I inadequate to our wants; not all ihe railroads and compel him to grind in the prison-house. There | know, would not be in order. I hope to have an canals that have been constructed since the Erie is, therefore, in nature nothing wanting to make opportunity to propose them at the proper time. canal, are able yet to meet the demands of our this valley the great manufacturing region of the | There is, however, another change which I very

country but the removal of those commercial re- much desire, and as I cannot move it as an amend. The trade of the great lakes in 1851 was strictions which alone prevent the development of ment, I ask that by general consent it may be made $326,000,000, or more by $40,000,000 than the || its immense resources.

as a correction. The bill provides for ihe free exexports of the whole country. This trade employs

change of undried fruit, while dried fruit is not

COAST FISHERIES, ETC. some two hundred and fifteen thousand ions of shipping, of which about two thirds are in sailing ves.

We have still another inducement to adopt a of Lake Erie is a beautiful fruit region; our peaches

embraced within its provisions. The south shore sels, and about one third is propelled by steam.

liberal measure of reciprocity, inasmuch as on this The sum invested in this shipping is over is likely to depend a satisfactory adjustment of the I think the best in the country. These apples in the

are equal to those of New Jersey, and our apples $8,000,000, and so long as we are not permitted to

difficulties growing out of the coast fisheries. By undried state are barreled up for ex poriation, and use the river St. Lawrence, this $8,000,000 is coman existing convention, as we all understand, our

this trade is of some consequence to us, but our pelled to lie idle and unproductive for about one

vessels are not permitted to fish within a marine trade in dried apples and peaches is, I believe, ihird of the year, while the interest on the capital | league of the shores of the British Provinces, nor

much more important, and restrictions on it would thus invested is running up to $250,000. If the

have they the privilege of drying and packing on navigation of the St. Lawrence” were secured 10 shore. By the first of these prohibitions they are stituents. Sir, the pretty daughters of our west

operate severely on the fairest portion of our conus, a large proportion of this shipping would load excluded from the best fishing-grounds; by the

ern farmers have a commendable way of making up' in the fall with the produce of the West

, and second, they are prevented from securing properly their pin-money by drying this fruit. I trust, run down the St. Lawrence and out to sea before

what they do lake. From both these restrictions therefore, that no gentleman will think of raising the ice had closed the river. During the winter, they would gladly escape, and it is not surprising an objection to a correction, so that the bill instead voyages would be made to England, to the Medi

that both are often disregarded; and hence Great of "undried fruits," may read “fruits dried and terranean, to the West Indies, or to South Amer

Britain has to send ships-of-war to secure to the undried." ica. In the spring they would return, bringing fishermen of the Provinces the enjoyment of their

The SPEAKER. No objection is made. The cargoes from the countries they had visited, or

monopoly. Our vessels are often seized, and much | Clerk will make the correction. they would bring fish from the Provinces, pass

irritation and some danger grows out of it. If we Mr. TOWNSHEND. Then I conclude, sir, up the river again, and be on the lakes in time

can offer to the British Provinces a liberal scheme by expressing the hope, that when the bill comes for the summer trade. of reciprocal free trade, it is understood they will

up for final action, it will first be amended, and A gentleman near me remarks “ that the lake

surrender all exclusive right to take fish upon their then passed. craft dare not venture upon a navigation sn

coasts, and our fishermen will have free access to dangerous as that of the Gulf of St. Lawrence." the best fishing.grounds in the world. Should

RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC. , To ihai I reply, that the men who dare to sail on

this arrangement be made, every family in the Lake Erie, where there is neither depth of water

Union may be benefited, because fish may then be | SPEECH OF HON. TRUMAN SMITH, nor sea-room, will not be afraid of ihat gulf, nor obtained ai lower rates and of better quality. In its of any other place where money is to be made. national bearings, this free access to the provincial

OF CONNECTICUT, A few years since, a vessel' started from Cleve- fishing grounds is universally conceded to be of In the Senate, February 17, 1853, land, loaded with western produce, and carrying

rast importance. The fishing trade thus opened on the bill for the protection of the Emigrant Route some of my neighbors as passengers; she wen will give employment to tens of thousands of and a Telegraphic line, and for an Overland Mail down the St. Lawrence, by special permission,

men and boys, and so become the great nursery between the Missouri River and the settlements then out to sea, and round by Cape Horn to San for seamen, from which our naval and mercantile in California and Oregon. Francisco, in safely—thus practically solving this marine may always be supplied. The import- Mr. SMITH said: problem; and it was not inappropriate, therefore,

ance of this consideration cannot easily be over- Mr. President: I do not know but that this that she was named the Eureka.. Make the river estimated.

subject has already been sufficiently discussed to free to us, and thousands of vessels will follow in We come, then, to the conclusion that this meas- | enlighten the deliberations of the Senate, and to the same course.

ure of reciprocal free trade with Canada will not conduct us to such results as shall accord with The people living in the valley of the St. Law- | injure any section of this Union, nor scarcely any the public interest. I am a strong friend of this rence are of the opinion that the Government of of its particular interests, even temporarily, while | measure, and do not intend it shall be killed off by the United States ought to make an effort in refer. it is of vital importance to a large portion of the unnecessary or protracted debate. If, therefore, ence to this river as decided as that which was so country, and will, by its direct effects, or by the | the Senate will indicate a desire to bring the quessuccessfully and properly made in 1803, 10 secure collateral advantages secured in connection with tion at once to the test of a vote, I will resume my the freedom of the Mississippi. The St. Lawrence it, be highly beneficial to the whole. So far as is in the North and West what the Mississippi is this measure goes, it is a step in the right direction; Mr. GWIN. Agreed ! let us have a vote. to the West and South. The valley of the St. it knocks off some of the fetters with which com- Mr. COOPER. I desire to address the Senate Lawrence is not less important to the country than merce has too long been bound. I believe that on the subject, and cannot consent to forego the the valley of the Mississippi. It contains half a “sound policy requires a system of free trade with || privileges of the floor. million of square miles, embracing, on our side of all nations that will trade free with the United Several SENATORS, to Mr. SMITH. Go on! Go the line, western Vermont, northern and western States." We think this especially true in refer- on ! New York, north western Pennsylvania, the north- ence to these neighboring Provinces, settled, as Mr. SMITH. I must, then, throw myself on ern portions of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, the they are to a great extent, by a people having the the indulgence of the Senate in submitting a few whole of Michigan, and part of Wisconsin and same origin, language, and pursuits; being, in fact, remarks, which I trust will be accorded to me, if Minnesota. ll already has a population exceeding in many instances our relatives or friends, and often for no other reason, in consideration of the fact sour millions, and it is not unworthy of note separated from us merely by an imaginary line. that I seldom obtrude myself on the notice of this in estimating its future, that it lies wiihin those It is for the interest of these neighbors to trade | body, and never except to discuss some matter of latitudes where the densest population of the Old and make exchanges, and they will do it. Then, practical importance. I have taken no part in World is to be found. With the exception of why not openly permit what you cannot and ought the discussion of a variety of questions which have the agricultural, the most important resources of not to prevent?

been raised here touching our foreign relations, this great valley are almost entirely undeveloped. I know that some of the friends of this measure and which have occupied a large portion of our Scarcely anything has yet been done to open to have doubts of its success at the present session. time during the present session, to the exclusion the world the immense mineral resources of the We are now near its close, and perhaps attention of this and other matters deeply concerning the Lake Superior region. Around that vast inland has not been sufficiently turned to this subject. welfare of the American people. But though we sea the whole country almost seems to be but a Lest these fears should prove to be well founded, are brought very late to an examination of this. succession of rich ore beds; copper, iron, and lead which, however, I am not willing to helieve, I take bill, I hope enough of time and opportunity reare found there in greater abundance 'than else- this occasion to say that this beneficial measure mains to enable us to make an enlightened and where in the world. When the ship canal around can certainly be secured if those interested in the proper disposition of the question before us. And the Falls of the St. Mary's river, now about being commerce of the valley of the St. Lawrence will what, sir, is that question? It is whether we shall commenced, shall have been completed, the whole bestir themselves. The subject is but imperfectly now adopt a measure commended to our confi. mineral wealth of this region will be made avail. understood even by those inost immediately in- | dence by the deliberations of some of the ablest able. Millions of tons of coal from Ohio and terested. The press must do its work, and the and most experienced members of this body. from Pennsylvania will be carried thither, and public mind must be informed and aroused. Let I confess, Mr. President, I have concluded, copper and iron brought back in return. But be- the Representatives to Congress from this noble contrary to my first impression, that it is my duty sides the agricultural and mineral resources of the valley come thoroughly posted up on this question, to acquiesce in the result of those deliberations, and St. Lawrence valley, it is possessed of unequaled and prepared at the outset to insist that the most to give the bill before us, with slight exceptions, hydraulic power, which is to be applied, and at efficient man from the whole lake region be placed my cordial support. It is true I did, very early no distant day, to manufacturing purposes. To on the Committee on Commerce. Finally, let them I in the debate, express the opinion that it would



320 Coxg...20 Sess.
Railroad to the Pacific-Mr. Smith.

SENATE. be impracticable, during the present short session, fers on the contractors corporate powers, which a single or double track, nor whether it shall be so to arrange and settle the general plan and de- would seem to be quite important, if not indispens- finished in five years or twenty-five. The idea of tails of a bull as that it would command the sup- able, to a proper execution of the contract, the getting any valuable information for the guidance port of the two Houses of Congress. I therefore convenience of the parties, and the safety of the of Congress in this strange way, cannot of course insisted that nothing more could be done than to capital to be advanced by them.

be seriously entertained by one so eminently pracmake provision for such surveys and explorations To this bill the honorable Senator from Penn- | tical as the honorable mover. Without intending as would be required for a proper and just appre-sylvania (Mr. BRODHEAD) has proposed an amend any disrespect to the Senator, I have to say I conciation of the sunject by the next Congress. But ment, the only effect of which will be to adjourn sider his proposition a mere evasion of the question the Select Committee, at the head of which my over the whole project for an indefinite period. He before us. I think it would be better to reject the honorable and excellent friend, the Senator from moves to strike out the enacting clause, and to sub. bill at once, than to adopt a measure so utterly fuTexas, (Mr. Rusk,) has been placed, has satisfied stitute a provision for such explorations and sur-tile and impracticable. I understood him to avow, me that I was mistaken. They have brought be veys, by and under the direction of the Secretary with a commendable frankness, that his object is to fore us a bill which seems to me to have been well of War, as he may deem advisable to ascertain the defeat the bill; but I think it would be more manly considered, and to be substantially right, both in most practicable and economical route, for a rail- and more statesmanlike to defeat it by a direct and its general plan and details. I am, therefore, for road from the Mississippi to the Pacific; and also positive negation, rather than by a substitution pressing this bill to a vote; I am for taking the a further provision authorizing and requiring the which on its face amounts to nothing and can come judgment of the Senate on the subject, and let Secretary to receive proposals from individuals or to nothing. inose incur the responsibility who would defeat associations, for the construction of the road, to be Without dwelling any further on the substitute the measure and postpone even the commence- laid before Congress at its next session.

which has been offered by the honorable and very ment of this work for two years longer. Be it This amendment, Mr. President, will, if adopt- worthy Senator from Pennsylvania, I proceed 10 remembered, if we do not act now, no bill can ed, be in substance a rejection of the bill, and a say that there are three different methods which be got through the next Congress until July or repudiation of the labors of the committee. It is can be adopted, to provide for the construction of August, 1854, and that little or nothing can be certain, that if we are to have a thorough explora- this work.' The first is to make it exclusively a done to advance the measure until the spring of tion and survey of all the various rolites, and the Government work, to be executed by the national 1855. Hence, sir, I rejoice at the success of the costs of each precisely ascertained so that we may Executive, in conformity with the directions of committee, and I desire to proffer to them my cor-determine which is the most practicable and eco-Congress, and at the proper cost of the national dial thanks for their indefatigable labors. If noth- nomical, as an indispensable preliminary to the Treasury. It is believed that great advantages ing is now done on this important subject, no one action of Congress, the work cannot be commenced would attend this plan, provided the contract can think of laying the blame at their door. in many years.

system be adopted, and the contractors be compenI repeat, Mr. President, I consider this bill sub- The honorable Senator would seem to contem- || sated in part out of the public domain. The constantially right. I do not mean that either the plate a survey of all possible routes, and of all tract system would, in my judgment, be indispengeneral plan or details are such as I would have | possible modifications of each route, for in no sable to a proper economy. If it were executed proposed. I suppose if every honorable member other way can the question of comparative prac- after the fashion of the Cumberlan | road, I do not were to be charged with a subject like this, sus- ticability and economy be settled. Of course he hesitate to say it would cost three or four times as ceptible of an infinite variety of plans and details, must cause a survey to be made by way of the much as it ought to cost. But by letting the road each would adopt a measure having a specific South Pass to the navigable waters of the Colum- out in sections to the lowest bidders, I suppose the character, and differing from that of every other bia, if not to Puget's Sound, and then, also, by the outlay could be brought within reasonable limits, member. If we are to wait until every member same pass, to San Francisco. He must cause a and would not greatly exceed the cost of roads has before him exactly the scheme he would pre- survey to be made by way of New Mexico and constructed by private enterprise and capital in fer, we should wait until the end of time. I 'feel Walker's Pass, to the Pacific; and then he must various parts of the country. If, then, we were to myself under an obligation to lay aside my pre- take up each of these general routes, and examine add compensation in part from the public domain, ferences and my notions of what would be best in all the various modifications which may be sug- in the usual manner, the requisitions on the Treasdealing with such a subject. If I can find in the gested. He must also ascertain what is the num- | ury would be reduced so low that they could be bill a plan that is practicable, and which does not ber of square yards of embankments, excavations, promptly met without serious inconvenience to compromit any great public interest, or violate any and masonry, which would be required on each || any branch of the public service. But this scheme fundamental principle, it will be enough for me. route, together with the cost of viaducts, depôts, is not now before us, and therefore I need not I shall feel it to be my duty to accord to it my and other structures, indispensable to the proper | dwell on it further. support.

working of a railroad. He would be obliged to A second method would be to make the conAnd what, Mr. President, is the object contem- organize several corps of engineers, and employ struction of the road exclusively a private underplated by this bill, and what is the scheme by them on different parts of ihe work, and each taking, and to put the work into the hands of such which that object is to be reached? The former would have to be protected by detachments from citizens as may be disposed to furnish the requisite is one of the most magnificent which could be pro- the Army. How long would it take to execute capital, and would execute the work on the most posed to an American Senate, being no less than such a work, and what amount of expenditure | favorable terms for the public; leaving it to their the establishment of a railroad and telegraphic would be required ?

own sagacity and sense of interest to fix its termini communication between the navigable waters of Fortunately, we have the lights of experience and general course, together with all the details of the Mississippi river, or one of its tributaries, and to guide us. On the 30th of May next it will be location, making them such compensation in land, those of the Pacific coast, and this, too, wholly | four years since we commenced running the bound- or money, or both, as may be deemed adequate, within our own territory-an enterprise of vast ary between the United States and Mexico, in con- just, and equitable. It is safe to say that whatmagnitude, which, when accomplished, cannot fail formity with the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. ever would be best for the stockholders in respect to produce results of infinite consequence to our. The work has not been finished to this day, and to the location and general course of the road, selves, and to the world. The scheme is a mode- || has cost us half a million of dollars; and yet would be quite likely, nay, morally certain, to acrate one. It does not involve an appropriation of at least one half of that boundary consisted of cord with the public interests. The sagacity and any considerable amount of the public treasure, and rivers; and with respect to the other half we had shrewdness of private enterprise would be no un. certainly no part of the public domain now of nothing to do but to draw a line from point to safe arbiter of questions which it might be diffimuch value, and yet it holds out such encourage point on the surface of the earth, and mark it by cult to settle in the two Houses of Congress. ments for the investment of private capital, and the suitable monuments. How infinitely more vast The third method is the one which we have beenlistment of private enterprise, as to make the is the undertaking proposed by the honorable Sen- fore us; it is the intermediate method, where govexecution of the work, within a reasonable period, ator! Estimates of embankments, excavations, Iernmental control and capital is combined to some morally certain. The bill sets aside $20,000,000 masonry, and other matters appertaining to a rail- extent with individual control and capital. The for this work, to be advanced as it progresses, and road, would be found to be quite a different affair | Government is to fix the termini of the road, and grants in the States alternate sections of the public from merely settling a line, as in the case of the | its general course throughout, and the details of lolands, on each side of the road, for six miles in United States and Mexico. I verily believe the cation and execution of the work is to be confided width, and in the Territories, for twelve miles in surveys that would be necessary to enable Con- to such citizens as may be disposed to furnish the width. It makes it the duty of the President, after gress to determine which is the most practicable capital requisite for the consummation of this great obtaining the requisite information, to fix the ter- and most economical route would require more enterprise. I need not, Mr. President, enter into a mini and general course of the road, and then di- time and a larger expenditure of money than the comparison of these three methods. The honor, rects him to enter into a contract, after public construction of the road itself.

able committee have seen fit to adopt the last, and notice, with the lowest bidders, for the construc- But the honorable Senator (Mr. Brodhead] || I can see no superior advantages in either of the tion of the road and telegraphic line, with regu- | requires the Secretary of War to receive proposals | two former to induce me to reject the latter. I lations and details which need not be specified for the construction of a road from the valley of therefore have made up my mind to support it. The contractors are to own the road and line, and the Mississippi to the Pacific ocean, and to lay But there are some objections which have been to levy tolls subject to the supervision and control them before Congress at the next session. How made to this plan, which I wish to notice briefly. of Congress to a certain extent, and are to sur- can proposals be made when the honorable Senator They have been examined, and as I humbly conrender them up to the

United States at the end of does not condescend to inform us how, when, or ceive, refuted with signal ability by my honorable thirty years, should Congress so elect on terms where this road is to be constructed ? He does not and excellent friend, the Senator from Tennessee, which would seem to be equitable and just. In say whether it is to be a road to the Columbia (Mr. Bell,) who has just resumed his seat. the mean time, they are to be subjected to such river or to San Francisco, or if to the latter point, It has been asserted by honorable Senators, and burdens by the free transportation of the mails, whether it shall have its course through the South among others the honorable Senator from South and the officers, troops, and property of the Uni- Pass or by New Mexico;-whether its eastern Carolina, (Mr. Butler,) to whose opinions I have ted States, as are likely, in course of thirty years, terminus shall be on the Mississippi or at some ever been disposed to listen with deference and to be more than an equivalent for the money

ad- point in the western boundary of Arkansas, Mis- respect, that this bill proposes to confer on the Exvanced and the land granted. The bill also con- souri, or lowa;-whether it is to be a road with | ecutive, or the chief of the incoming Administra320 CONG.....20 Sess.

Railroad to the Pacific-Mr. Smith.


as the result of many years observation Chany

: mid deen Finance for the Senate, and the Ways

tion, a power which is unprecedented in the history out debate, or not act on it at all. We have so such fullness and precision of survey and of esof the country. I fully admit the extent and mag- much liberty of debate, that we really have none timates is wholly unnecessary. In such a vast nitude of the power proposed to be conferred. To at all as to most of the matters calling for the ac- undertaking, one or two millions the one way or fix the termini of this road, and to lay down or tion of Congress. Hence, after many weary the other is of no importance, and it would be establish its general course, is to decide questions months in listening, with what patience we can folly in the extreme to waste ten millions in order which deeply concern the welfare of the whole muster, to never-ending disquisitions, relating to to save one or two. With respect to the practicacountry; and yet I cannot see how we can do anything else than legitimate subjects of legisla- bility of the work, much is already known. We better than to place the disposition of these ques- tion, we find the moment at hand when the session need, for example, no survey, to satisfy us that we tions in the hands of the Executive. I think we must be closed. We then snatch up the appropria- can construct a road to the South Pass, and from can do so, under the circumstances of the case, tion bills and hurl them through the two Houses, thence to the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada. with safety and propriety.

much as shot may be thrown out of a shovel. No- The assent from the Missouri to the pass is so I am apprehensive, Mr. President, that I shall body knows what they are, or what they provide very gradual as not to be perceptible to the travbe obliged to pay a poor compliment to the two for, unless the honorable members of the Com- eler; but when he comes to test the elevation by Houses of Congress, for I am constrained to say,

the barometer, he finds himself, if I do not misand Means of the House, be exceptions. What

recollect the figures, from six to seven thousand have as much confidence in the impartiality, sound a rush do we witness, of secretaries, clerks, and feet above tide water. discretion, and high sense of patriotism and duty, | messengers, to and from the two Houses, and to Every one admits we can build a railroad from of the President elect-nay, a good deal more and from each and the Executive, all in bot haste, the Missouri to the Sierra Nevada, but whether than I have in the collective judgment and wisdom lest this or that appropriation should be lost by we can get over that mountain-is a matter of doubt. of the two Houses of Congress. I am not among the advent of the inexorable hour.

The Sierra would have to be explored through those who share the responsibility of his elevation Now, suppose all the surveys and explorations several degrees of latitude and all the passes careto the Presidency. I supported, with whatever contemplated by the honorable Senator from Penn- fully examined. This would be the only point on of effort I was

services such as no man estimated, now living can boast of, and who, I thought, by (the world would hardly contain the books which It would be necessary to examine the ridge behis great experience, his generous and patriotic would be written,) and the whole of this vast tween the waters of the Mississippi or its tribucourse, bis unspotted life, and his transcendent

amount of information should be pitched into the taries and those of the Rio Grande; also the ridge abilities, was entitled to fill the chief executive of- two Houses of Congress, what would become of between the waters of the Rio Grande and those fice. But my wishes, my opinions, and my efforts, | it? What chance would there be that the subject of the Colorado, and also the ridge between the were overruled, and, like a good citizen,'I cheer- would receive a dispassionate and a proper examin- | waters of the Colorado and those of the San Joafully acquiesce in the result. The President elect ation? Should we not have interminable debates, quin. This would involve an exploration of all has received a high expression of the confidence and either no result or a very unfortunate one, the mountain passes. Probably the grades would of his countrymen. The North and the South, rushed through on the very heel of the session? have to be ascertained at all the difficult points on the East and the West, supported him with unex- And, then, what heart-burnings, what jealousies, each route, and then the question, whether of pracampled unanimity, and it is my sincere desire what sectional dissensions should we not have! ticability or economy, must be decided either by that his Administration may be successful—may Would not the opponents of this policy, reinforced Congress, or, as proposed in this bill, by the Exconduce to the prosperity of the American people, by those who are dissatisfied with this or that ecutive. I believe all the information requisite to and to the success of our free system of govern- ) location, be sure to defeat the whole scheme? In- a proper disposition of the subject could be obment. I shall oppose to that Administration no

deed, on the question whether the fixing of the tained in a single season, and then we can comfactious opposition, and shall be governed, on all termini and the general course of the road shall or mence the construction of the road at an early occasions, by a proper sense of right and of duty: shall not be referred to the Executive Departments, day. Having determined on the point of depart

And what, after all, is this power to be vested || depends, in my judgment, the question whether ure and the general course of the road, the surin the hands of the Executive, which some honor- we shall or shall not have a railroad to the Pacific. i veys and estimates in detail can then be made with able Senators seem to suppose so tremendous? | The committee have hit on the only practicable safety, economy, and dispatch. You will need Why may we not confide it to the Executive, scheme. With the President, there will be a no detachments of the Army to protect your surand where is the hazard? Do we not at every proper sense of responsibility, high intelligence, veyors. Large bodies of men will be employed session appropriate from forty to fifty millions of and a just appreciation of the true interests of the on the road, who will hold in check and probably dollars for various branches of the public service, country. I'am satisfied there will be no want of keep at a distance the savages of those regions. and is not the expenditure of these vast sums con- either inclination, ability, or effort, on the part of It will be necessary ordinarily to survey only fided, in a great degree, to Executive discretion the incoming Executive, to make a wise and safe one or two hundred miles in advance of the road and Executive agency?

disposition of this entire matter. It is possible as it progresses, and then the road itself will facilIn the present instance he will have only to fix that a reference to the President may cause a loca- | itate the passage of the surveyors to and fro, and the termini and general course of the proposed tion contrary to my present impressions of expe- the transportation of their supplies, and this will road; and coming, as he does, from New England, diency. I prefer the

route by the South Pass, if greatly reduce the expenses of the operation. Infrom the remote East, his mind will be free from practicable, because from thence we can branch to deed it is, in my judgment, indispensable that surall bias, and in a condition to dispose of the ques- Oregon; whereas, if the southern route be taken veys and construction should go forward at the tion on its true merits. It seems to be an assump- that will be impossible. But I am for a road any- same time, and in no other way could the former tion here that the President is to settle this matter how, whether North or South. Besides, I believe be accomplished without an enormous outlay. by his own unaided judgment; but it is not so. we shall have a railroad within twenty-five years, Every one must see at a glance that the construcHe will, in the first place, have the counsel and between the Mississippi and the Columbia or Pu- | tion of the road in part will greatly facilitate surassistance of his Cabinet, composed of no less than I get's Sound. I believe it with almost as much veys in advance. seven citizens of the country (I shall venture to confidence as I do in my personal identity; and I İf, for example, the President were to decide presume) of high ability and standing. He will do not concur at all in the opinion expressed by that the point of departure should be at or near also have the power to organize a board of offi- | my honorable friend from Pennsylvania, (Mr. || Independence, Missouri, and if we commence the cers, if he shall be pleased to do so. It will be Cooper,] the other day, that the snows would construction, and carry the road forward, say four his duty to cause the surveys to be made in ad- | render a railroad impracticable at the South Pass. hundred miles, it is obvious that this would aid vance, and to obtain all the requisite information If such roads can be worked to advantage in New essentially surveys for the next one hundred miles. to enable him and those whom he may call to his England, Canada, and even in Russia, in the Probably the cost of such survey would not be assistance, to determine what should be done. I

winter season, I am quite sure there can be no bar- one tenth part what it would be were the work desire to know whether results, such as the Presi- rier to their use at all times at the point mentioned, undertaken without the aid of the road. The dent would be likely to arrive at, with all the sur- and even at a much higher latitude.

combination, therefore, of the two operations to veys and explorations before him, and with the

some extent, is indispensable to economy if not assistance of his Cabinet, and, as the case may this bill for the reason that the surveys and ex- practicability. And what is more, on the plan be, of a board of officers of distinguished ability, | plorations have not been bad which have usually here advocated, the parties who make the contract would not be quite as likely to accord with the been deemed an important, if not an indispensable, will have to be at all the expense of these surveys public interests as any judgment we shall get preliminary to legislative action on such a subject and estimates in detail. They need not cost this from the two Houses of Congress? I hope I shall İf we were about to fix the termini and general Government one penny. All, therefore, we should not be considered out of order when I say that the course of the road, this objection would have great provide for, are such explorations and surveys as two Houses have reduced themselves to such a weight; but when these points are to be referred would enable the Executive to fix the termini and state, that they are competent to do little more to the Executive, and when the bill directs these general course of the road, and precise estimates than pass the general appropriation bills, and that very surveys and explorations to be made as a and calculations, such as are ordinarily laid bethey do after a sad fashion. In the House of Rep- basis for his decision, it obviously has no force. fore our State Legislatures in cases of this sort, resentatives I believe it is seldom in order to do

I have already, in opposing the amendment of are impracticable and unattainable. The case is what should be done, and nearly the whole of the the honorable Senator from Pennsylvania, (Mr. a peculiar one; the object is to connect the two public business there has to be transacted in vio- BRODHEAD,) stated fully my objections to surveys sides of a vast continent, and the intermediate lation of the rules, or, in other words, by suspend- and estimates in detail of all the various routes, space is a wilderness thronged with savages. Exing them. Here we have no previous question, and of the modifications of each route with a view plorations and surveys are alike difficult and danno means of closing a debate. Hence nearly the to comparison, and an accurate and precise calcu- gerous, and to apply to such a case the rules ordiwhole of every session is occupied in discussing a lation on their economy or cheapness. I say, if narily observed by our State Legislatures, is few topics, and those, too frequently, of no practical | this is to be done, there is not a Senator in this absurd and ridiculous. The necessities of an unimportance, and much the larger proportion of the Chamber who will live to see the day when the dertaking so novel and unexampled, will furnish business before us we are obliged to act on with !! work is commenced. I maintain, moreover, that laws by which we should regulate our conduct.


320 Cong.....20 Sess.
Railroad to the PacificMr. Smith.

SENATE. I wish now, Mr. President, to assign briefly the when this road shall be constructed and the tran- principal long before the bonds for $20,000,000 reasons by which, as I conceive, the policy of this sit from the Mississippi to the Pacific can be ef- will become due, if issued in conformity with this bill can be vindicated. It is not pretended that fected in a single week. It is not too much to say bill. Nothing is more certain than that this road either private citizens, or the authorities of the that the aggregate would amount annually to six and telegraph line need not cost the Government States through which the road must run in part, per cent. interest on the whole capital required to one cent, while blessings and benefits will result can undertake its construction. The States have build the road.

from their construction in every way. no power to act in the Territories, and have not, This measure, I again remark, will contribute But there are other advantages which will accrue moreover, resources adequate to an enterprise of powerfully to the extension of our external trade from this great enterprise: Should the road take such vast magnitude. The work, therefore, must and commerce. It is difficult to form now an ade- its course by the South Pass and Salt Lake, it will be executed by the authority of Congress, and at quate conception of the effect which a well-con- | give a permanent supremacy to our laws and Conthe expense of the National Treasury, at least in siructed, well-appointed, and well-managed rail- || stitution in that part of the continent. Some have part, if it is to be executed at all.

road, connecting the waters of the Mississippi apprehended (I trust without any sufficient reaI have then to say, Mr. President, in the first with those of the Pacific, would have on the busi- son) that a turbulent and insurrectionary power place, that the construction of this road will tend iness relations of the world. It would probably ere is about to spring up there, which would ere long powerfully to develop the internal resources of long result in a great commercial revolution, and become troublesome to the country and dangerthe country. It will open a vast breadth of the make the United States the thoroughfare of Europe ous to its peace. It is certain that a few thousand public lands, now inaccessible, to speedy settle- | in going to and from China, and other Oriental resolute men, well armed, and planted in the very ment. It will also bring within our grasp the countries. Its tendency to build up our commercial recesses of the Rocky Mountains, could not be mineral wealth of the remote interior, particularly emporium, and to advance it towards a supremacy reduced to subjection without enormous sacrifices in copper, and other metals of great economic even in competition with London, would be great, both of life and money: The necessity of any value, to say nothing of gold and silver. It is and might prove decisive.

such sacrifices will be obviated by the construcwell known that there are in New Mexico, on the The road, when constructed, will enable us to tion of this road. Indeed its effect will be to esGila river, extensive and very productive copper bring into subjection the wild Indian tribes roam- tablish such intimate relations between the Salt mines; and I was informed, not long since, by an ing over the interior of this continent, who have Lake district and other parts of the country as to intelligent officer of the United States Army, that been for years harassing the frontiers, particularly obviate all danger of disloyal movements in that there are similar mines in northern Texas. those of Texas, and doing infinite mischief there quarter, if any such exist. Whether the road will, if constructed, take the and elsewhere. We shall also by such means If, on the other hand, the road should pass direction of these mines I cannot, of course, say, find ourselves in a condition to fulfill our treaty through New Mexico, other advantages will rebut in any event it is highly probable that much | obligations to Mexico in respect to these Indians, sult, of little if any less importance. It would in would be gained to the country by the mineral to which we have hitherto paid little attention. a short time work a great moral, intellectual, and developments which it would occasion wherever | By the eleventh article of the treaty of Guadalupe political revolution in that unfortunate country; or, located. I say nothing of the addition which may Hidalgo,' we have bound ourselves in the most in other words, it would Americanize New Mexpossibly be made to the inexhaustible supplies of positive and peremptory manner, to restrain forci- ico. It appears from the report of Colonel Sumthe precious metals which we already enjoy. Ibly the incursions of the savages from the United ner, of the United States Army, communicated to have, I confess, some serious misgivings in regard States into Mexico. I have before me that article, Congress by the Secretary of War at the present to this business of gold hunting. I fear it is an avo- and it was my purpose to read it to the Senate, session, that the people there are by idleness, ig: cation not exactly calculated to induce those habits and comment on it, as I do not believe honorable norance, and vice reduced to the lowest stage of of steadiness, sobriety, economy, and self-denial, Senators are aware how stringent its terms are, | degradation and infamy. He says: which are important to the well-being of society; and how high the obligations which we have as- " There is no probability of any change for the better. What our people want is steady employment, and sumed, to keep those Indians within our own Twenty-fifty years hence, this Territory will be precisely moderate gains. I indulge, however, no incon- borders; but I will not do so, as I wish to bring the same it is now. There never can be any inducement siderable hopes that the experience of the world my remarks to a conclusion as soon as possible.

fomny class of our people to come here whose example will be reversed in California, and that our citi

would improve this people. Speculators, adventurers, and This measure will greatly economize the ad

the like, are all that will come, and their example are rather zens there will prove all that the friends of free ministration of the Departments of War and Gen- pernicious than beneficial. institutions could desire. eral Post Office. It will reduce the expenses of

« No civil government emanating from the Government I insist, Mr. President, in the next place, that

of the United States can be maintained here without the our Army, particularly in the Quartermaster and

aid of a military force-in fact, without its being virtually a this road will promote our internal trade and com- Commissary's Departments. The costs of trans- military government. I do not believe there is an intellimerce. Much of the surplus products of the agri- portation are now enormous. The troops are gent man in the Territory who is not at the present time fully culture of the country will be turned over this road largely employed far in the interior of the continent,

sensible of this truth. All branches of this civil governto California, and thus the eastern markets will many hundred miles beyond any railroad or water ment have equally failed-the executive for want of power,

the judiciary from the total incapacity and want of princibe relieved, and agriculture everywhere benefited. communication, and all their supplies have to be ple in juries, and the legislative from want of knowledge, If we could find on the shores of the Pacific a mar- dragged after them at a frightful expense. This a want of identity with vur institutions, and an extreme reket for the products of even a few of the western cause has contributed more than any other to

luctance to impose taxes; so much so that they have never States, it would be an immense benefit to all sec- swell the appropriations for the Army to such an

even provided the means to subsist prisoners, and conse

quently felons of all kinds are running at large. tions. The great difficulty with our agriculture enormous amount. I intended to have looked into

“ The New Mexicans are thoroughly debased, and totally is over production. Any considerable surplus of the particulars, but I have not had time to do so. incapable of self-government, and there is no latent quality any crop, will frequently cast down its aggregate | No doubt the additions amount to several millions

about them that can ever make them respectable citizens. value a hundredfold more than the value of the annually, much, if not all of which, will be saved

They have more Indian blood than Spanish, and are in

some respects below the Pueblo Indians, for they are pot surplus itself; hence by taking off from our eastern by the construction of this road; besides, there as honest or industrious. In this remark I allude to the markets some portion of the pressure from the will be a great saving in the transportation of the lower classes—there are some educated gentlemen with reWest, by opening a vent in the direction of the mail. A semi-nionthly mail to and from Califor

spectable families; about enough for magistrates and other Pacific, we shall confer an incalculable benefit on

official persons. There is not much increase in the popunia now costs us about one million of dollars per

lation, owing to their gross depravity. I doubt if there is a agriculture in every part of the Union. The good annum, which alone will pay the interest on the tribe of Indians on this continent who are more abandoned effect will be as sensibly felt in Virginia and North $20,000,000 to be advanced to promote the road. in their commerce between the sexes than the great majorCarolina as in Illinois and Missouri. It is believed, | And then we are to have soon a weekly mail, and

ity of this people.” also, that the manufacturers of the eastern and it is not too much to say that the expenditure for This is certainly a very dismal account of the middle States will find a market for their fabrics the mail service will for the next two years run up state of things in New Mexico, but not more disover this road. This will certainly be true of the to $1,500,000 per annum, not over one third of mal than I believe it to be truthful. A state of lighter articles, as in trade and business, speed and which will be reimbursed in the form of postages. I things which will continue to the end of time, untime are often the great elements, and will over- Besides, the road will economize the mail service less we make the country accessible to our people rule all other considerations.

in California itself, and it will expedite transporta-i by a railroad. This would work a speedy and The construction of this road will facilitate in a tion both for the Army and General Post Office a highly salutary revolution. But so long as New high degree intercommunication between the east- vastly, and thus much will be gained to both Mexico remains in her present situation, we shall ern and western sides of the continent, and will branches of the public service. Be it remembered have a standing commentary on the folly of acquirsave to our people much of time, money, and life. that the bill provides in express terms that the ing so remote a country, and of bringing under A journey to and from California, by way of the company who may construct the road, “shali at || our jurisdiction a people so truly wretched. Isihmus, cannot now be performed much, if any all times, and as often as required, transport on But, Mr. President, I now come to a considershort of two months, and the expenses amount said road, and every part of the same, the mails, i ation which I deem of high importance, and which to $500 at least. The hazards to life by that route troops, seamen, officers of the Army and Navy, I would urge on the particular attention of the are considerable, but nothing in comparison with officers and agents of the Government and of the Senate. I maintain that the construction of this those of the route direct across the continent. *Post Office Department while on duty, arms, road is not only important, but indispensable to Thousands of our citizens have been committed ' ammunition, munitions of war, Army and Navy the defense of our Pacific possessions.' It is, I beto premature graves, in seeking new homes on the

stores, funds, or property belonging to the United lieve, within the constitutional competency of Conshores of the Pacific, and evidences of mortality • States free from all charges to the Government, gress to carry a road through even a State for this everywhere attend the footsteps of the traveler giving the United States at all times the prefer- purpose. When the case is as urgent as the pres. from the eastern to the western side of the Rocky ence;" and it provides also for the free use of the ent, we can vindicate the work precisely for the mountains. No doubt the saving to the country || telegraphic line by the United States. I do not reasons which would justify the erection of a fortby means of this road would in all these forms be hesitate then to conclude, that in the Post Office ress to bar the entrance into the Bay of San Francisimmense. The lives of virtuous, intelligent, and Department we will save enough to pay the inter- co. It is not only the most effectual, but the cheapupright citizens are inappreciable, but we can est on the amount to be advanced by the Govern- est measure of defense which could be adopted. form some idea of how much would be saved of ment, and more than enough in the Quartermaster's What is the condition of the Pacific coast now, money and of time, (which is said to be money,) ll and Commissary's Departments to reimburse the and what will it continue to be without a railroad? 32D CONG....20 SESS.


Railroad to the Pacific-Mr. Smith.


to a war.

Defenseless, perfectly defenseless.

And if a war other important points by the hands of passengers. hasten them into eternity. I am for peace and for were to break out with any leading European What would become of your banks if this sup- cultivating the arts of peace. I am for constructPower, how long could we hold those possessions? | ply should be suddenly cut off? They would, ing this railroad in order that we may have peace. Honorable gentlemen seem to be disposed to assert every one of them, be blown into the air, and I verily believe that the consummation of this vast here what they denominate the Monroe doctrine, commercial credit would receive such a shock as enterprise would do more to cause us to be rein such a manner as would be very likely to lead has never been witnessed in this country. The spected, nay, to be feared by the nations of the

If you_thus bring on a collision with very moment the war broke out, our national finan- earth," than the erection of twenty fortresses, or Great Britain or France, what would become of ces would be thrown into disorder and confusion, the construction of forty ships-of-the-line. San Francisco and the other towns situated on and the credit of the Government would sink There is another consideration to which I would the bay of that name: What would become of with that of the commercial classes. This month- refer, and which, I doubt not, will be properly your Mint and your navy-yard ? Sir, that bay ly supply of gold has got to be just as necessary appreciated by the Senate. The construction of is left in such a situation that a miserable pri- to us as the cotton bales are to England. A feet this road is indispensable to the consolidation of vateer, with half a dozen guns, could enter it and of steamers stationed at Jamaica would effectually our Union, and to bind the two sides of the conlay the city of San Francisco under contribution; arrest the transmission of gold by the Isthmus. tinent together by the strong ties of mutual dean inconsiderable force could ravage the whole The mere apprehension of danger would be pendence and reciprocal interests. Without the coast of California. I do not say they could con- enough. Suppose you were to drive Great Bri- means of prompt and easy communication, it would quer the State, but I do say they could do infinite tain out of Roatan and the rest of the Bay Islands, be better not to have a country on the other side mischief. I want, therefore, to hear no more of will that make your freights of gold safe? Would of the Rocky Mountains. The existing state of your Monroe doctrine until you have made some it do to provoke her to a contest by exploding in things is utterly objectionable. I was, in the first prevision for the defense of the Pacific coast. I her face a half dozen pieces of ordnance, well instance, strongly opposed to the acquisition of am for adjourning over the doctrine — Tehuantepec charged with the " Monroe doctrine?” Some- California; but as she has been admitted into the and all other topics of excitation-until this rail- | thing was said here, on a former occasion, about family circle, and now constitutes one of the brightroad can be constructed. The latter would seem to the Gulf of Mexico being a mare clausum”-an est stars of our national galaxy, I am for holding me an indispensable preliminary to the former. | American sea. It is a curious sort of "closed on to her. I have no idea that her people are or Place us in such a situation that we can in one sea,” with Great Britain in possession of Jamaica will be disloyal to our Union, but I wish to estab. month throw fifty thousand men on that coast, and other islands on one side of it.

lish more intimate relations between her and her and you may explode your Monroe doctrine in I maintain that an effectual interruption of this sister States—those of immediate vicinage, and that face of all Europe, for aught I care. We shall then supply of gold, even for a few months, would be a railroad will do. When this is done, no centrifbe in a much better situation to defend than any almost fatal to currency and credit. The time ugal force can throw her out of her orbit, but she enemy can be to assail. If we have underrated the is near at hand when California will send us will maintain her proper place in our system, and assailing force, the telegraph will flash the intelli- || $10,000,000 per month, and perhaps even more; will revolve around the common center to the end gence to Washington, and in ten days we could and the loss of this supply, even for three months, of all time. Besides, how is this General Governrepair the error by reinforcement. Indeed the would be most seriously felt. The Government ment to exercise its functions in California with. mere existence of the road would obviate all would be crippled at the very, outset of any war out this railroad, whether in war or peace? Supdanger of attack by any other than a naval force. || in which we might be involved, and incapacitated pose there is an incursion of savages upon the What European Power would think of sending in some degree for sacrifices and efforts such as our people of some part of that State, and it becomes an army to the Pacific, when they knew that we national honor and interests might require. We necessary to repel them. Suppose the officers of could meet them with a force of tenfold power by should be obliged to have the gold any how, and the Army or Indian agents need instructions from

of the it is inexpedient or unconstitutional to provide for would be obliged to organize caravans for its trans- obtain them? Why, it requires two sea-voyages the emergencies of war by the means proposed, is mission, which you would have to protect by to get the information to 'Washington, and two the same thing as to assert that the defense of the detachments from the Army. An escort of at more to get the instructions back, taking up, I country is no part of the duty of this Government. least five hundred men would be required to each suppose, from two to three months. Congress a few sessions since directed a dock, ba- caravan, as fifteen or twenty millions in gold Again: suppose there is an insurrection in Cal. sin and railway to be constructed at the navy-yard would hold out temptations which might lead to ifornia, or a sudden attack by some foreign foe, in California.' So that it seems we have a right to combinations and aggressions of a dangerous char- would there not be a necessity for means of imget our ships on to railways. Why not our Army? | acter. And, then, only think of such a caravan mediate communication with the General Govern,

But there are difficulties likely to result from a “dragging its slow length along,"over mountains ment? Suppose some doubt should arise at San war with one of the leading Powers of Europe, and deserts, and reaching the city of New York Francisco in respect to the construction of your other than those already alluded to. If we suppose in about six months. In the mean time, and at revenue laws. A cargo of goods arrives, and the that we could defend the city of San Francisco, the very outset of the war, all your banks will collector is of the opinion it should pay one rate and protect our navy-yard and Mint, it would have been exploded, your merchants bankrupted, l of duty, and the owner insists on a lower rate, and undoubtedly be in the power of the public enemy commercial credit broken down, and alarm and the collector desires the instructions of the Secreto blockade the whole coast, and cut off the trans- distrust spread through all departments of busi- tary of the Treasury on the subject, would not mission of gold from the Pacific to the Atlantic. lness, and all the ramifications of society. Prob- the delay of two voyages by sea to reach WashA good deal has been said in the debates which we | ably your Government would be placed in such a ington, and two to get back, be intolerable? Would have had during the session on our foreign rela- situation that it could not borrow a dollar. But, it not be ruinous to all concerned? How are your tions about our having Great Britain under bonds whether this would be so or not, it is certain that post office laws to be administered in California ? to keep the peace, by means of our cotton bales; the interruption of the supply at the outset of a How are you to administer this Government there but I would ask honorable Senators to look at our war, even for three months, would occasion disas- at all, without this railroad? If the collector of own condition. Are there not bonds for good beha. ters and losses to the Government and people San Francisco should die, how long must busivior resting upon us, and that too of a pretty seri- more than equal to the whole cost of this road. ness be interrupted before his place can be filled ? ous character? What if your Monroe doctrine The regular transmission of this gold is just as

If a judge should die, how long must the court be should involve us in a war with Great Britain, and necessary for the national safety and defense as a closed and justice delayed ? Nothing can be more she should, by a blockade of the coast, interrupt good supply of powder and ball; and yet honor- embarrassing than the dispensation of patronage the communication between California and the able Senators tell us we have no right to construct in California on account of the distance. It is Isthmus, how should we get our regular supply of this road. One Senator has a stitch in his con- almost impossible to get reliable information, and gold? Or if we should escape that difficulty, and be science on the score of constitutionality. He denies this the present Administration have experienced able to land the precious metal on the Isthmus, our power to adopt this measure, and insists it to their sorrow. If the distinguished gentleman how could we get it forward to New York? Hon- || is violative of the Constitution. Another Sena- who is coming here, soon to stand at the head of orable Senators have expressed a great deal of tor has a stitch on the score of expediency, or

the Government does not encounter similar diffialarm in regard to what Great Britain has done rather he is for the measure as highly wise and culties, I shall be greatly disappointed. I mainand may do at the Bay Islands, but in my judg- proper, but not now; only adjourn it over to the tain that such a state of things is intolerable, and ment, it is a question of little importance. With next Congress, and let us have the surveys. 0: I think we should not occupy ourselves with any her ascendency on the ocean, she could, whether the surveys ! let us have the surveys ! But now miserable controversy about the Bay Islands or she does or does not hold those islands, cut off is the hour, in my judgment, for taking the initi- Tehuantepec, but should at once take hold and all intercourse between the Pacific and Atlantic ative in respect to this great enterprise, and I ask construct this railroad as a sovereign remedy for coasts, by stationing a superior force on this or it in the name of preparation for war which may all the evils here adverted to. I want no railroad the other side, or on both; the result will be the come, for which we should be prepared. I ask it over foreign countries, unless it be for temporary same, whether you have a route by the Isthmus, as a measure having an important bearing on credit purposes. I am for an American railroad, to be Nicaragua, or Tehuantepec. Your communica- i and currency, and as indispensable to both in case constructed on American soil

, by the enterprise tions will be interrupted in the event of a war with of a war with a superior naval power; and I ask it and capital of the American people. a superior naval Power, and then what will be the that we may be well prepared on both coasts to Sir, I have occupied more of the time of the Sencondition of the country, and what will become of repel aggression, and to assert the rights and main- ate than I intended, but have abbreviated my reour national and commercial credit? The whole of tain the honor and the dignity of the American marks as much as possible. I have given a mere our currency and all of our business engagements people.

outline of ideas, some of which may not have ocand relations are being constituted on the basis of a But it must not be inferred from these remarks curred to honorable Senators. I now leave the regular supply of at least five millions of gold per that I view war with approbation. I can hardly subject in the hands of the Senate. I hope we month from California. Indeed, the supply is be- conceive of a war short of one strictly defensive, shall have a vote on it speedily. I hope the bill lieved to be much larger, as the gold seni on freight which I should look upon with complacency. I will pass the Senate, even if it does not pass the is understood to amount to five millions, and it is think men die fast enough anyhow. There is no

House. Should it fail to become a law at this known that a large amount reaches New York and I necessity of calling into requisition gunpowder to Il session, I hope the subject will be resumed at the

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