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accomplished, exacting a more than ordinary precaution on the part of the officers, insensibly produce mistrust between them and the men, highly prejudicial to the service.

"The soldier, in his intercourse with the inhabitants, soon learns that many of them, who a few years before possessed no kind of property, are become opulent, by having obtained extensive grants of land. He will also find that these men, generally speaking, had no claim to favor, being either utter strangers, or known only as our enemies in the war of the rebellion.

"I am aware that this indiscriminate disposal of land has now ceased, but unfortunately the great influx of bad subjects into the country must long be productive of serious evils to the army. It being impossible to deprive men of reflection, the zeal of the old and faithful soldier suffers, as he naturally considers himself better entitled to protection than these unworthy intruders.

"The young and thoughtless give too much credit to what the designing are continually repeating to them that they need only desert to secure an independence. The American service too is represented as enjoying many advantages over the British; and indeed to a superficial observer the following statement of the pay and allowances of an American soldier seems to justify the assertion.

[A table in detail follows of the monthly pay, annual clothing, and daily rations, by which it appears that sergeants received eight, corporals seven, musicians six, and privates five dollars per month, and, when employed on fortifications or roads, ten cents and one gill of spirits per day, in addition to their pay and rations; artificers of artillery excepted, whose pay was ten dollars per month. The daily rations were: 14 lb. of beef, lb. of pork,* 1 lb. 2 oz. of bread or flour, 1 gill of spirits; exclusive of 2 quarts of salt, 4lb. of soap, quarts of vinegar, and 1 lb. of candles per hundred rations. And it is added, that "the men are enlisted to serve for five years."]

* To an Irishman brought up on potatoes and buttermilk, a daily allowance of 2 lb. of meat must have appeared very tempting.

"Experience has taught me that no regular regiment, however high its claims to discipline, can occupy the frontier posts of Lower and Upper Canada without suffering materially in its numbers. It might have been otherwise some years ago; but now that the country, particularly the opposite shore, is chiefly inhabited by the vilest characters, who have an interest in debauching the soldier from his duty; since roads are opened into the interior of the States, which facilitate desertion, it is impossible to avoid the contagion. A total change must be effected in the minds and views of those who may hereafter be sent on this duty, before the evil can be surmounted.

"Were a veteran battalion formed on the principles which I shall proceed to state, the disposable force would be stationed at Quebec-in fact, the only military post in the country: there it could be easily maintained in a state fit for service; desertion would in a great measure be stopped; and Canada, instead of being the ruin of part of the army, would become a most eligible quarter.

"What I would presume humbly to recommend, is the establishing of a corps composed of men deserving, by long and faithful services, of the most liberal protection and favor, whose interests would be so interwoven with the safety and prosperity of the country, as to ensure a continuance of good conduct.

"The men, in the first instance, might be selected from the veteran corps already established, and afterwards impartially from every regiment throughout the army. No officer, who has been any time in the command, but is sensible that every year men are discharged whom he could with propriety recommend, and these will be more than sufficient to keep up the establishment. On each of these men two hundred acres of good land might be settled.

"Ten companies, each of sixty rank and file, with the usual proportion of officers, distributed in the

following manner, would, I apprehend, prove equal to all the duty to which they might be liable.

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"A small force might be necessary at Montreal, which the garrison of Quebec could furnish by a detachment composed of men the least likely to desert.

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[Lieut.-Colonel Brock next gives a scale of the number of years each soldier should serve in the veteran battalion, proportionate to his length of former service; and among other details he suggests that the men, on their discharge, should be located on a large tract of land on the river "Credit,' purchased by Lieut.-General Hunter from the Mississague Indians; recommending also that they should be furnished with implements of husbandry, and rations for a short period, the expense of which would in the end be inconsiderable, as on receiving the 200 acres they would forego all claim to Chelsea hospital, or to any other pension. And he concludes as follows:]

"The monthly returns of the regiments, which for the last ten years have occupied the frontier posts of the Canadas, will shew in part the mischiefs against which a remedy ought, in my opinion, to be provided. But recollecting the sensations produced on the mind of the old soldier by the promise of land made two years ago by officers recruiting for a Fencible corps, I would not recommend the raising of one in the usual indiscriminate manner for this duty.

"I have considered the subject only in a military point of view; the advantages arising from the introduction of a number of men into the country, attached to government by ties of interest and gratitude, and already acquainted with the use of arms, are too obvious in a political light to need any comment.

"It is highly gratifying to observe the comfortable state of the Loyalists, who, in the year 1784, obtained small tracts of land in Upper Canada: their conduct and principles form a perfect contrast to those practised and professed generally by the settlers of 1794 and 1795.

"It may be worthy of remark, that the land in Upper Canada cannot be estimated of any value to government, since any stranger, on paying, I think, six pence fees for every acre, may at this moment procure two hundred acres on condition of settling."

In a letter from Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, dated Horse Guards, January 17, 1806, Colonel Brock received the Duke of York's "thanks for the communication of his very sensible observations respecting the distribution of the troops in Canada, which his royal highness will not fail to take into consideration. at a seasonable opportunity."*

While on a visit to his family and friends in Guernsey, Colonel Brock deemed the intelligence from the United States to be of so warlike a character, that he resolved on returning to Canada before his leave was expired; and such was his anxiety to be at his post, that he overtook at Cork the Lady Saumarez, a Guernsey vessel, well manned and armed as a letter of marque, bound to Quebec. He left London on the 26th of June, 1806, and hurried away from Europe never to return- -never to revisit those who fondly loved him, not only from ties of kindred, but for his many endearing qualities; but he had the satisfaction of knowing that the commander-in-chief was much pleased by the zeal and devotion evinced by him on this occasion.

*The 10th Royal Veteran Battalion arrived in Canada the year following; and the Canadian rifle regiment, consisting of old soldiers, was formed a few years since, with the view of preventing desertion across the frontier.

CHAPTER III.

VERY Soon after his return to Canada, Colonel Brock succeeded, on the 27th of September, 1806, to the command of the troops in the two provinces, with the pay and allowances of a brigadier, Colonel Bowes,* of the 6th Foot, having resigned that command on his departure for England. At this time, the civil government of the lower province was administered by Mr. President Dunn; and Colonel Brock resided at Quebec, in command of the forces, until the arrival, in October, 1807, of the governor-general, Sir James Craig, who appointed him to act as a brigadier, which appointment was confirmed by the king, to date from the 2d of July, 1808.

Colonel Brock to Lieut.-Colonel J. W. Gordon.

QUEBEC, September 28, 1806. I have the honor to acquaint you, for the information of the commander-in-chief, that Colonel Bowes, preparatory to his departure for England, has resigned the command of his majesty's forces in this country, which, as the next senior officer, devolves

on me.

I have great pleasure in reporting to his royal highness the good order and discipline which, much

* Afterwards Major-General Barnard Foord Bowes, slain on the 27th of June, 1812, while leading the troops to the assault of the forts of Salamanca. Monuments in St. Paul's, to the memory of Major-General Bowes and of Sir Isaac Brock, were voted in the House of Commons on the same day, 20th of July, 1813.

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