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might appeal, if necessary, for confirmation of sentatives to lose the bill, or else give this appro- ancient associates who served with me in this body what I have said to the honorable Senator from || priation among others which they had refused. | twenty-four years ago is now present. I am irréCalifornia, (Mr. Gwin,) the chairman of the Com- || I have always said, and always will say, that | sistibly led back to the events of a period over mittee on Commerce, (Mr. HAMLIN,) and to other although the Senator from North Carolina does which nearly a quarter of a century has spread its Senators, but I have done.

not make much noise about his State here in the mantle, when those who filled this Chamber as Mr. GWIN. I consider it an act of duty to Senate, yet, whenever the interests of his State the representatives of the sovereign States of this the honorable Senator from North Carolina, to are before a committee, he attends to them with as Union mingled in discussion on the great issues corroborate every word he has stated with regard much zeal and fidelity as any member of the body || then before the country, and when the walls of to this matter. He brought that subject to the attends to the interests of his constituents. I have || this Chamber daily rung with the echoes of their notice of the Committee on Naval Affairs before never known him to be wanting on any proper voices, as they poured forth the logic and the the naval appropriation bill had come from the occasion.

wisdom and the wit" for which they were so preHouse of Representatives, and he always pressed Mr. HAMLIN. I think it but just that I || eminently distinguished. Their debates were but it upon me as an important measure, and mani- should bear testimony to what has fallen from the || justly compared to the procession of a Roman fested an earnest desire to have the subject con- Senator from North Carolina, so far as the action || triumph moving in dignity and order to the lofty sidered when we met at the proper time. When of the Committee on Commerce is concerned, and music of its march, and glittering all over with the the naval appropriation bill came from the House so far as his application in relation to the subject spoils of the civilized world. They are gone; and of Representatives, it was at so late a period in before the committee is concerned. An actual 1, the youngest and humblest of their body, am the session, that without being fully considered, report was made to the Senate, embracing esti- || left to tell the tale. The last of them who left this I am sure without being considered at all in the mates for all appropriations for harbors, rivers, scene of their strifes and contentions, was the presCommittee on Finance, it was reported without and lakes; and in that communication were esti- ent Vice President of the United States, the Hon. amendment, and the responsibility was thrown mates for the two places he has named: Cape William R. King, who presided over the deliberupon the Naval Committee, of proposing amend- | Fear river and the Savannah river. So earnest ations of the Senate nearly twenty years with ments to it. And I will say that when the Naval was the Senator from North Carolina to have unsurpassed ability and impartialily, and who, Committee met for the purpose of proposing these subjects separate and distinct from all others, during a long period, occupied the post of chief amendments which they had prepared to the bill, that he came personally before the Committee on distinction here as the chairman of the Committee the first one that came up was the amendment for Commerce and solicited its separate action. In on Foreign Relations. the appropriation for the improvement of Cape the judgment of the committee, there was no dif- “Statesman, yet friend to truth, of soul sincere, Fear river, and in order that it should have that ference between these cases and others contained In action faithful, and in bonor clear!" consideration to which the committee thought it || in the general estimates, except in degree; and if I confess, also, a feeling of embarrassment from entitled, when the bill came up for consideration there was a more urgent necessity for these cases, another source. I am called upon to vindicate in the Senate, I gave way, as chairman of the there was still an urgent necessity for other cases ; myself against charges of the grossest character Naval Committee, to allow the Senator from Geor- and while I, as chairman of the committee, was in preferred against me here during my absence. It is gia, (Mr. CHARLTON}the honorable Senator favor of separate reports in the case, the com- the first time in the course of a long life that I have from North Carolina (Mr. BADGER) being in the mittee overruled me, and were unwilling to sepa- || found it necessary to defend myself against degradchair-to make a motion to consider this amend rate it from a general bill. I think the Senator ing imputations before any public tribunal. The ment first, so that if there was any contest with from North Carolina has erred in one particular, calumnies which have been uttered here, were all regard to it, there might be a full and fair oppor- and I think the Senate has a right to complain, made in connection with the treaty of the 19th of tunity of discussing it, in order to show the ne- but not his constituents; and that was, taking the April, 1850; and I intend, if health and strength cessity of the appropriation.

matter from the appropriate committee to which permit, to vindicate the course which I adopted Further than that: the amendment passed this | it belonged and carrying it to a committee which while acting as Secretary of State under the adbody, as is known, without any serious opposition; had not the subject before them, and getting an ministration of the lamented Taylor, in regard to and when the Committee of Conference was raised, appropriation here somewhat by indirection. I the negotiation of that treaty. It is a duty incumthe Senator from North Carolina came to me, and do not find fault with him. I did not know that bent on me to speak; not, however, merely for I believe to the Senator from Georgia (Mr. Daw- the recommendation of the Committee on Naval may own vindication, but to enable others now in SON) also, who was a member of the Committee Affairs had been made until it was adopted. The

the administration of the Government to underof Conference, and urged, with all the earnestness Senator from North Carolina knows very well stand a subject upon which truth has been more and power he possessed, the necessity of this ap- that I opposed a similar appropriation when of- || perverted, and falsehood more industriously proppropriation, and he brought reasons to bear on my fered by the Senator from New York; and he also agated, than on any other topic of the day. In mind which were imperative, for insisting upon it. knows very well that I would have opposed his discharging this duty, ! shall endeavor to speak It is well known that I voted against the river and proposition if I had been in my place when it was of others with all possible respect, consistently harbor bill on account of its partial operation. I offered. But inasmuch as it was adopted by the with what I owe to truth, to the country, and to looked upon this as an improvement that was ne- Senate at the earnest solicitation of the Senator | myself. All who recollect my course of conduct cessary, because the obstruction was created by | from North Carolina, I withdrew the motion to while I occupied a seat in this Chamber, will bear the Government itself. Not only did I advocate it reconsider it.

me witness that I never assailed any man personin the Committee of Conference, as I stated to the Mr. BORLAND. I hope I will be permitted ally in debate-never was engaged in any controSenator that I would, but the committee broke up to say one word in connection with this subject. versy, personal in its character, with any one on this especial item, and the one connected with As is well known, I have as little political sym- unless it was previously provoked by him. Odi the naval depôt at New Orleans. And when a pathy with the Senator from North Carolina as accipitrem. But now let it be well understood by second Committee of Conference was called, of any other member of this body. I am proud to all here, that for every word I utter in debate, I which I was a member, that committee on three say, however, that personally our relations are, hold myself personally responsible everywhere, different occasions were prepared to separate, be- || and always have been, of the most pleasant char- as a gentleman and a man of honor. I have very cause the Senators from Georgia and Louisiana | acter. In regard to this particular matter, it so great contempt for that class of puppies whose refused peremptorily to give up this appropriation || happens that I can speak to one point of some im- || courage is evinced by their silence when they are at the earnest suggestion of the Senator from portance. When the appropriation came before hung up by the ear. When attacked, I will deNorth Carolina. There never was a greater in- || the Senate, or rather when I knew it was coming fend myself without the slightest regard to consejustice done to any man than that of saying that before the Senate, I expressed an opposition to it; ) quences; and in doing that, as I am liable to the he has not exerted himself, from the beginning to not that I objected to the removal of the obstruc- | infirmities of other men, I will carry the war into the end, in order to get the appropriation. He tions, but I objected to it as a separate measure, Africa whenever I think the assailant worthy of may not have spoken in the Senate on this sub- | and insisted that it should take its stand among my notice. On this occasion much of what I inject, it is true, but he did speak to that portion of the appropriations for removing obstructions intended to say must be omitted, in consequence of this body to whom the power of bringing the other rivers and harbors. The Senator from North the absence of the distinguished Senator from measure forward was intrusted—the Committee on Carolina came to me, and made an appeal in be- || Michigan, (Mr. Cass,) who introduced the disNaval Affairs.

half of this particular work, and put its character cussion in this Chamber of Thursday, the 6th of Mr. BADGER. I was in the chair.

and its necessity in such a light before me, that I | January last. I regret his absence, and the cause Mr. GWIN. I will say further, that when the yielded to his request; and I must be permitted to of it. I cannot say those things which I had infirst committee broke up, and we came back and say, however it may reflect on me generally as a tended to say to him if he were here, for I do not reported that we could not agree, it is well known legislator, that I was as much influenced by my much approve of the modern plan of attacking that the Senator from North Carolina moved that we personal relations and kindness forbim as any lending themselves on the spot. However, in should adhere to our amendments; and he withdrew || conviction of the importance of the work. that motion at my solicitation, in order that we

speaking of the subjects referred to in that debate, might agree with the House on all the amend.


in which that Senator was my principal accuser ments which we were willing to give up. And

The Senate resumed the consideration of the || during my absence, I must necessarily speak of then he intended to move to adhere, and make it resolutions submitted on Monday last by Mr. | him, because my own defense, for which I have deimperative upon the House of Representatives to | Clayton.

manded liberty of speech at the first moment after reject the bill, or agree to this amendment. But,

Mr. CLAYTON concluded the remarks which he

the Senate could possibly hear me, would otherat the earnest solicitation of the chairman of the commenced yesterday. His speech is as fol-wise be unintelligible. And I will say further, Committee on Finance, and other members of the lows:

that I am willing to remain here till harvest if neSenate, I retained the floor, and made the motion Mr. CLAYTON. In rising for the first time, || cessary, in order that all others who may choose to insist, and agree to another committee of con- after a long absence, to address the Senate, I labor to reply to anything I shall say, may have full and ference. The Senator from North Carolina voted under some embarrassment, from observing that | ample opportunity of doing so. against that motion, because he wanted to adhere, || the gentlemen around me are generally strangers At the time to which I have referred, the 6th of and make it imperative upon the

House of Repre- Il to me, and that not a single individual of all my l) January last, the Senator from Michigan rose in

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Special Session Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.



his place, and demanded an opportunity to make a to-day, that we cannot come to an understanding || is, therefore, in this respect, no longer merely depersonal explanation. In the course of that ex- in relation to these matters.

fensive. I deny the statements of the committee planation he distinctly charged me, as all the re. The correspondence of Mr. King, and his whole so far as they go to excuse those who assailed me, ports of his remarks which appeared in the public conduct towards me while I was acting as Secre- || and I become the accuser in my turn. The stateprints on that and the succeeding day will show, || tary of State, were worthy of my highest respect. ment of the committee to which I mean to except with having recognized the British title in Hondu- He was frank, open, and manly, in all his com- is, that “the boundaries allotted to the British ras, commonly called the Balize. My letter to Mr. || munications with me on all occasions. He was settlements on the Balize by the treaties of 1783 Bulwer, on the 4th of July, 1850, completely dis- ever true to his word. I consulted him as one of 6 and 1786, lie altogether within the territory of proves this accusation, and shows that I carefully the fathers of the Senate, and as one of the chief the Republic of Guatemala.” I mean to mainavoided the very thing of which he accused me. constitutional advisers of the President in reference | tain that this opinion or statement of the commitAnother version of his speech afterwards ap- to the treaty, as it progressed from time to time. tee, whether considered politically, geographicalpeared, charging me with having admitted by my We both agreed that we never could, and never ly, or historically, is utterly and absolutely erroletter that Central America was not Central Amer- would recognize any title to the eminent domain, neous; and that the British settlements within the ica at all, and that the treaty did not apply to any as existing in Great Britain, in what was called | boundaries allotted to them by the treaties of 1783 territory where Great Britain had any sort of British Honduras or Balize. We concurred ex- and 1786 are and ever have been, from the earliest claim. "This also is disproved by the letier. Both actly with the report of the honorable chairman of history of that country, within that intendency of these statements did me gross injustice, and they the Committee on Foreign Relations, that all the Mexico called Yucatan, or Merida, and never went on the wings of the lightning to all parts of title that Great Britain had in the territory called formed a portion, and do not at this day form a the country before I could possibly refute them. Balize, was the right of occupancy in the territory | portion, either of the State of Guatemala, or of the It is said falsehood will travel a league before truth pointed out in the treaty of 1786 between Great ancient viceroyalty of Guatemala, or of that councan put on his boots, and so I found it. Britain and Spain.

try which is known among statesmen by the name But, sir, there was a much more grave and se- Sir, there were other extraordinary statements of Central America. rious accusation than that. If I understand it at made on that occasion. It was stated by some The term Central America has been used among all, it was a charge that I had inserted in the letter one in debate that General Taylor's executive some blundering geographers and careless travelers to Sir Henry L. Bulwer a direct falsehood; that I message to the Senate, communicating the treaty as applicable to many different parts of this hemihad stated that Mr. King, the chairman of the Com- of the 19th of April, 1850, had described the coun- | sphere. I can supply the committee with several mittee on Foreign Relations, the chosen organ ofthe try within which the British were not to occupy, such books as “ Johnson's Gazetteer,” which was Senate to communicate with me as much the or- fortify, colonize, or assume or exercise any do- | quoted in debate, and which describes it as congan of this body as I was the organ of the Presi- | minion, as extending from the southern part of taining a large portion of Mexico and the whole Redent to communicate to the Senate through him, Mexico to the interior of New Granada. The public of New Granada. Such was the character had informed me that the Senate perfectly under- | President had stated in that executive message, of the authority relied upon in debate here by some stood at the time they voted upon the treaty of the that the treaty provided for the protection of all Senators, to prove that they understood, when 19th of April, 1850, that British Honduras was the routes between the points which I have just they voted on the treaty of the 19th of April, 1850, not included in that treaty. The Senator from named; but the country from which the British | that British Honduras was included in that treaty. Michigan declared in the presence of the Ameri- were excluded by the treaty, was the country de- Of course, then, they understood that the treaty can Senate, that he had that very morning himself scribed in the first article. The eighth article covered not only a large portion of Mexico, but the waited on Mr. King, and had received from Mr. speaks of protection to be given to the Tehuante- || whole Republic of New Granada! Now, among King's own lips the positive denial of the asser- pec route and the Panama route; and a sad blun-statesmen and legislators, the boundaries of a countion. Now, Mr. President, I can understand this: der was made by somebody in quoting that pas- try designated by a particular phrase are those a man of hasty impulses might make a great mis- sage to show that British Honduras was included | which their own Governments have recognized untake even in reference to a subject of that charac- in that treaty. It is unnecessary for me to expose der that designation. We made a treaty, on the ter, and might misunderstand Mr. King.

what is at once made palpable to every one who || 5th of December, 1825, with Central America, or But on the Saturday succeeding that debate will look at the eighth section of the treaty. “Centro-America," and we have repeatedly acthere appeared in the public papers of this city, Again: it was insinuated in debate, if I under- || credited ministers, for whose missions Congress under my own hand, a vindication of myself stood it, that the President and Cabinet had not has made appropriations from time to time, to the against the charge, and Mr. King's own letter, been informed of my proceedings at the time of Government of Central America. At the same dated at the very time I was writing the letter to the exchange of the ratifications. On what au- time we have sent other men as ministers to New Sir Henry L. Bulwer, informing me, in the very thority such an insinuation may have been made, Granada as a separate Government—to Mexico as words used by me in the letter to Sir Henry, it is impossible for me to conjecture, for I think at another Government-special agents to Yucatan, " that the Senate perfectly understood that British this very moment one of the Cabinet of President and consuls to British Honduras. The writers of Honduras was not included in the treaty." ITaylor is within hearing of my voice, and will gazetteers and careless travelers may classify counhave the original letter now before me. The Sen- | bear testimony with me, as every other member tries according to fancy, and nobody is hurt by it ator from Michigan surely saw that letter in the would, that the whole subject was referred to the if they happen to extend the name of Central newspaper, or he heard it here in debate; for some President, and perfectly understood by every Cab- | America to the whole isthmus between North and of my friends, to whom I owe great acknowledg. inet minister, as well as by the President himself. South America, or even to the arctic circle; but a ments for their defense of me on the occasion, It is only necessary to mention these things, and statosman is expected to speak, when writing a brought that letter to the notice of the Senator; I have done with them. It is painful to allude to treaty, in the language and according to the meaning and it appears from the card of Mr. Bragg, a accusations built upon such miserable statements of the terms employed by his own Government in gentleman of the other House and a friend of Mr. as this.

former treaties and laws. Our treaty with “CentroKing, published on the Tuesday succeeding, in At the instance of the Senator from Michigan, || America," or Central America, of December 5th, the public papers of the city, that the honorable a resolution was adopted by the Senate on the 27th | 1825, was a treaty with the confederated States of Senator from Michigan must himself have seen of January last, referring, my correspondence Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mr. King after the morning on which he made his with Sir H. L. Bulwer, at the time of exchanging and Costa Rica; and the constitution of the Reaccusation against me, and received from Mr. ratifications, to the Committee on Foreign Rela- | public of Central America, adopted on the 22d of King's own lips a denial of the statement which tions, with instructions to that committee to in- | November, 1824, and officially communicated to the Senator made on this floor. And, sir, what quire what measures were necessary on the part our Government before we made the treaty with follows that? The Senator came into the Senate of the Senate to be taken on account of it. On that Republic, described its territories as embracing on the Monday following, and, as Mr. Bragg | the 11th of February, the committee reported a only the ancient viceroyalty of Guatemala, with tates in his letter, reiterated the accusation against | resolution that Mr. Bulwer's declaration and my the exception of the province of Chiapas. Whatme. It does not appear upon the debates that he reply to it " import nothing more than an admis- ever was excluded by Central America from her did so; but this did appear: that he was entirely •sion on the part of the two Governments, or own limits, could not be embraced in any treaty silent in regard to the whole matter of his charge. their functionaries, at the time of exchanging with that Government, or any treaty respecting its In referring to the letter of Mr. King, he only said ratifications, that nothing contained in the treaty | territories with any other Government. So far, that he had nothing to do with it. This left Mr. l was to be considered as affecting the title or ex- the committee and I agree. They have repudiKing in an unpleasant position as well as myself; •isting rights of Great Britain to the English set- ated the preposterous and silly conclusions arrived and the Senator never did me the justice on any • tlements in Honduras Bay, and consequently, at by certain gentlemen in the debate of the 6th of occasion to retract the statement which he had that no measures are necessary on the part of the January. These are errors of which a schoolboy made here on the 6th day of January. Of that I •Senate to be taken because of Sir Henry's dec | ought to be ashamed, and I content myself with feel that I have great cause to complain. There « laration and my reply.'

referring to the facility with which the committee was nothing in the personal relations of the Sen- To this part of the report, which acquitted me have rejected the geography of such learned Theator from Michigan with myself to warrant me of the imputations cast upon me, I of course do bans, and adopted the conclusion that the treaty in the expectation that he would make such an not object. The committee have negatived all the of 1850 includes nothing more than the Central assault upon me. So far as I understood those re- statements of those who declared that the Senate | America embraced in her own constitution. But lations we had been very friendly. He had been did not understand the treaty as I had explained the report of the committee shall not cover the kind to one who was dear to me, and I thought it to Mr. Bulwer, or have deemed them unworthy | ignorance of others, who asserted with so much I had repaid the obligation by being as kind to of their notice. My triumph over these accusa

confidence here that British Honduras was incluone who stood in the same relation to him. In all tions is completed by the report of the very tribu-ded in the treaty. I shall proceed to prove, bethe intercourse which I had with him there was nal selected by my accusers in my absence to try yond the power of successful denial,

that the setshould as soon have suspected any other man of port, which, although it is not necessary for my of 1786, could not by possibility be included in the no evidence whatever of personal hostility, and I me. But there is one part of the committee's re- tlements at Balize, within the limits of the treaty doing me injustice as the Senator from Michigan. | justification to refute it, yet is indispensable as an territory of Central America; and I now throw It is for that reason that I regret he is not here excuse for those who assailed me. My attitude Il down the gauntlet, not only to all these wise men

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who thought me so silly for admitting that these confirmation of her title to the settlements at Balize, Great Britain had encouraged without manifest settlements were not within the treaty, but even derived from the Spanish treaty of 1786. It was dishonor to the local Government. If Great Brito this Committee on Foreign Relations, and in- || important for Great Britain to ascertain how far tain had sought to seize upon the territory, she vite them to defend this part of their report if they | Guatemala might have any claim to the Balize ter- could much more easily have forced the concession can.

ritory. Both Guatemala and Mexico had revolted of it from the little State of Guatemala than from I shall prove them to have been guilty of a gross from Spain, and Great Britain had equally recog. Mexico, a greatly superior Power. error, first, by the authorities which they them- | nized and favored them both. It was immaterial The next authority relied upon by the commitselves have relied upon, and then by every au- to her whether the Balize was situated in Mexico tee is hearsay evidence, and we are not allowed to thority, whether political, geographical, or histor- or Guatemala, as either of them would unhesitat- know the name of the witness. The report says: ical, which is worthy of respect.

ingly have recognized the grant made by Spain of “ And the committee are informed that on the official map And first, as to the authorities relied upon by the useful domain”in British Honduras, granted of Yucatan, subscribed by Señor Negra, as commissioner the committee. The report states that the Rio || by the treaty with Spain of 1786. She sought to

of that province, published in 1848, the southern boundary Hondo, the northern limit of the Balize settlement,

of that State is established on the parallel of eighteen deknow only which had the right to grant it, and

grees north latitude." is claimed by Guatemala to be wholly within its she ascertained beyond all possible doubt from the territory. Even if this were true, it would prove | archives, not only of Mexico, but of Guatemala If this be true, it only proves that the British nothing; for no impartial judge ever admits a party | herself, that the British settlements at the Balize settlements at the Balize had encroached further on his own mere assertion to be the owner of any were in Yucatan. Arrowsmith's map, reduced

upon Yucatan and Mexico than we had supposed. property out of his possession, and in the posses- from the survey, in the archives of Guatemala, to

lf, however, this fact is adduced to prove that sion of another who claims it, as is the case here. which I have referred, shows that Vera Paz is

Guatemala extends to the eighteenth degree of But it is not true that Guatemala claims or ever about one hundred and thirty miles south of the north latitude, it proves too much, and it cannot has claimed the territory marked out for the Balize Rio Hondo and the Balize river, and that "Peten," possibly be true, for then Guatemala would include by the treaty of 1786. To sustain their assertion, and not Vera Paz, is the northern province of the celebrated Bacalar, and the fort there established the committee first quote Captain Bonnycastle's Guatemala. Vera Paz is far south of the “Wal- as the northern limit of the British settlers. It is not description of the boundaries of Vera Paz, which || lys,” or Balize, so called from the old English

pretended that on this map, which the committee literally proves nothing at all; then they refer to

buccaneer Wallace, who first harbored in British never saw, Yucatan is bounded by Guatemala; and the map which accompanies the work, and say Honduras. On that map, furnished from the sur- if the man who gave this information will produce that “on that, which® (they admit) is upon too vey of Guatemala herself, the Balize settlement the map, I will stake the whole issue between the small a scale distinctly to mark the boundaries, extends at least fifty miles south of the river committee and myself on the fact that the souththe river Wallys'or Balize would appear marked | “Wallys,” and no part of Guatemala is nearer

ern boundary of Yucatan will appear by it to be in the province of Vera Paz." For the bounda- || than eighty miles south of the mouth of the Rio on British Honduras, or Balize. ries extracted from Captain Bonnycastle's“ Span- | Hondo. Like every other map made by Guate

The next and last authorities relied upon by this ish America,” we are referred by the committee mala or under her surveys, it has but little pre- committee to prove that British Honduras lies in to vol. 1, page 165. Any man who will look at tension to scientific arrangement; but it is repre

the State of Guatemala are still more remarkable. them will see that they are perfectly consistent sented as conveying a just idea of the then exist

This part of the report is so extraordinary in its with what that author had said before, which || ing state of geography in Guatemala, and of her

character that I dare not attempt to state the mere completely oversets the committee, and which I own claims as exhibited by her own original sur- substance of it lest I should do the committee innow proceed to quote. First:

vey. I will send the map to the chairman of the justice. I will “ speak by the book lest equivoca“ Yucatan is the most easterly province of the kingdom | committee, if he requests it; and as it is said to

tion should undo me.” It is, literally, as follows: of New Spain, and is in the form of a peninsula jutting out have been one of the very maps made by order of In 1834 the State of Guatemala, made a large grant of into the Gulf of Mexico from the main land of the isthmus; the British Government to ascertain from what land to a company, on condition of actual settlement, in the it is surrounded on the northwest by the waters of the Mex

neighborhood of the Bay of Honduras,' when the British ican Gulf; by the Bay or Gulf or Honduras on the south- country they should obtain a confirmation of the

authorities at Balize interposed and forbid the settlement, east; the province of Vera Cruz bounds it on the south- Spanish title of occupancy granted to the British claiming that the grant was within their boundaries. This west, and 'Vera Paz, in Guatemala, on the south. HERE settlers by the treaty of 1786, it is the very best collision led the Government of Central America to make it is connected with the continent of North America by an evidence that Guatemala had no claims whatever

it the occasion of a special commission to England to settle isthmus of about one hundred and twenty miles in breadth.

and adjust the respective rights of the Republic of Guatemala THE ENGLISH HAVE SETTLEMENTS EXTENDING A SHORT to the Balize; for Great Britain could, I repeat, as

and of Great Britain, in reference to the British settlements DISTANCE ALONG THE EAST Coast or YUCATAN, OPPO- easily have obtained the grant of the useful do. in this quarter. This fact was cominunicated to the GovSITE AMBURGUS Key."-P. 122.

main in the Balize from Guatemala as from Mex- ernment of the United States by M. Alvarez, Secretary for Then again: ico. Having thus ascertained that Guatemala had

Foreign Affairs of the Central American Confederation, in

a dispatch to the Secretary of State, dated December 30, “The eastern coast of Yucatan is not inhabited by Spanno claims, she proceeded to negotiate with Mex

1834, and the good offices of this Government with thé ish colonists, the English

alone appearing there, except | ico; and on the 26th of December afterwards, she British Court were solicited in the proposed negotiation. in the small fort of Bacalar, which has been

built to prevent made a treaty with Mexico, of which the follow- In that dispatch the Secretary of State, reminded of the the British from going into the interior.”—P. 123.

avowed policy of this Government concerning European ing is the 14th article:

colonization on the American continents, is referred to the

aggressions and encroachments at Balize upon the territory committee entirely fails them, and proves that the shall, on no account or pretext whatsoever, be disturbed or

of Central America. The mission, it appears, was fruitBritish settlements are in Yucatan. molested in the peaceable possession and exercise of what

less. The next authority relied on by the committee ever rights, privileges, and immunities they have at any

" The British Government, claiming that Don Juan Gais "an atlas of Guatemala, in eight maps, prepared

time enjoyed within the limits described and laid down in lindo, the Minister, was a British subject by birth, refused a convention, signed between his said Majesty and the

to accredit him as the Minister of Central America. In and engraved in Guatemala, by order of the Chief King of Spain, on the 14th of July, 1786, whether such

one of the letters of this Minister, Don Galindo, whilst in of the State, C. D. Mariano Galves,” in 1832, on rights, privileges, and immunities shall be derived from the Washington, to the Secretary of State, dated June 3, 1835, which the committee say “the northern and west- stipulations of the said convention, or from any other con

he communicates a paper, prepared and published in Gua*ern boundary of Guatemala, although called | King of Spain, or his predecessors, to British subjects and cession which may at any time have been made by the

temala, by Señor Annitia, a member of the Federal Con

gress of Central America for the State of Guatemala, in “Lindero Indefinido,'(line undefined,) is thrown settlers residing and following their lawful occupations

which, reciting that the English settlements between the north of the Rio Hondo; which river, both on within the limits aforesaid; the two contracting parties re

Rio Hondo and the Balize are in our territory,' an able

and the map of the Republic of Guatemala and on serving, however, for some more fitting opportunity, the

forcible exposition is made of the injury resulting to Centhat of the department of Vera Paz, contained in further arrangements of this article.”

tral America by the smuggling openly carried on at the Ba

lize, in defiance of the revenue laws of the Confederation; the atlas, is altogether within the limits of Vera No such treaty was made with Guatemala that and a strong remonstrance against the pretensions of the • Paz.” Now, the first observation which I have we ever heard of. We see by this treaty that

authorities there claiming a right to occupy as they held

in 1821, (the date of the revolution,) and regardless of the to make in regard to this authority is, that a map | Great Britain admitted that the eminent domain

treaty limits with Spain. In the letter of the Minister for engraved by order of the President of the United which Spain had lost by the revolution had de- Foreign Affairs, before referred to, this encroachment is States, including the Canadas within our own scended upon Mexico. She did not seek to rob stated at inore than forty-five leagues." limits, would not be regarded by any sensible man Mexico of the sovereignty over the country; she The only thing in all this statement of the comin a foreign nation as much proof to show that we gained nothing by the treaty which Spain had not mittee which can be relied upon as the claim of were entitled to the Canadas; and the next remark || before granted to her; and as she sought only the Guatemala herself, in regard to the extent of her I have to make is, that no northern and western | grant of the useful domain, or merely the rights own territories, is the letter of Alvarez, the Secboundary of Guatemala is laid down on these maps. of an old settler, there was not a civilized nation retary of Foreign Affairs of the Government of The undefined line proves nothing, and the pre- on earth that would have refused to concede as Central America. The letters of John Galindo, tension that the Rio Hondo was in the depart- | much as Mexico did. If she had thought Guate- an Irishman, who came here merely as a bearer of ment of Vera Paz is too absurb in the eyes of any mala had any right to the territory she would dispatches, and so states in his letter of the 22d of man acquainted even with the pretensions of Gua- have applied to her to make the same grant, and May, 1835, and whom the British Government temala to be credited for a moment. The map that State could as well have refused to confirm refused to receive as a commissioner to remonitself shows that Balize is not in Guatemala. In the grant of lands held under her limits for any strate against the alleged British encroachments the State Department was a map to which this other private or special purposes as she could on Guatemala, and the paper of Señor Annitia, committee ought to have had access, but of which have refused to make the same concession which which is a magniloquent address or speech by a they knew nothing, which proves that the British Mexico made. The rights of Great Britain, under member of Congress of Central America to the had obtained the survey of Guatemala, found in the treaty of 1786, to occupy the land and to cut

people there, (never intended for us,, from which her own archives in 1826, that is, six years before | dye-wood and mahogany, to erect mills to saw it, he doubtless expected to derive much petty local the maps relied on were made. It is entitled to fish upon the coast, to refit their ships at the ad popularity, do not bind the Government of Gua“Map of Guatemala, reduced from the survey in joining islands and territories embraced in the tri- temala, are not uttered by her authority, and are the archives of that country.” It was published || angle described in that treaty, and to occupy those worth about as much as the letters of one of our January 13, 1826, by Arrowsmith, the royal islands when the vomito would not permit them to own bearer of dispatches abroad setting forth the hydrographer. Great Britain was about to make a remain on the main iand, were rights which could claims of our Government, or the speeches of one treaty with Mexico, and to obtain from Mexico a not be divested by that very revolution which of our modern advocates of the Monroe doctrine,

So we see that the first authority cited by the ARTICLE xiv. The subjects of his Britannic Majesty

32D CONG.....3d Sess.

Special Session— Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.


when threatening here among us quiet old gentle- | lished limits by more than forty-five leagues, found their Spaniard, published his work at Madrid in 1786, men to sweep the British from all the country pretensions upon the circumstance of their having occu

the date of the convention which fixed the limits pied the lands in controversy prior to the independence of north of 490, or to annex all Central America to

of the Balize settlement. In volume 2, page 207, Central America. But such a violation of existing treaties, the United States. We know, from the letter of persisted in despite the earnest and repeated remonstrances Alcedo says: The kingdom of Guatemala' is Mr. Dickens, Acting Secretary of State, of the of the Spanish authorities, cannot give those of Balize a bounded on the northeast by the province of Yuca

lawful right to consider that as their own which they have 10th of June, 1835, to this John Galindo, that the

tan. in fact usurped. subject of the letter of Alvarez must have been An affair of such magnitude has constrained the Govern

The next authority to which I refer is Hummade a Cabinet question; for the Secretary pledged ment of Central America to accredit Colonel John Galindo boldt's “ Political Essay on the Kingdom of New himself in that letter that it should be brought to to the Brilish Cabinet; and the Vice President of this Re- Spain, containing researches relative to the Geograthe consideration of the President. Picture to public does not doubt that, through your honorable conduct,

phy of Mexico," translated from the original the President of the United States may make the most yourself, then, General Jackson and his Cabinet pointed intimations to the court of his Majesty upon the

French by John Black, published in New York in in session; the Senator from Michigan, then being subject, and that he will take a lively interest to the end that 1811. This work of Humboldt “underwent the Secretary of War, occupies the third seat at the the rights of a nation, who is a sister and a friend of that of examination of the Spanish Government before it

the North, may not be violated. cabinet table; John Forsyth produces the letter of

The mediation of the President will doubtless give greater

was published in Paris in 1810.” In vol. 1, p. 203, Alvarez and reads it. I do not believe he soiled weight to the representations which our Commissioner may the intendency of Merida, or Yucatan, is included his fingers with the speech of Señor Annitia to make to the British Government; and this Republic would among the twelve intendencies of Mexico; and in his constituents in Central America, or with the deem such a measure a most decided proof of friendship

vol. 2, p. 159, the author says: “The intendency of letters of John Galindo, whom the committee

and of a concern for her rights. Suffer ine, upon this occa-
sion, to remind you that it has always been an object of the

• Merida comprehends the great peninsula of Yuhave dignified with the name of the “ Minister" policy of the United States that there should be no European

catan, situated between the bays of Campeachy Don Galindo. When Mr. Forsyth read the pas- settlements upon the American continent, and that the ag- and Honduras." Observe, it comprehends the sage of the letter of Alvarez, declaring that “it

gressions and encroachments at Balize upon the territory of whole of the “peninsula, not merely a part of

Central America are a dangerous and an alarming violation had always been the policy of the United States of this principle. It belongs to your great and happy Re

it. Again: Humboldt says on the same page: to prevent and resist European settlements in public to place herself in the vanguard of a policy so inter- “The province of Merida is bounded on the south by the America, and that the aggressions and encroach- esting to ihe new American States, and to uphold with her kingdom of Guatemala, on the east by the intendency of ments at Balize were a dangerous and alarming name our rights in the presence of England.

Vera Cruz, on the west by the English establishments which Meanwhile I have the honor to tender to your Excellency extend

from the mouth of the Rio Hondo to the north of the violation of this principle,” what do you suppose the most distinguished sentiments of the consideration with Bay of Hanover, opposite the island of Ubero, (Ambergris was the appearance and language of General Jack- which I am your Excellency's very devoted and obedient Key.) In this quarter, Salamanca, or the small tort of San son, who came into power upon the adverse prin


M. ALVAREZ. Felipe de Bacalar, is the most southern point inhabited by The SECRETARY OF State,

the Spaniards." ciple, supported by a party which violently de

of the Department of Foreign Affairs of the nounced the Monroe doctrines, Clay's instructions

Again, the author says, on page 160:

Government of the Republic of North America. to Poinsett, and the authors of the Panama mis

« Since the settlement of the English between Omo I will only add that even the letter of John Ga

(Omoa) and the Rio Hondo, the Government, to diminish sion especially, and all their works? The Sena

lindo admits that the British are entitled to occupy the contraband trade, concentrated the Spanish and Indian tor from Michigan no doubt sustained the Mon

the town of Balize, though I do not consider his population in the part of the peninsula west from the mounroe doctrine and the principles of the Panama

tains of Yucatan. Colonists are not permitted to settle on letter as compromitting any interest, for he disremission. But how came it about that the “misgarded all historical truth, and did not represent

the western (error, for eastern) coast, on the branches of

the Rio Bacalar and Rio Hondo. All this vast country resion” of John Galindo, the speech of Señor

Central America or anything else. A letter of mains uninhabited, with the exception of the military post Annitia, and the letter of Secretary Alvarez, were all treated with perfect contempt, or at least passed

Mr. Murphy to the Secretary of State proves that (presidio] of Salamanca.”

he was an impostor, and was never accredited to over in perfect silence? We know that General England as a commissioner from Central America,

And on the map of Humboldt the British set

tlements are included in the peninsula of YucaJackson refused to take any notice of the subject, but only from the little State of Guatemala.

catan. as he did of the application of the Government of

I have now examined every authority cited by

The next work to which I refer is that of the San Salvador asking admission into our Union. the committee, and by each of them I have proved

celebrated French geographer, (the greatest of the But this letter of Alvarez, when carefully ex

that the report of the committee is erroneous. All age,) Malte-Brun, printed at Paris in 1847, p. 725, amined, conclusively shows that the Central Amer

these authorities prove the Balize to be in Yuca- from which I make the following extract: ican Government at the time did not pretend that

tan, and nearly all contain the admissions of Gua- “ COLONIE ANGLAISE.-Sur le territoire de l'ancien état the boundaries of the British settlement, under

temala herself, that the conclusion of the commit- Mexicain d'Yucatan, les Anglais possèdent à l'embouchure the treaty of 1786, were within their limits. All tee is utterly destitute of foundation.

de la Balize, rivière qui se jette dans la baie de Honduras, they claimed was that “ the boundaries should be

Notwithstanding the committee state in one part

une colonie composée de 4,000 habitans. Elle porte le nom

de colonie de Honduras. Son chef lieu est Balize, petite according to the letter of the convention of 1786."

of their report that “from the information before ville avec un port situé à l'endroit où la rivière de ce nom They did not complain of the British settlement

them, they entertain a decided opinion that the se jette dans le mer." within those limits, but they did complain “ of an

British settlements at Balize, as defined by the Having thus described the British settlement as encroachment beyond those limits by more than

treaties with Spain, lie within the territory of the a British colony in the ancient State of Yucatan, They expressly admitted the Republic of Guatemala, and so equally constitute forty-five leagues.

in Mexico, at the Balize, a river which empties limits of Balize, which, they said, were“

“ definitely

a part of Central America,” yet they evidently into the Bay of Honduras, which British colony fixed by the treaty of 1786;" and they admitted

doubt whether “the information before them' was is called the colony of Honduras, M. Malte-Brun the Mexican title or “ high domain” over the ter

sufficient to establish that fact; for in the very next says, p. 740, that the ancient captaincy general of ritory of Balize, by saying that “ the original

Guatemala, or confederation of Central America, treaty limits had been ratified in 1826, by the paragraph they add, that in the event of its be

ing ascertained hereafter that these British settle- is bounded on the Gulf of Honduras and the Bay of treaty between Great Britain and the Republic of

ments on Honduras Bay lie in whole or in part Mosquitos. In the 3d volume of the American edi• Mexico." They sent John Galindo to England

north and west of the proper boundaries of Guate- tion of 1827, p. 301, Malte-Brun speaks of "the to complain, not of the settlement within the limits

mala, though they would not, in such case, form peninsula of Yucatan, or the intendency of Merof the treaty, but of the encroachments beyond them;

ida,” and says: and the passage cited by the committee from the any part of Central America, and thus are not within the strict engagements of the treaty, yet

“We have distinguished on our maps, under the name letter of Alvarez to prove that the settlement of

that any colonies or other permanent establish

of ENGLISH YUCATAN, that part of the peninsula which lies Balize, within the treaty limits, was upon the ter

to the south of the river Honda, (Hondo,) and of the Span

ments there by Great Britain or any other Euroritory of Central America, proves directly the re

ish military post of Salamanca,"

pean Power, must necessarily excite the most anxversé, as it shows that only the aggressions and

Domingo Juanos, a Spaniard, in his “History ious concern of this Government, and would, if encroachments at Balize were upon that territory. As persisted in, lead to consequences of most unpleas

of Guatemala," says that “ the jurisdiction of the I consider this dispatch of M. Alvarez as conclu

Royal Audiencia and Chancery of Guatemala ant character." sively admitting that British Honduras, within

'extended along the Atlantic from the coast of BaAs the committee thus avow themselves doubtful

* lize, in the Bay of Honduras, to the Escudo de ,

Veraguay. that letter.

In the third volume of the London Encyclotheir opinion, by giving them the information It was then read by the Clerk, as follows: which was not before them. Their report says that

pedia, page 419, we find that

“ Balize is a river in the peninsula of Yucatan, South DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, " by some of the European geographers, (not America, which falls into the Bay of Honduras, in latitude ST. SALVADOR, December 30, 1834.

Spanish,) these British settlements are spoken of 14° 59 N. On its banks, and to the extent of two hundred SIR: A short time since the authorities of the State of as in Yucatan.” The first authority to which I

miles up the stream, the English cut mahogany, and by the Guatemala granted, for purposes of settlement, sundry lands

treaty of 1783 a right was guarantied to British subjects of situated in the neighborhood of the Bay of Honduras to a shall refer them, as they have denied that Spanish

cutting and carrying away logwood in the district between company, whose object was to form a national establish- geographers have so spoken, is the Dictionario this river and the Rio Hondo. Beyond the scene of their ment upon them. As soon, however, as the authorities of Geographico” of Don Antonio de Alcedo, published operation the Balize is very imperfectly known.” Balize were informed of this grant, they declared that the lands in question were within their jurisdiction, were their

at Madrid, in 1786. I quote from the English edi- Again: property; and they positively refused to give the contract

tion, translated by Thompson, in five volumes “Balize, a sea-port town of Yucatan, South America, is ors possession of a right which now justly belongs to them. quarto, London, 1812:

an establishment chiefly composed of English settlers at This extravagant pretension is plainly contrary to the “BALIS, R10 ĐE, a river in the province and Government

the mouth of the above river." -Ibid. convention of 1786, based upon that of 1783, between their of Yucatan, which runs into the sea upon the same coast

I could fill a volume with British authorities, Britannic and Catholic Majesties, which definitively fixed

near the strand of Bacalar, and into the bay which is formed the confines of Balize, within which the inhabitants were to

describing, at various periods during the last hunby that strand and Long Island."-Vol. 1, p. 129. keep themselres ; which convention, having been ratified

dred years, their settlements in Honduras as being by the respective courts in 1814, and subsequently in 1826, After mentioning the thirteen provinces of Gua- in Mexico or Yucatan. The committee avoided by the treaty between Great Britain and ihe Republic of temala, Alcedo expressly mentions Yucatan among all these; and their report declares that "respect Mexico, it seems clear, without entering into questions of

the provinces of “Nueva-Espana,” [Mexico.)- for the State of Guatemala requires of this Gov. another description, that the boundaries should be according to the letter of that convention.

Vol. 2, p. 64, and vol. 3, p. 106. The authority is ernment to recognize the boundaries she has The inhabitants of Balize, who have exceeded the estab- the more conclusive, as the writer, who was a prescribed for herself, at least until they are


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the 30th of December, 1834, I ask the reading of proceed to strengthen their doubts, and to refute

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32D CONG.....30 SESS.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.


• successfully controverted by those territorially of a ship canal across the isthmus which connects North of instructions given in 1826 by Mr. Clay, then interested. Why did not respect for Great and South America, and of securing forever, by such stip

• Secretary of State, to our plenipotentiaries apulations, the free and equal right of navigating such canal Britain equally require of this Government equally

to all such nations, on the payment of such reasonable tolls 'pointed to attend the Congress of Panama, refto recognize the boundaries she has prescribed for as may be established to compensate the capitalists who erence is had to a correspondence on this subject herself; or at least equally refer to her claims ? may engage in such undertaking and complete the work." between him and the Minister of Central AmerWith her we have an existing treaty of peace, This resolution was at the time debated by Dan- lica; and it was stated that if the work (a canal] amity, and commerce, and yet no English author- iel Webster, John Forsyth, and myself. "It had should ever be executed so as to admit of the ities are referred to for the purpose of showing long been a cherished object with me to procure passage of sea vessels, the benefits of it ought her pretensions, although so much more easy, of some communication across the isthmus which not to be exclusively appropriated to any one nation, access. I shall not dwell upon them: but, having would bring this country nearer to the territories but should be extended to all parts of the globe, upon cited the French and Spanish authorities, I shall on the Pacific, and draw the treasures of that the payment of a just compensation or reasonconclude my review of the report by referring to mighty ocean, with its ten thousand fertile and able tolls." some of the leading American authorities on the productive islands, into the ports of the United By recurring to the instructions given to our subject.

States. I thought then, and still think, that the Minister to Panama by Mr. Clay in 1826, it will Darby informs us that “Balize is a river of opening of such a passage was of paramount im- be seen that President 'Adams fully approved the • North America, in Yucatan, and on its banks portance not only to my own country but to all principle subsequently adopted by the American the English have their principal settlements for others; and that even if, in completing such a Government, so far at least as to negative the idea cutting mahogany," &c.

work, fifty or a hundred millions of dollars (ay, that it was either the interest or the duty of the The “Encyclopedia Americana” defines Ba- one half the money vainly expended in attempting | American people to obtain a monopoly of the right lize as a "sea-port of Mexico, in Yucatan, at the to discover a northwest passage) should be ex- of way. Mr. Wheaton correctly observes that mouth of the river Balize," and says " it is the pended, it would be a cheaper outlay, and render | after the failure of Mr. Biddle's grant, and a subonly settlement belonging to the British on the more benefits and blessings to the world, than an

sequent similar grant of exclusive privileges to coast.” The character of Francis Leiber, the equal expenditure in any other enterprise that had Baron Thierry, the subject was again taken up in editor, as a man of science, can be stated by the ever been or could be undertaken by man. I in- | 1839 in the House of Representatives of the UniSenators from South Carolina.

troduced the resolution just eighteen years ago ted States, on the memorial of the merchants of In the “Encyclopedia of Geography,” by last Friday, and on the next day Congress ad- New York and Philadelphia, on which a very Hugh Murray, revised by Bradford, published in journed, and John Forsyth entered upon the du- elaborate report was made by Mr. Mercer, from 1837, page 328, the author, after speaking of Me. ties of Secretary of State, under the administration the Commitiee on Roads and Canals, accompanied rida and Campeachy, on the western side of the of President Jackson. The suggestion contained with documents and maps illustrative of this impeninsula of Yucatan, says: “On the other side of in the resolution met with a warm and hearty ap- || portant subject. The report concluded with pro

the peninsula of Yucatan the British possess the proval from the President; and on the first day of posing a resolution that the President should be settlement of Honduras, extending along the May, 1835, Charles Biddle was charged with the requested “ to consider the expediency of opening shore from the Rio Hondo to the Liburn.' duty of making inquiries, with a view to enable

or continuing negotiations with the Governments I have no time to cite other geographical works the Executive to comply with it. Mr. Forsyth's of other nations, and particularly with those the to which I could readily refer, but I may be per- instructions to Mr. Biddle direct him to proceed territorial jurisdiction of which comprehends the mitted to quote the instructions given by my im- || by the most direct route to Lake Nicaragua, to Isthmus of Panama, and to which the United mediate predecessor, Mr. Buchanan, who, as I explore the contemplated communication by canal States have accredited ministers or agents, for think, was qualified to judge of this question, and or railroad in that quarter, for which purpose the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of who, in his letter to Mr. Hise, of the 3d of June, | every facility was granted to Mr. Biddle. He effecting a communication between the Atlantic 1848, describes the country ceded by the treaties was afterwards directed to proceed to examine the land Pacific oceans, by the construction of a ship of 1783 and 1786, when referring to the British en- Panama route, and such other points on the At- canal across the isthmus, and of securing forever, croachments, as the “ present British province of lantic side of the isthmus as would probably be by suitable treaty stipulations, the free and equal the Balize,"and as the established British colony fixed on for the termination of a road. I was right of navigating such canal to all nationg." of the Balize," to which he, under the direction anxious at the time that William Radcliff, the This resolution was unanimously agreed to by of Mr. Polk, appointed a consul, thus directly re- former consul at Chagres, who had devoted much the House. It will be seen that it is almost a litcognizing the colony as a British colony long be- of his life to the examination of the subject, should eral copy of the Senate's resolution of the 3d of fore the treaty of the 4th of July, 1850, and still receive the appointment. But, unfortunately, he March, 1835. longer before the lith of February, 1853, when was no politician. Mr. Biddle disobeyed his in

It thus appears that the House of Representathis committee declared that the whole territory structions-never visited Nicaragua; and after hav

tives adopted the identical principle established by was in Central America. If it were so, why did | ing procured from the Government of New Gra- the President and Senate four years previously: Mr. Polk and Mr. Buchanan seek and obtain the nada an exclusive grant of the right of way across Mr. Adams and Mr. Clay had merely proposed exequatur for Mr. Hempstead, our Consul at the the isthmus of Panama, vesting in citizens of the

that the benefits of the communication between the Balize, from the British Government, and not from United States the monopoly of the route, in direct two oceans should not be exclusively appropriated Guatemala? If there had been any foundation for opposition to the resolution of the Senate, he rethe “ decided opinion” of this committee, was

to one nation, and should be extended to all parts turned home, and then, for the first time, coolly

of the globe on the same terms. But during the Not the course adopted by Mr. Polk and Mr. informed Mr. Forsyth that it “appeared to him

administration of President Jackson, we see that Buchanan a direct insult to Guatemala ? And why unnecessary at present to enter into any negotia- our Government extended the principle to the did the members of this committee, who now show tions with foreign nations upon the subject.”

length embraced in the resolution of the Senate; no respect for the rights of Great Britain, and re- His idea of an exclusive grant to our citizens of

and during the administration of President Van fuse even to quote her pretensions to the territory, the right of way was in accordance with the opin

Buren, the House of Representatives adopted the relying, as they have done, exclusively upon the ion of Mr. Hise, subsequently appointed by Mr.

same principle by a resolution in nearly the same mere claims of Guatemala, then pass over in si- || Polk. Both negotiated for a monopoly of the pas- words. In 1847, President Polk carried the prinlence all that was done by Mr. Polk's adminis- sage in our own citizens. But there was this dif

ciple into practical execution by the treaty which tration, acknowledging the domain to be in Great || ference between them: that the grant negotiated

was negotiated with the Government of New GraBritain by asking her consent to the consulate at by Mr. Biddle provided that two thirds of the

nada. In his executive message to the Senate of Balize? stock created by it should be “ the property, of

the 10th of February, 1847, communicating the I now leave those gentlemen who were so confi- | . Charles Biddle and such citizens of the United dent that British Honduras was in Central Amer States as he might associate with him, the office railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, he quotes

treaty with New Granada in regard to a canal or ica, on the 6th of January last, and who said they of the company to be in Philadelphia, and all

at full length the resolution of the Senate of the would not have voted for the treaty if they had installments to be paid there, and the number of 3d of March, 1835; approves of the policy adopted not believed it was there, to the enjoyment of their directors to be in the same proportion as the by President Jackson and the Senate at that peown reflections.

quantity of stock."
President Jackson was

riod; denies the policy of obtaining an exclusive My next object is to vindicate the treaty, which highly displeased with the result; and Mr. For

grant or monopoly of the right of way to the received the vote of forty-two Senators against syth, on the 23d of September, 1836, immediately

American people; and vindicates the principle of ten. To do this I shall review the history of the after ascertaining the facts, in a dispatch to Robert opening the communication to all nations on the principle on which it was negotiated. B. McAfee, our Chargé d'Affaires at Bogota, dis

same terms, and of constituting alliances by negoThe principle which for twenty years has gov- avowed and censured the whole proceeding, and

tiation, not for political objects, but for purely erned all the negotiations of the American Gov- directed him “to disclaim all connection with the

commercial purposes, equally interesting to all

the ernment on the great subject of an interoceanic project on the part of this Government, to pre

navigating nations of the world. I ask the Seccommunication between the Atlantic and Pacific, vent any misunderstanding with the Governacross the isthmus which divides North from

retary to read the message:

ment of New Granada.' The whole object of South America, was suggested by a unanimous the Senate and the President was thus frustrated « To the Senate of the United States:

“ | transmit to the Senate, for their advice with regard to vote of Senate, in Executive session, on the third by the incompetency of the agent. President

its ratification, a general treaty of peace, amity, navigaday of March, 1835. The resolution then adopted Jackson shortly after went out of office. But the tion, and commerce, between the United States of America by the Senate is in the following words:

subject was not permitted to sleep. The records and the Republic of New Granada,' concluded at Bogota on Resolved, that the President of the United States be of the State Department show that during every

the 12th of December last, by Benjamin A. Bidlack, Chargé

d'Affaires of the United States, on their part, and by Manrespectfully requested to consider the expediency of opensucceeding Administration that Department has

uel Maria Mallarino, Secretary of State and Foreign Relaing negotiations with the Governments of other nations, and been engaged in the consideration of this subject, tions, on the part of that Republic. particularly with the Governments of Central America and and especially in the acquisition of information “It will be perceived by the thirty-fifth article of this treaNew Granada, for the purpose of effectually protecting, by suitable treaty stipulations with them, such individuals or necessary to enable it to act with effect. In the ty that New Granada proposes to guaranty to the Govern

ment and citizens of the United States the right of passage companies as may undertake to open a communication beadmirable dispatch of Mr. Wheaton, of the 17th

across the Jsthmus of Panama, over the natural roads, and tween the Auantic and Pacific oceans, by the construction December, 1845, it is observed that, "in the letter over any canal or railroad which may be constructed to

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