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32D Cong.....30 Sess.

Special Session— Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

Ho. OF REPs.

unite the two seas, on condition that the United States shall which shall be constructed. New Granada is a Power right to make the canal, we do not mean to be misundermake a similar guaranty to New Granada of the neutrality which will not excite the jealousy of any nation. If Great stood. Our purpose in aiding American citizens to obtain of this portion of her territory, and her sovereignty over the Britain, France, or the United States held the sovereignty the grant is to encourage them in a laudable effort, rely. same.

over the isthmus, other nations might apprehend that, in ing, as their Government does, more on their skill and en“The reasons which caused the insertion of this import- case of war, the Government would close up the passage terprise than that of others. If they themselves prefer to ant stipulation in the treaty will be fully made known to the against the enemy: but no such fears can ever be enter- unite with their own the capital of foreigners who may deSenate by the accompanying documents. From these it tained in regard to New Granada."

sire to embark in the undertaking, this Government will will appear that our chargé d'affaires acted, in this partic

not object to that. We should naturally be proud of such ular, upon his own responsibility, and without instructions.

The vote on the treaty was as follows:

an achievement as an American work ; but if European Under such circumstances, it became my duty to decide “YEAS-Messrs. Atchison, Atherton, Badger, Bagby,

aid be necessary to accomplish it, why should we repudiate whether I would submit the treaty to the Senate; and, after Benton, Berrien, Borland, Bradbury, Bright, Butler, Cal

it, seeing that our object is as honest as it is openly avowed, mature consideration, I have determined to adopt this houn, Davis of Mississippi, Dickinson, Dix, Downs, Foote,

to claim no peculiar privilege, no exclusive right, no mocourse.

Hannegan, Houston, Ilunter, Lewis, Moore, Niles, Rusk, nopoly of commercial intercourse, but to see that the work * The importance of the concession to the commercial Sebastian, Spruance, Turney, Underwood, Westcott, and

is dedicated to the benefit of mankind, to be used by all on and political interests of the United States cannot easily be Yulee-29.

the same terms with us, and consecrated to the enjoyment overrated. The route by the Isthmus of Panama is the

“ NAYS-Messrs. Baldwin, Clarke, Davis of Massachu

and diffusion of the unnumbered and inestimable blessings shortest between the two oceans; and, from the information setts, Dayton, Hale, Miller, and Upham-7.”

which must flow from it to all the civilized world? herewith communicated, it would seem to be the most prac

“ You will not want arguments to induce Nicaragua to ticable for a railroad or canal.

It thus appears that every Democratic Senator

enter into such a treaty with us. The canal will be pro" The vast advantages to our commerce which would re- of that day voted for the treaty. The Senator ductive of more benefit to her than any other country of the sult from such a communication, not only with the west from Illinois, it would seem, is not of that school. same limits. With the aid of the treaty it may (without coast of America, but with Asia and the islands of the Pa

When I went into the office of Secretary of State

such protection from some Power equal to our own, it cancific, are too obvious to require any detail. Such a passage

not) be accomplished. Let your negotiation with her be would relieve us frora a long and dangerous navigation of

under President Taylor, I found that a company frank, open, and unreserved, as to all our purposes. The more than nine thousand miles around Cape Horn, and of British capitalists contemplated the formation of same reasons for our interference must be avowed to the render our communication with our own possessions on the

a ship canal by the way of the river San Juan and capitalists who may enlist in the work. Before you treat northwest coast of America comparatively easy and speedy:

for their protection, look well to their contract with Nicar" The communication across the isthmus has attracted Lake Nicaragua, and that they had employed Mr.

agua. See that it is not assignable to others, that no exthe attention of the Government of the United States ever Wheelright, an English gentleman, to make the clusive privileges are granted to any nation that will not since the independence of the South American Republics. necessary arrangements and obtain the requisite | agree to the same treaty stipulations with Nicaragua, that On the 3d of March, 1835, a resolution passed the Senate in

grant for that purpose from the Government of the tolls to be demanded by the owners are not unreasonthe following words:

able or oppressive, that no power be reserved to the propri"ó Resolved, That the President of the United States be Nicaragua. At the same time a company of Amer

etors of the canal or their successors to extort at any time respectfully requested to consider the expediency of open- ican capitalists, the chief of whom was Mr. Van- liereafter, or unjustly obstruct or embarrass, the right of ing negotiations with the Governments of other nations, and derbilt, of New York, was engaged in the prosecu- passage. This will require all your vigilance and skill. If particularly with the Governments of Central America and tion of the same purpose, and had employed an

they do not agree to grant us passage on reasonable and New Granada, for the purpose of effectually protecting, by

proper terms, refuse our protection and our countenance to suitable treaty stipulations with them, such individuals or agent to procure a grant from Nicaragua in their

procure the contract from Nicaragua. If a charter or grant companies as may undertake to open a communication be. behalf. Supposing that Great Britain would throw of the right of way shall have been incautiously or incontween the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, by the construction her influence in favor of the English adventurers, siderately ma before your arrival in that country, seek to of a ship-canal across the isthmus which connects North the American capitalists naturally sought the aid

have it properly modified to answer the ends we have in and South America; and of securing forever, by such stipu

view." lations, the free and equal right of navigating such canal 10

of their own Government. The President appointall such nations, on the payment of such reasonable tolls as ed E. George Squier chargé d'affaires to Central It will thus be seen that the policy of President may be established, to compensate the capitalists who may America, in lieu of Elijah Hise, who had been ap- Taylor was not only in accordance with the resoengage in such undertaking and complete the work.'

* No person can be more deeply sensible than myself of pointed to the same place during the administra- lution of 1835, but with the principles adopted by the danger of entangling alliances with any foreign nation.

tion of President Polk. His instructions, dated both Houses of Congress, and with those of every That we should avoid such alliances has become a maxim the 1st of May, 1849, fully explain the object of President of the United States from the days of of our policy, consecrated by the most venerated names the appointment of Mr. Squier, in aiding the Amer- Presidents Adams and Jackson to this time, so far which adorn our history, and sanctioned by the unanimous

ican capitalists to obtain the grant of the right of as we have the means of ascertaining them. voice of the American people. Our own experience has taught us the wisdom of this maxim in the only instance- way, and to carry out the principles of the resolu- But, it will be asked, if the views of President that of the guarantee to France of her American posses- tion of the 3d of March, 1835. Those instructions, || Polk were really such as are here represented, sions-in whicb we have ever entered into such an alliance. after denying the validity of the Mosquito title, and | why was it that he suffered Mr. Hise to violate If, therefore, the very peculiar circumstances of the present case do not greatly impair, if not altogether destroy, the

asserting that of the State Nicaragua, arrive at the principle and abandon the whole policy of the force of this objection, then we ought not to enter into the

the conclusion that the United States, being in- || Government by the negotiation of Mr. Hise's stipulation, whatever may be its advantages. The general terested in a free passage to and from the Pacific treaty with Nicaragua of the 21st of June, 1849, considerations which have induced me to transmit the ocean by the way of the river San Juan and Lake || by which Nicaragua grants" to the United States, treaty to the Senate, for their advice, may be summed up in the following particulars :

Nicaragua, cannot tamely allow that interest to be 'or to a company of the citizens thereof, the exclu"1. The treaty does not propose to guaranty a territory thwarted by the pretensions set up by Great Bri- sive right and privilege to make, construct, and 10 a foreign nation in which the United States will have no tain as the protector of the Mosquito coast. As it build, within the territories of the State of Nicarcommon interest with that nation. On the contrary, we are more deeply and directly interested in the subject of

is necessary to explain the policy of this Govern- 'agua, through and by the use and means of any this guarantee than New Granada herself, or any other coun.

ment, and especially that of President Taylor, I l of the streams, rivers, bays, harbors, lakes, or

trust I shall be pardoned for quoting the following | Ólands, under the jurisdiction or within the limits 2. The guarantee does not extend to the territories of

passage from the instructions which I gave to the of said State, a canal or canals, or road or roads, New Granada generally, but is confined to the single prov

minister to Central America before he proceeded either railways or turnpikes, or any other kind of ince of the (sthmus of Panama, where we shall acquire by the treaty a common and coextensive right of passage with on his mission:

'roads, for the purpose of opening a convenient herself.

“ Having now sufficiently apprised you of the views of passage and communication between the Carib"3. It will constitute no alliance for any political object, this Department in regard to the title to the Mosquito coast, • bean sea and the Pacific ocean?” The answer is, but for a purely commercial purpose, in which all the navi- I desire you distinctly to understand how important it is that Mr. Polk never assented to or authorized any gating nations of the world have a common interest.

deemed by the President so to conduct all our negotiations 664. In entering into the mutual guarantees proposed by on the subject of the Nicaragua pass as not to involve this

such thing. Mr. Hise acted in making the treaty the thirty-fifth article of the treaty, neither the Government country in any entangling alliances or any unnecessary con- not only without instructions and beyond his of New Granada nor that of the United States has any nar- troversy. We desire no monopoly of the right of way for powers, but in direct opposition to the instructions row or exclusive views. The ultimate object, as presented our commerce, and we cannot submit to it if claimed for • by the Senate of the United States in their resolution, to

which Mr. Buchanan gave him in his letter of the that of any other nation. If we held and enjoyed such a which I have already referred, is to secure to all nations monopoly, it would entail upon us more bloody and ex

3d of June, 1848. He went with powers to conthe free and equal right of passage over the isthmus. If pensive wars than the struggle for Gibraltar has caused to clude a common treaty of commerce with the Rethe United States, as the chief of the American nations, England and Spain. The same calamities would infallibly publics of Guatemala and San Salvador. But Mr. should first become a party to this guarantee, it cannot be be cast upon any other nation claiming to exclude the doubted--indeed, it is confidently expected by the Govern

Buchanan expressly added, “it is not, however, commerce of the rest of the world. We only ask an ment of New Granada-that similar guarantees will be given equal right of passage for all nations on the same terms-a

deemed advisable to empower you to conclude a to that Republic by Great Britain and France. Should the passage unencumbered by oppressive exactions either from ' treaty with either Nicaragua, Honduras, or Costa proposition thus tendered be rejected, we may deprive the ihe local government within whose sovereign limits it may • Rica, until you shall have communicated to the United States of the just influence which its acceptance be effected, or from the proprietors of the canal when ac

• Department' more full and authentic statistic innight secure to them, and confer the glory and benefits of complished. For this end we are willing to enter into a being first among the nations in concluding such an ar- treaty stipulation with the Government of Nicaragua, that

• formation in regard to those States than that which rangement upon the Government either of Great Britain or both Governments shall forever protect and defend the pro

it now possesses. Mr. Hise's treaty, granting France. That either of these Governments would embrace prietors who may succeed in cutting the canal and opening to us the exclusive right of way, was not only the offer, cannot well be doubted ; because there does not the water communication between the two oceans for our

hostile to all the views and opinions of Mr. Polk, appear to be any other effectual means of securing to all na

Without such protection, it is not believed tions the advantages of this important passage but the guar- that this great enterprise would ever be successful. Nicar

but it was also adverse to the sentiments of Mr. antee of great commercial Powers that the isthmus shall be agua is a seeble State, and capitalists, proverbially a timid Buchanan, the Secretary, as expressed by him to neutral territory. The interests of the world at stake are so race, may apprehend from the rapacity of great maritime Mr. Crampton, the British Minister, on the 22d important that the security of this passage between the two Powers the obstruction and even the seizure of the canal. oceans cannot be suffered to depend upon the wars and Similar apprehensions on their part, from revolutions in

of May, 1848, at which time Mr. Buchanan rerevolutions which may arise among different nations. the local government, from the oppression and exactions of quested Mr. Crampton to ascertain Lord Palmer

“Besides, such a guarantee is almost indispensable to the temporary chieftains, and from causes not necessary to be ston's opinion with regard to a plan he felt very construction of a railroad or canal across the territory. Nei- explained, inay operato to retard a work in regard to which ther sovereign States nor individuals would expend their

anxious to give effect to for the establishment of a it may be safely predicted, that when successfully accomcapital in the construction of the expensive works, without plished, its benefits to mankind will transcend those of any

communication by a railroad, in the first instance, some such security for their investments. Other similar work known in the history of the world. All

and afterwards, if practicable, by a ship canal, “The guarantee of the sovereignty of New Granada over these apprehensions may and will be removed by the sol- across the Isthmus of Panama, between the Atthe isthmus is a natural consequence of the guarantee of its emn pledge of protection given by the United States, and lantic and the Pacific oceans. neutrality, and there does not seem to be any other practica- especially when it is known that our object in giving it is ble mode of securing the neutrality of this territory. New not to acquire for ourselves any exclusive or partial advan- The great obstacle which had prevented the exGranada would not consent to yield up this province in tage over other nations. Nicaragua will be at liberty to ecution of this important undertaking had been, in order that it might become a neutral State ; and if she enter into the same treaty stipulations with any other nashould, it is not sufficienty populous or wealthy to estab

Mr. Buchanan's opinion, the want of security for tion that may claim to enjoy the same benefits, and will lish and maintain an independent sovereignty. But a civil agree to be bound by the same guarantee. In desiring that

property in the territory which embraces the isth. Government must exist there, in order to protect the works our own countrymen may obtain the charter or grant of the mus, resulting from the continual revolutions and

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320 CONG.....30 Sess.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

SENATE.

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hostilities of the Republics of Central America; not a treaty for a political alliance, which he ad- | arraign me or President Taylor for declining to and for this state of things he proposed the remedy || mits would have been fatal to its confirmation. | offer it to the Senate for ratification? When he by the conclusion of a treaty between Great Bri- || On the very principles laid down by Mr. Polk in indulged himself so freely at my expense, on the tain and the United States, admitting as parties to that message it is impossible that he could have | 14th day of February last, did he not know that it, should it be thought desirable, France or any ever consented to the ratification of Mr. Hise's neither Mr. Buchanan nor Mr. Polk had ever other great commercial Power, by which treaty treaty.

authorized Mr. Hise to make such a treaty ?-that the perpetual neutrality of the province in which I have quoted but a part of the twelfth article. || although Mr. Hise stated in the treaty that he had the Isthmus of Panama is situated should be guar- || The other provisions of that article are not only full powers to negotiate it, yet he had no such antied. Mr. Buchanan proposed to afford the ad- entangling, but entangled. If I understand the powers? Did he not know that Mr. Hise made vantage of the communication at a moderate toll to article at all, it provides that we shall not support the treaty in utter disobedience to Mr. Buchanan's all nations. In these views, General Herrau, the Nicaragua in her wars of aggression outside of instructions ? Did he not know that Mr. Hise Minister of New Granada, concurred. The British her just limits; yet the naval and military forces, | made that treaty after his recall, and after the apMinister himself is my authority for the fact. and the entire means and resources of both the con- pointment of his successor? Did he not know

We know, therefore, that the views of Mr. tracting parties shall be employed “ to put down that the treaty was utterly inadmissible on the Buchanan concurred with the principle established all wars and bloodshed arising therefrom," and i principles publicly avowed and acted upon by Mr. in 1835, and that he could not have yielded his to suppress all violations of the peace and inter- Polk? Did he not know that the treaty violated approbation to Mr. Hise's treaty for a monopoly. ruptions of the neutrality of the State of Nicar- | plain principles of constitutional law, and over

But Mr. Hise's treaty, independently of the agua; that is to say, if Nicaragua should go to ihrew the settled policy of this Government since objection on the ground of the exclusive privileges war outside of her own limits, we are bound to its origin? Did he not know, while he was deliv. it conferred, was liable to others.

fight till we put down the wars and bloodshed ering his speech here in the Senate, that this was By the third article

arising from them; and Nicaragua is to help us to a treaty the like of which no man of any party “It is agreed that if the Government of the United States do that, for not only our entire means and re- could either ratify or approve? shall decide not to undertake and construct the said works, sources, (that is, all we have in the world, or can In a report of the speech of the Senator from then either the President or Congress thereof shall have the power and authority to frame, enact, and issue a charter

possibly get,) but all she has or can procure shall Illinois, now before me, he states his objections or act of incorporation, containing such liberal provisions, be employed for the common purpose.

to the treaty made by Mr. Squier with the State and such granis of rights and privileges, (not inconsistent also bound to suppress all violations of the peace of Nicaragua, and also to the Central American with the rights of the contracting parties herein secured,) as within her limits; to effect which we must have treaty concluded with Great Britain on the 19th may be necessary, convenient, or proper to effect the great objects in view.

kept an army there. The twelfth article then pro- \ of April, 1850. As both these treaties were nego

ceeds to declare, " for further explanation, it is tiated on the principles of the resolution laid down We see, then, that Mr. Hise's treaty proposed, understood that if the State of Nicaragua should in the Senate on the 3d of March, 1835, I will take first, that the Government of the United States

• become involved in a (just) war with any for- this occasion of answering his objections, and should undertake and construct the canal in Nic

eign Power or neighboring State within her own correcting some of his misstatements. In that aragua; and, secondly, if it should decide not to do

bord to defend the territories rightfully be- speech the Senator says that Great Britain could so, then either the President or Congress should

longing to her, or to recover such territories never have colonized any part of Central America. issue a charter or act of incorporation for the pur

wrongfully wrested from her, the United States | In another part of the same speech he says that pose. As to the first proposition, I have never

engage to aid and defend Nicaragua in carrying Great Britain had colonized the Bay of Íslands, yet met with any man of any party who supposed on such war within her own rightful limits." which he says lie in Central America, and belong ihat our Government had power to make improve- Comment upon this provision of Mr. Hise's treaty to the State of Honduras, in violation of the ments outside the United States and their territo

would seem to be an inexcusable waste of time. Monroe doctrine and the treaty negotiated by me ries. Mr. Polk denied that it had power to make There are other articles in this treaty sufficiently with Mr. Bulwer. Both the statements cannot internal improvements, and Mr. Buchanan was of absurd to condemn it. But if I have not already be correct-the one or the other must be untrue; the same strict-construction school. As to the

shown enough for that purpose, I feel that it would and strange must have been that obliviousness second proposition, to confer upon the President

be useless to refer to any others. Is there a man which involved the Senator in such a flat contraor Congress the power to issue a charter or act of

in this Senate who will dare to stand up and say | diction of himself. Again: he says that I had incorporation for the purpose of cutting a canal he would have voted for it? Not one! And if instructed Mr. Squier to say to the Government in Nicaragua, I need not ask the question, Who the whole Senate had voted for such a treaty, it of Nicaragua that Mr. Hise had no authority to believes that either of them could exercise such a

could never have been ratified either by President act. This is another singular misstatement. There power under the Constitution? No foreign Gov- Polk or by President Taylor. If the President is not a word in my instructions to excuse the ernment could confer a greater power upon our had ratified it on our part, we know it never could Senator for making it. I had no idea that Mr. President or our Congress than the Constitution

have become a treaty, for the Government of Nic- | Hise had disobeyed Mr. Buchanan's instructions delegates to them. The power of Congress to

aragua, when this treaty was presented to it by when I wrote the instructions to Mr. Squier. He create a corporation within the limits of the Uni

Señor Selva, the commissioner who signed it with had been directed to make no treaty with Nicaragua. ted States was denied by Mr. Polk. But if there

Mr. Hise, utterly disapproved it, and refused to How could I imagine that Mr. Hise had acted be any man (except the Senator from Illinois, Mr.

ratify it. Of this fact all were fully apprised by upon powers which were never granted to him by Douglas) who thinks that either the President

the published letter of Mr. Carcache, the chargé my predecessor? The date of my instructions to (who has no legislative power) or Congress, or d'affaires accredited to our Government by that of Squier, as the Senator knew, was the 1st of May, both combined, have power to issue a charter in

Nicaragua, addressed to the Secretary of State on 1849. He equally well knew, if he rend the pubcorporating a company to make a canal in Nicarthe 31st of December, 1849.

lic documents, that Mr. Hise's treaty was not agua, or a railroad in China, I have not yet seen

It was under these circumstances that the Sen- made till the 21st day of June thereafter. The him.

ator from Illinois (Mr. Douglas) made a charge Senator prefers Mr. Hise's treaty on account of By the twelfth article of Mr. Hise’s treaty it is against me on the foor of the Senate, on the 14th the monopoly of the right of way; and his objecprovided, in consideration of the monopoly grant- day of February last, that I had suppressed Mr. tion to that of Mr. Squier is, that it opened the ed and the other grants in the preceding articles, Hise's treaty. What right had he to say that I right of way to all nations upon the same terms. that

had suppressed the treaty? As a Senator he ought Did the Senator object to the treaty negotiated 6: The United States of America doth solcmnly agree and to have known, and if he attended to his duty, in the time of Mr. Polk with New Granada ? undertake to protect and defend the State of Nicaragua in

and read the correspondence transmitted to the And is not that treaty liable to the very same obthe possession and exercise of the sovereignty and dominion of all the country, coasts, ports, lakes, rivers, and territo

Senate by the President, he did know that it was jection which he now makes against that of Mr. ries that may be rightfully under the jurisdiction and within utterly untrue; for General Taylor himself in- Squier? It is Mr. Polk's boast in his message the just and true limits and boundaries of the said State ; formed the Senate that he had declined sending it transmitting the New Granada treaty, that the and when the circumstances and condition of the country

to the Senate for ratification, for reasons which I Panama route would be “ open to all nations on may require it, the United States shall employ their naval and military force to preserve the peace and maintain the have already given. If the Senator meant to say the same terms. neutrality of the said coasts, ports, lakes, rivers, and terri- that I had concealed the treaty, then his statement The Senator, who has joined with a few others in tories, and to hold and keep the same under the dominion was equally destitute of truth, for he knew well denouncing the treaties with Nicaragua and Great and sovereignty of the Government of the State of Nicaragua, or of the Government of such State or political com

that I had sent that treaty to Congress on the 18th Britain for making the “ Nicaragua passage free to munity of which Nicaragua may voluntarily become a mem- day of July, 1850, and that it was among the all nations on the same terms,” was never known ber, or with which, of her own accord, she may hereafter published documents when he made the state- to open his mouth against the treaty which opened be identified." ment.

the Panama railroad to all nations. The treaty of Does any man here defend such a treaty as that? (Mr. Douglas here said he meant only that the the 19th of April, 1850, provides for the neutralThis is one of the first instances since the ancient treaty had not been sent to the Senate for rati- ity of the territory of all the Central American entangling alliance made with France by the fication.]

States, and for that reason the Senator condemns treaties of 1778, in which any minister of this The Senator has been on many occasions en- it. The treaty with New Granada, having in Government has attempted to disobey the solemn gaged in making charges against the administra- view the same object—the protection of an interinjunction of the Father of his Country to avoid tion of President Taylor that this treaty was not oceanic communication through the Isthmus of all such politicial connections. For this is a polit- | submitted to the Senate for ratification. I have Panama, and providing for the neutrality of the ical, not a mere commercial alliance. It is diffi- read publications of some of his stump speeches province of Panama-meets with his unqualified cult to perceive how it could have failed to plunge in regard to this treaty-has he any complaint to approbation. The Senator has taken up his song us into a war. Mr. Polk, in his message to the make novo? Dare he now say that he would, against the treaty which guaranties the neutrality Senate, when transmitting the treaty which pro- | under any possible circumstances, have voted for of all the Central American Republics, and libervides for the protection of the Panama railroad, that treaty? Would he desire me to send such a ates them from the dominion of Great Britain. that the Province of Panama shall be neutral treaty as that to the Senate for ratification? Would That Government had actually seized them and territory, justifies that treaty on the ground that it he ratify it? He cannot say that he would; and occupied them, and yet his harp hung upon the is a treaty for commercial purposes merely,

and Il if he cannot, with what show of propriety did he ll Willows from the day when the treaty establishing 320 CONG.....30 Sess.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

SENATE.

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the neutrality of Panama went into operation till mend to Congress such measures as he should the same grounds: Speaking of the Monroe decthe present time, and during the whole succeeding | deem expedient, he said, in his message to the two laration, he said: period of five years not a murmur of disapproba- || Houses: “We owe it to ourselves to declare," “ It answered the purpose for which it was intended, and tion escaped his lips. He complains that, under &c.; that is, he recommended to Congress (in virtue the danger which then threatened the Southern Republics the treaty negotiated by the Administration of of the right to recommend given him by the Con- has since passed away. This declaration contained no

It left us perfectly General Taylor, we could not fortify in Central stitution) to make this declaration in some resolu- / pledge to any foreign Government.

free, but it has since becn converted into such a pledge by America, while the British can fortify at Jamaica; tion or other proper form, and he was pledged by Mr. Adams's administration; and, although they have not yet he has always been perfectly satisfied with the it to nothing more than this: that, if Congress framed formal alliances with the Southern Republics, yet treaty of Mr. Polk, which deprives us of the power shaped such a resolution, or made such a declara- | they have committed the country in honor to an alarming

extent."

“Mr. Clay has gone to such extremities in the to fortify in any part of the province of Panama, | tion, he would approve it. There was no pledge

cause of these Republics, that in this particular prudent while the British can fortify in British Guiana. in it to any Power on earth but his own country- men would feel disposed to compliment his heart at the exHe is shocked that we cannot annex the Central men in Congress assembled. The American Gov- pense of his understanding." American Republics to the United States; yet he ernment could be committed only by the vote of Mr. Buchanan's complaint against Mr. Clay, himself professes, almost in the same breath, to be both Houses of Congress, approved by the Pres- which, he thought, went to show the weakness of opposed to the annexation. He cannot under- ident. The proposition recommended by Mr.

Mr. Clay's head, was this: that he had instructed stand the reason why the Government of Nicar- | Monroe was warmly opposed by the very Con- | Mr. Poinsett to bring to the notice of the Mexican agua refused to ratify the treaty made by her Com- gress to which it was submitted. No such decla

Government the message of Mr. Monroe, and that missioner, Señor Selva, with Mr. Hise; yet he ration was made or attempted to be made by Con- Mr. Poinsett had said to the Mexican Governhas seen that treaty which cedes away the juris- gress; but Mr. Clay, who was an ardent supporter ment that “the United States had pledged themdiction of the State and her public domain to an of Mr. Monroe's administration, did, at the time, •selves not to permit any other Power to interfere enormous extent, and reduces her to a complete | propose a resolution to the House of Representa- with the independence or form of government of stage of vassalage; and, because he cannot under- tives, which was intended to approach the declara- the Spanish American Republics." I know it is stand this, he attributes her refusal to ratify that tion, but even that failed. His resolution was, that | claimed that in Mr. Buchanan's instructions to treaty to the influence of Mr. Squier and to my the people of these States would not see, without Mr. Hise, he asserted the Monroe doctrine; but instructions. He amuses us with the assertion serious inquietude, any forcible interposition by the on a careful examination of his language it will be that the treaty of the 19th of April, 1850, is a * allied Powers of Europe, in the behalf of Spain, lo

found that he did not instruct Mr. Hise to make negation of the Monroe doctrine in every particu- | reduce to their former subjection those parts of the lar; yet in the next breath he asserts that the continent of America which have proclaimed and

any such declaration, and only said that European

interference with the domestic concerns of the treaty and the Monroe doctrine are so identical established for themselves, respectively, independ- || American republics would "jeopard their indethat a violation of one is a violation of both. And ent governments, and which have been solemnly pendence and ruin their interests,” and in the very, he urges us to make an issue with the British recognized by the United States.” Even had this next sentence he assigns a reason why the United Government about the colony of the Bay Islands, passed, it was but a poor response to the recom- States decline to resist such interference. In the which he says is a striking infraction of the treaty | mendation. It did not adopi Mr. Monroe's lan- same instructions he tells Mr. Hise that “it is as well as the Monroe doctrine, and presents a guage or its equivalent, and it restricted “the se

our intention to maintain our established policy very pretty quarrel as it stands. He is a great rious inquietude” we should feel to the case of a of non-intervention in the concerns of foreign advocate of the Monroe doctrine, yet refuses to forcible interposition by the allied Powers to aid

nations." vote for that doctrine when asserted in a resolu- Spain! But Mr. Clay's resolution, even when Such are the words of Mr. Polk and Mr. Bution presented by one of his own party.

thus diluted, backed by all the influence which he chanan. Their acts or omissions to act were still As he declared that his reason for opposing the and Mr. Webster exerted on the occasion, never more significant of their opinion of the binding treaty of the 19th of April, 1850, was its “nega- | passed the House of Representatives. The Hon. force of the Monroe doctrine. The letters of tion of the Monroe doctrine," I propose to exam- James K. Polk, during the debate on the Panama

Buitrago, the Secretary of State of Nicaragua, to ine the history of that doctrine, with a view to mission, tells us the fate of Mr. Clay's resolution, || Mr. Buchanan, of the 12th of November, 1847, show not only that his assertion is unfounded, and of Mr. Webster's kindred Greek resolution, || and of Guerrero, the Presidentor Supreme Director but that, while the policy indicated by the treaty which was defeated by a large majority at the same of that State, to President Polk, on the 15th of has been the established policy of this Govern- session. As Mr. Polk is often cited as an advo

November, 1847, implore the enforcement of the ment for more than twenty years, the Monroe cate of the opinion that Mr. Monroe's presidential Monroe doctrine. Not one word of reply-not doctrine never has been established as a principle message had pledged the nation to adopt the policy any kind of notice was ever given by either of to regulate the action of this Government, and has which Mr. Monroe merely recommended, "I beg them to Nicaragua that such letters were received. been repudiated as often as an effort has been to quote the following passage from his speech on The most impassioned eloquence, urging again made in Congress to sustain it. In saying this, I the Panama mission, in 1826, as not only showing and again that Nicaragua was about to fall a vicdo not mean to be understood that the Executive that he did not consider such recommendations as tim to British aggression, and entreating the Unibranch of the Government has not recommended he and Mr. Monroe gave to Congress as in any ted States to interfere on the very principles adit to Congress for effect or to attain a special ob- sense binding upon this Government, without the

vanced by Mr. Polk himself, in his message at ject, nor do I mean to censure any President for consent of Congress, but also to show the fate of the first session of the Twenty-ninth Congress, doing so, but the President does not constitute the | Mr. Clay's resolution:

and reiterated in his Yucatan message, was of no Government; and I mean to say that neither the “ Before he concluded, Mr. Polk said he would say a avail. The solicitations of Salinas and Castellon, President and Senate, by any treaty, nor Con

word in relation to the pledge which it was said the nation gress, by any vote or resolution, have ever sushad given in relation to our South American policy. When

and the warnings of Mr. Livingston, our consul tained it.

the message of the late President (Monroe) of the United at Leon, were equally ineffectual. There seemed

States was communicated to Congress, it was viewed, as to be no chord in the bosom of that Administration Mr. Monroe's declaration was made in his it should have been, as the mere expression of opinion of which vibrated to the touch of those who kneeled seventh annual message to Congress, on the 2d of

the Executive, submitted to the consideration and deliberaDecember, 1823: tion of Congress; and designed, probably, to produce an

and begged for succor in this dark hour of their effect upon the councils of the Holy Alliance, in relation to

distress. The Monroe doctrine was laid aside; “We owe it," said he, “to candor and to the amicable their supposed intention to interfere in the war between the President's own recommendation to Congress relations existing between the United States and the Euro- Spain and her former colonies. That effect it probably had pean Powers, to DECLARE that we should consider any at- an agency in producing; and, if so, IT HAD PERFORMED

had, we must suppose, also, like Mr. Monroe's, tempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of ITS OFFICE. The President had no power to bind the na

"performed its office.' The British, in their this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With

tion by such a pledge. The sound and sober judgment of ships of war Alarm and Vixen, entered the San the existing colonies and dependencies of any European the people of the United States had not been brought up to Juan river without even a remonstrance from our Power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But the conclusion that we could, in any event, make common with the Governments which have declared their independ- cause with the Republicg of the South, or involve ourselves

Government, on the 8th of January, 1848, and ence and maintained it, and whose independence we have, in the calamities of war in their behalf; all our sympathies,

while Mr. Polk and Mr. Buchanan slumbered on great considerations and just principles, acknowledged, all our good feelings were with them ; we wished them suc- over all these forewarnings of the fate of Nicarawe could not view any interposition, for the purpose of op- cess; but self-preservation is the first law of nature and of pressing them, or of controlling in any other manner their

gua, took the town of San Juan; and changed its nations; we were then, as he hoped we still were, unpredestiny, by a European Power, in any other light than as pared to depart from our settled policy. As a strong evi

name to “ Greytown,” stormed the fort of Serathe manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards the dence of what the opinion of this House then was, the

paqui, and in the Island of Cuba, in the midst of United States."

present Secretary of State, (Mr. Clay,) then a member of the magnificent lake of Nicaragua, dictated their This celebrated declaration, which is often quoted the House, had submitted a resolution responding to the own terms as conquerors to the unhappy people as a pledge to go to war with any European nation

sentiments of the message of the President. The Greek
resolution was submitted, too, at the same session, by the

who, relying upon our supposed promises of help which shall attempt to colonize any part of this honorable member from Massachusetts; the fever was up;

contained in the President's previous public avowal hemisphere, is not a declaration by the President we seemed to be then, if we ever had been, prepared to go of the Monroe doctrine, had dared to wage war and to a foreign country, but a mere recommendation on a political crusade in behalf of others. The sober judg: expend their blood in defense of their native land. to Congress, to declare, first, that we think any

ment of the House interposed; the Greek resolution shared
its fate, and sleeps upon the table. Mr. Clay saw clearly

The documents before Congress exhibit on the attempt to extend the European system, that is, that the same fate inevitably awaited his South American part of our Government the most cold and conto make a European colony in this hemisphere, resolution, with only tbis difference, that it would probably temptuous silence-a perfect indifference to all the would be dangerous to our peace and safety; and,

have been negatived by a much more overwhelming masecondly, that any European interposition to conjority. It was not called up. He, however, effected one

appeals of our weak sister Republic, and her letters object; he prevented any expression of opinion. By sub

were never answered until they were answered by trol the destiny of an established American Gov- mitting his resolution, others were induced not to do so, Zachary Taylor, who has been so much abused for ernment would be viewed by us as a manifestation with an expectation of having an opportunity of voting on not carrying out the Monroe doctrine ! His letter to of an unfriendly disposition towards the United his. And now it is said the national honor is pledged to

the President and mine to the Secretary of the States. Congress utterly refused to adopt the rec

act up to the declaration of that message. For himself, he
did not so consider it; and for one, he never could agree to

State of Nicaragua, are among the published docommendation at the time, and has ever since re- endanger the peace of the country by sending ministers to uments before you; and how fully they refute the fused to make any such declaration. Mr. Monroe the consultative assembly at Panama.”

calumnies which for three years have filled a pormade no declaration himself; but, in pursuance of In the same celebrated debate on the Panamation of the party press of this country and disthe power given him by the Constitution to recom- mission, Mr. Buchanan opposed the mission on graced its character for veracity, all men are now 320 CONG.....30 Sess.

Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

SENATE.

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free to judge. The Secretary will read the let- roe doctrine asserted in his messages, and again || your patience by the introduction of their opinters.

adhered to the doctrines of his speech on the Pan- The Senator from Michigan (Mr. Cass] DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

ama mission.

“ Fifty-four forty" was given up was perfectly correct when he said that this deca WASHINGTON, May 3, 1849. without the promised “ fight,and the doctrine laration of Mr. Monroe had lain, ever since its SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the communications which your Excellency addressed to this

of Washington triumphed again over the Monroe | origin, a dead letter on our records. His recent Department, under dates the 12th November, 1847, and 6th

doctrine by the ratification of the Oregon treaty. attempt to revive it by his resolution at the last March, 1848, relative to the seizure by the British of the The statement of Mr. McLane enables us to session, closes the history of the Monroe doctrines. port of San Juan de Nicaragua. These communications understand now why it was that the resolutions That resolution met with such violent opposition have been read with painful interest, and have led to a determination on the part of the President of the United

introduced into the Senate by Mr. Allen, of Ohio, | from his own party as to give us the assurance States to accede to the request of the Government of Nic- on the 14th of January, 1846, were stifled and that no President who should undertake to act aragua for the interposition of the good offices of this Gov- effectually voted down by the Democratic Senate | upon it could be sustained. With all similar resernment, in a friendly manner and spirit towards both Great

of that year. The friends who really understood l olutions, recommendations, and declarations, it Britain and Nicaragua, for the purpose of adjusting the controversy with reference to the Mosquito shore. Instruc

Mr. Polk were all opposed to that resolution, which was consigned to “that same ancient vault where tions have accordingly been transmitted to the Minister of affirmed the same doctrines publicly espoused by all the kindred of the Capulets lie." the United States at London, which it is hoped may be the President and his party organ; and while every With this history before us, 'I would leave the instrumental towards inducing the British Government to respect the just rights of Nicaragua, and towards effecting

Democratic newspaper in the United States was Senator from Illinois the full benefit of his objeca satisfactory accommodation of all the matters in dispute.

filled with the Monroe doctrine, and with “fifty- tion to the treaty of the 19th April, 1850, if I I avail myself of this occasion to offer to your Excellency four forty, or fight;" while the Senators from Mich- || could. He said, and repeatedly said, that every assurances of my most distinguished consideration. igan (Mr. Cass) and from Ohio (Mr. Allen) and article of that treaty is predicated upon a negation

JOHN M. CLAYTON. His Excellency the MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS

from Indiana, (Mr. HANNEGAN,] with many others and repudiation of the Monroe declaration in reof the Republic of Nicaragua.

of the same party, were deceived by the public | lation to European colonization on this continent.

opinion of the Executive head, others secretly If that were true, it ought to be the greatest recZACHARY TAYLOR,

knew and acted upon the private opinion of Mr. ommendation of the treaty to one who assumes to PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Polk, and these were the men who suppressed the belong to the Democratic party, and to be a folWASHINGTON, May 3, 1849.

resolution and voted down the Monroe doctrine. lower of the principles of Jackson. He would DEAR AND GOOD FRIEND: I have to acknowledge the This was another memorable instance in which have been, if true to his present principles, a thorreceipt of your communication of the 15th December, 1847, that doctrine was practically repudiated. I was ough-going Adams man in 1826, and ought to which has been read with lively and painful interest. The

not deceived by the Executive message, or by the have been heard in favor of the Panama mission Secretary of State of the United States has this day addressed a note to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nicar- party press, or by the “civium ardor prava juben- and the instructions of Mr. Clay to Mr. Poinsett. agua, expressing the sympathy of this Government for the tium,” which distinguished that crisis.

The Senator does not understand the distinction injuries which that State believes she has received in con- Among those who were the most ardent for between an alliance for political purposes and a sequence of the forcible occupation of the port of San Juan by British authorities, and mentioning the friendly steps

fifty-four forty” was the Senator from Illinois, || compact to carry out a commercial enterprise. which have been taken by us with a view to obtain redress

[Mr. Douglas.] He was not in the Senate. He Every word of objection which he made to this therefor. Your Excellency may be assured that our efforts supposed the Monroe doctrine was popular, and treaty was equally applicable to Mr. Polk's treaty to this end, in an amicable spirit and manner towards both that his party meant to sustain it. He was easily with New Granada to protect the province of PanNicaragua and Great Britain, will be cordial and zealous, and will be animated by the desire, which we sincerely duped, and still complains of it.

ama, and to Mr. Buchanan's proposition to Mr. cherish, that the just territorial rights of Nicaragua may be Indulge me in a few more words to close the | Crampton to invite not only Great Britain, but respected by all nations, and that she may advance in pros- history of the Monroe doctrine. On the 20th of France and other commercial Powers, to enter perity and happiness.

April, 1826, the House of Representatives adopted || into the same treaty stipulations which we had Your good friend,

Z. TAYLOR. To his Excellency the DIRECTOR OF THE STATE OF NIC.

an amendment to a resolution declaring it expedi- || contracted in regard to a canal or railroad at PanARAGUA

ent to appropriate the funds necessary to enable ama, and his opposition is founded on principles By the President:

the President to send ministers to Panama, which which would overthrow every commercial treaty John M. CLAYTON, Secretary of State.

amendment was indeed a complete negation of the we ever made. During the administration of Mr. Polk, the whole Monroe doctrine. This amendment was But, notwithstanding his assertion that the treaty British aggressions in Central America were con- carried by a party vote, all the leading men then is a negation of the Monroe doctrine in every parstantly increasing. The attack in 1848 was made belonging to the Jackson party voting against the | ticular, I must tell him that it presents the only just six days after the treaty of Guadalupe Hidal- | Monroe declaration and in favor of the amend- instance in which an European Power, which had go, by which we acquired California. Ii blocked ment, and all the leading men supporting Mr. Ad- attempted to colonize a portion of this hemisphere, up our passage to the Pacific. The war with ams's administration voting against the amend- || and to extend the European system here, has been Mexico was ended—the army of Taylor was un- ment. This amendment, which was a complete | induced by the action of this Government to abanemployed. If it were desirable to prove the truth stifler of the whole Monroe declaration, obtained don the attempt. Impartial history will distinof the Monroe doctrine to the British, a few phi- | ninety-nine votes, among which were those of 1 guish between such action and that mere noisy losophers could have been selected from the " Messrs. BUCHANAN, Forsyth, Houston, Ingham, | declamation to frighten the vulture from his vicmy of occupation" that would have been most McDuffie, McLane, and Polk! It is very remark- tim, which has generally carried more consternaconvincing in their arguments. Thackeray says able that the Democracy, at the very origin of their tion into the ranks of friends at home than of foes there is nothing like a good rattling article from present party, totally repudiated the whole decla- | abroad. the throat of a nine-pounder to carry conviction ration, and came into power on the principle of The Senator from Michigan (Mr. Cass] very in such cases. Why not act upon the idea of Washington's doctrine of non-intervention. It correctly answered the gentleman when he said Louis Napoleon, and “throw the sword of Bren- has been often id, and there is much reason to that after all attempts to adopt the Monroe docnus into the scale of civilization?" The answer believe, that Mr. Adams, who was Secretary of trine had failed, and it had remained a dead letter is, Mr. Polk preferred to adhere to the doctrine State at the time Mr. Monroe proposed the doc- for a quarter of a century, the treaty“ was the best of his speech on the Panama mission, and did not trine, was entitled to the paternity of it. Mr. Cal- | thing we could do." "We could not (said he) regard this Government as bound by his recom- houn once intimated so much in the Senate. It | get a Congressional sanction of the Monroe docmendations of the Monroe doctrine to Congress was the principal topic of discussion in Congress | trine;" and the Senator from Illinois, at this day, because Congress had not adopted them.

during the administration of Mr. Adams, and it is not willing to join in giving it. I repeat, what Another instance in which Mr. Polk disregarded was generally believed at the time that the reasser- had we to do under these circumstances? Why, these recommendations made by himself, was on tion of the Monroe principle in Mr. Poinsett's in- it was manifestly our policy to agree with Eng the occasion of the Oregon treaty: He was elect- structions, and in the course adopted by the advo- land to keep hands off. If we had not done so, ed on the platform of the whole of Oregon or cates of Mr. Adams in favor of the Panama mis- England must now have been and would have none." “Fifty-four forty, or fight,” was the ) sion, drove Mr. Adams from power and secured | been in the undisturbed possession of all the Ceneuphonious alliteration-the war-cry; the very the election of President Jackson, whose party, || tral American States upon which she desired to shibboleth of his party. He recommended to Con- shortly after his election, assumed the name of the gress the Monroe doctrine again, and yet we Democratic party. Among his most ardent advo- Before I leave this part of the subject, permit me know, from authentic evidence, he did not intend cates was Mr. Van Buren, the great Coryphæus to allude briefly to the reason why I did not vote to act upon his own recommendation. He sent

of that party, who, in a speech in the Senate, op- on the treaty with New Granada in 1847. I was at Mr. McLane to England to negotiate the Oregon posing the Panama mission and the Monroe doc- that time a member of the Senate, and did highly treaty, , and Mr. McLane on his return, at a public trine, said:

approve of the general provisions of the treaty, but dinner in New York, informed us that “a divis.

“I will venture to affirm that there is not a member on

was opposed to so much of it only as guarantied ‘ion of the country (i. e. Oregon) upon that prin- this floor who will avow his willingness to enter into a the sovereignty of New Granada in her own ter

ciple, (a compromise on the 49th parallel of lati- stipulation to resist attempts by the European Powers to ritory. No such guarantee is to be found in the 'tude,) with a reasonable regard to rights grown

colonize any portion of this continent. If mistaken," said up under the joint possession, always appeared to Mr. Van Buren, “I desire to be corrected. No; I am not.

treaty of 1850. The treaty with Nicaragua, which No; thank Heaven, a policy so opposite to all the feelings

Mr. Squier negotiated, was no entangling alliance, me (him) to afford a just and practicable basis for of the American people, so adverse, as I firmly believe it but only recognized the title of that State, without an amicable and honorable adjustment of the sub- to be, to its true interests, has no friend, at least no advo- any guarantee of that title; and as that treaty project. Such, also, I was satisfied, were the views of cate, on this floor."

vided for the protection of the canal by the local our Government at the time I engaged in my recent This speech was pronounced the ablest deliv- government as well as ourselves, I thought it esmission; and in earnestly and steadily laboring to ef- ered in Congress since Mr. Pinkney's reply to sential to the completion of the enterprise. Presifect a settlement upon that basis, I was but represent- | Mr. King. I could fill volumes from the speeches dent Taylor submitted that treaty to the Senate "ing the policy of my own Government, AND FAITH- of Mr. Hayne, Mr. Rives, Mr. McLane, Mr., with an assurance that, should the Senate concur FULLY PROMOTING THE INTENTIONS AND WISHES OF

Calhoun, and all the ancient leaders of the Demo- with him, he would ratify it, and recommended THE PRESIDENT!Here, again, Mr. Polk gave || cratic party against this Monroe doctrine. But I only such alterations in it as would make it fully evidence of the practical abnegation of

the
Mon-

will not longer, and in this manner, trespass upon in accordance with the British treaty. I placed

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32D Cong.....30 Sess.

Special Session-Coal for the Navy.

SENATE.

one.

the amendments which would have effected that far in abolishing the British protectorate as the will be required to pay for such of the coal as may be pur

chased in England. object in the hands of the chairman of the Com- dictates of humanity demanded. In no treaty mittee on Foreign Relations, leaving it to the dis- which Great Britain has ever made has she aban.

That the Secretary be also required to inform the Senate

whether offers were made by other parties than Messrs. cretion and judgment of the Senate to decide doned her allies to the mercy of their enemies. Howland & Aspinwall to supply the above-named squadron whether they would or would not recognize the The British settlers in Oregon south of the 49th

with coal, by delivering the same at such places as might

be designated in the Chinese seas; the prices per ton at Nicaragua title, which the President was willing parallel of latitude were provided for by her in a

which these parties proposed to deliver it, stating particuto do. Spain had, by treaty, recognized that treaty when she relinquished the country south of larly the rates at which anthracite, American bituminous, title. In a few days after I resigned the office of that parallel. But, in this treaty of 1850, she re- and English bituminous were respectively offered; and Secretary of State, which I had been anxious to served to herself no power to protect by arms or

whether, after these offers had been made, a contract at do long before, on account of private considera- force. I understand from undoubted authority,

higher prices was not entered into with Messrs. Howland

& Aspinwall for English coal. tions. The President had refused to accept my that an offer has been made to Nicaragua in be. That the Secretary be further required to inform the Senresignation; but his untimely death, on the 9th of half of the Indians, to cede their whole claim; in ate whether, previous to the time of contracting for the July, 1850, released me from the obligations under other words, to extinguish their Indian title, for supply of the said squadron with coal, the Government had which I felt bound to remain in office; and after fifty thousand dollars—a sum much less than we

not regularly-authorized agents employed for the express

purpose of purchasing and inspecting all coal necessary for my retirement I never learned the reason for the have been accustomed to give in our Indian trea- the supply of the Navy, and what commission the said omission of the Senate to act upon the treaty with ties for the cession of far less territory. The ad- agents received by way of compensation for their services.

That he be required further to inform the Senate whether Nicaragua. In my judgment that treaty should be justment of the boundary between Costa Rica and

Messrs. Howland & Aspinwall were not appointed agents revived, or some similar treaty negotiated without | Nicaragua is a more difficult matter.

10 purchase and inspect the whole, or a great part of the delay, to prevent the local government from ever Mr. President, I have now considered the prin- coal necessary for the supply of the Japan squadron; attempting to confiscate the canal in the event of cipal topics upon which I desired to address the whether the commissions allowed them are not double the its construction. The failure of this treaty was Senate, to vindicate the policy of the lamented

amount of those allowed and paid to the regular purchasing

and inspecting agents; whether the said commissions are much regretted by me. Chief Magistrate under whom I served the public

not counted on the gross price of the coal, namely: on the As to the British protection in Central America, as a negotiator; but there are others to which, af- price, with freight, exchange, and insurance added. That it was of course disarmed by the treaty. Its ter hearing all that can be said in reply, I may he be required also to inform the Senate what quantity of terms are too plain to be misunderstood by any wish to speak. I thank the Senate for their in

coal it is estimated will be required for the supply of the

said squadron annually, and what kind principally will be Great Britain cannot place an armed soldier || dulgence, and have done.

used; what amount of demurrage has been paid, and for on the territory without violating the treaty. She

what quantity of coal, for what length of time, and to whom; cannot protect the Indians with a view to obtain Mr. DOUGLAS. I was unavoidably absent also, what rate of demurrage is to be paid hereafter. possession of the country, nor can she occupy or during the early part of the Senator's speech this

Mr. President, the object of the resolution which assume any dominion for the purpose of protec- morning, but I presume I understand that part of

has been proposed is to ascertain, if practicable, tion. There is nothing undefined in the treaty on it from an intimation given yesterday at the con

something in relation to the supply of fuel for the this subject. All British dominion in the whole clusion of his remarks at that time. I desire to life Central America, extending as it does by the reply to so much of the Senator's speech only as squadron which has been ordered into the Chinese

relates to some topics of discussion introduced by other relations with the Japanese empire. It is abandoned. The member from Illinois says that myself some two or three weeks ago. I shall not known, Mr. President, to the Senate that the GovGreat Britain has not abandoned any part of the enter into the question that he has made between

ernment some time ago appointed two agents for country. I do not place much reliance on any the Committee on Foreign Relations and himself

the purpose of purchasing and supplying coal for statement he makes on this subject. The British with regard to the report, I having been unavoid- the use of the Navy; one of these agents being Minister assures us that his Government has ob- ably absent and thus prevented from concurring in

appointed for the purpose of purchasing and inserved the treaty, and means to observe it faith- the report of the committee, or even reading it. I

specting anthracite, and the other for the purpose fully; and the Secretary of State informs us that do not desire to enter into any controversy with

of purchasing and inspecting bituminous coal. It San Juan de Nicaragua is no longer in possession regard to what has grown up relating to British is their duty, by virtue of their office, to supply of Great Britain, but is really governed by Amer- Honduras. I only desire to confine myself to the and inspect the coal, not only for the Navy proper, ican citizens who reside there. But if the treaty points at issue in my own speech to which the but likewise all that is used in the dock-yards and has not been respected, it is not my fault.

Senator has alluded. I therefore move to post. || shops belonging to the Government; and as a come It was of no importance to me or my country to pone the further consideration of the subject until

pensation for their services they have received a expel the miserable savages from their fish to-morrow.

commission of five per cent. on the amount furhunting grounds. Humanity dictated to us that The motion was agreed to.

nished. When the squadron was about to sail, or they should not be butchered by those who had

JAMES H. WEST.

rather previous to the period of its sailing, these been their bitter foes while Great Britain was Mr. JAMES presented resolutions passed by agents offered to supply coal upon certain terms; striving to obtain possession of the country, and the Legislature of Rhode Island in regard to the that is, they offered to supply both anthracite and was exercising in their name absolute dominion imprisonment in Cuba of James H. West, a cit- bituminous, and to deliver it at such ports as in Central America. We had no justifiable mo- izen of Rhode Island; which were read, referred should be indicated in the Chinese seas, at a price tive for preventing Great Britain from interceding to the Committee on Foreign Relations, and or- not exceeding fifteen dollars per ton. I think the in a friendly way with any one of the Central dered to be printed.

offer was to supply anthracite at $14 50 per ton, American Republics to save them from destruc- Mr. MASON. My honorable friend from and Cumberland bituminous at $14 90 per ton. tion. There are not, I learn, at this time more Rhode Island did me the honor of communicating At any rate, neither the one nor the other was to than five hundred of these wretched Mosquito In- that memorial to me before he presented it to the exceed fifteen dollars per ton, with a commission dians in existence. They are, like all their race, Senate; and at his suggestion, I thought it was of five per cent. added. rapidly disappearing from the earth, and in a very proper that I should offer a resolution on the sub- It seems, however, that neither of these offers few years will cease to exist, notwithstanding all

ject. I have not had an opportunity of submitting was accepted, and that Messrs. Howland and Asthe care that humanity can bestow upon them. it to the Committee on Foreign Relations, and I pinwall were appointed inspectors and authorized The leprosy and other loathsome diseases have will now submit it on my own part, calling upon to purchase the coal for the supply of the squadron. thinned their numbers to a mere shadow of a

the Executive for information with respect to the They purchased a few thousand tons of American tribe, and the Minister to Central America tells matter. The resolution is as follows:

anthracite and bituminous coal; but have relied us, in one of his dispatches, that by the laws of the

Resolved, That the President of the United States be re- mainly upon English coal for the supply of the country the penalty of death is imposed upon any quested (if in his opinion not incompatible with the public squadron; and they have purchased it, as I am inone who shall intermarry with them. The pro- interest) to communicate to the Senate copies of any cor

formed, at a much higher price than either the tectorate through which Great Britain intended to respondence relating to the imprisonment or detention in assume dominion over all this region, as she had custody of James H. West, a citizen of the United States,

American anthracite or bituminous were offered at Sagua le Grande, in the Island of Cuba, and of the seiz- for, although the latter are greatly superior, acdone through other protectorates in India, is ure of his property by the authorities of said island, to- cording to tests made on various occasions, and in already abolished so far as we had any object to gether with all information connected therewith.

various ways. I have been informed, and I have abolish it. Stat nominis umbra. She cannot “oc- The resolution was considered by unanimous no doubt of the fact, that the coal, delivered in the cupy” to protect these Indians; that is, she cannot consent, and agreed to.

Chinese seas, will cost a fourth more; that is, the either “ take or keep possession” to effect that ob

EXECUTIVE SESSION.

English coal which these parties are to deliver will ject. She cannot" colonize" with a view to such

On motion by Mr. MASON, the Senate pro

cost one fourth more than American coal which is an object; she cannot“ fortify”to do it; she cannot ceeded to the consideration of Executive business,

so much superior in character. And instead of a “ assume" or exercise any dominion whatsoever with a view to do it.

commission of five percent, which has been allowed What more do you want of

and after some time spent therein, the doors were
reopened, and

to the regularly-authorized agents of the Governher? Do you desire that she shall not send food

The Senate adjourned.

ment, Howland & Aspinwall are to receive ten per to the half-starved savages? May she not send the

cent. They also pay ten-and-a-half per cent. by Bible among them? Do you wish to prevent that? May she not mediate with the local government

THURSDAY, March 10, 1853.

way of exchange upon all the coal that they pur

chase abroad. within whose limits they exist, to prevent them Prayer by the Chaplain, Rev. C. M. Butler. Now, if this be so, it is a wrong committed from being massacred by their hereditary enemies?

Mr. COOPER. I submit the following reso- against important domestic interests, and my obMay she not ask those Governments, without lution:

ject is to ascertain the facts. I have been informed offense to you, to act by them as we have done

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Navy be, and he is

that during the period which it is anticipated the by all Indians within our borders, and extinguish hereby, required to communicate to the Senate the contract squadron will remain upon that station, or rather the Indian title, which is nothing more than the entered into with Messrs. Howland & Aspinwall for sup- in those seas, some eighty or a hundred thousand mere right of occupancy till the white man wants plying the Japan squadron with coal, the price per ton which the said coal will cost delivered in the Chinese seas, the

tons of coal will be required for its consumption. the land and gives them a pittance to support them amount of commissions and insurance, respectively, 10

These men receive ten per cent. commission; and if when deprived of it? President Taylor went as

gether with the rate of exchange which the Government the price should be $20 per ton they will receive by

or

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