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“ glory that it never before attained.”.

66 public property


indeed, rer Was this, Sir, to insist upon an “ immediate" clear. If you mean all funded prozeris, the annihilation ? Mr. Addington's tax, which the phrase' is redundant, because synon ). I was defending, would have annihilated mous with national debt, of my evil design only 5 per centum per annum of the capi- upon which you had spoken in the forme tal stock, or, which is just the same thing, member of the sentence; and, if this b would have cut off only an additional 5 per not your meaning, I am really at a los centum per annum of the interest. This to know what it is; for as lo public pro process would have required twenty years, perty, in the correct sense of the word wherein to effect the annihilation : and, as to the royal forests, and the likes yo let me ask you, Sir, if you really think that could hardly intend to insinuate that I ha the interest on even the present debt will any lurking intention to destroy them continue to be paid for that length of time? Throwing aside, therefore, this unmeanin In my letter to Mr. Addington, where this expletive, let me beg you to lay your finge subject was first broached by me, I re. upon the passage, where I have recom marked, by way of anticipating the objec- mended the “ destruction of all public faizh. tions which might be urged against me, It


had discovered such a recommen " that, “ if I am told of the miseries, dation, you ought to have been very carefu

which this measure will bring upon those, not to be the first to find fault with it; you .. who are so unfortunate as to be stock Sir, who have employed much more than “ holders, I deny that they will be a hun. half the time since I was born, in endea " dredth part so great aş is generally ima- vouring to blot from men's minds the ver “ gined ; because, as the extinction will not be name of public faith, You would not bar effected all at once, people will sell out, in been the

proper person to turn accuser or it

proportion as their apprehensions in- this occasion ; but again I ask you to la “ crease; and, as those, who have nothing your finger upon the page, where I hav “ but the funds to depend upon, will be given way to the profligate politics,

most timid, they will sell first; so that, which you have had the temerity to accus

at the close of the “market," the loss You cannot ; but you may easil * will be found to be pretty fairly dis point to a passage containing a completo ¢ tributed.” * Do I here say, that the refutation of your charge, and that, 100 funds and the monarchy can no"" no longej" placed at the head of the very first obser co exist? Do I here call for an immediate!' vations, which I eyer made as to the ex annihilation?" And, as I approach the date pediency of annihilating the national debt of your speech, do you find any alteration “Whether the tax upon the funds” (whic! in my sentiments ?

54 We do not sày, we I regarded as the certaiy means of doing “ have never said, that the " present stimogie away the debt! “ be just or not, is :

cannot be terminated without an annihilation of “ question, which depends upon the re de the national debt; but we do say, that it “ sult of another question, to wit, whether i cannot be so soon terminated, that it " the tax be necessary o the existence of the 16 cannot be terminated so well, and, that, state. You " (Mi. Addington ! " seem “ if the debt continue, it is very probable, to imagine, that the world will regard 6 that, at last, we shall si

conclude another " this direct tax upon the funds as a direct disgraceful and short-lived peace." This " and Nagrant breach of national faith, which passage was published only five days be- “ it most assuredly is, unless the previous fore your speech was delivered; and I " question of absolate necessity should, Sir, be very glad to hear how you


clearly made out; becau:e, the agreewill satisfy the world, that your misrepre- “ ment with the stock-holders is, that they sentation was not intentional, and that it

“ shallreceive such and such dividends, subought not to be regarded as one of those foul “ject to no destriction wha'cuer; and, for the and unlawful blows, by which a sinking “ punctual adherence to thị bargain the and vindictive combatant sometimes en. “ faith of the nation is pledged. On that deavours to maim his antagonist.-To en- 6 faith it is, that thousands and hundreds deayour to effect'an immediate annihilation ** of thousands of persons have deposited of the debt is, however, less offensive

in their all' in the hands of government. against the rules of political justice, 'than “ But, the first law of every land, the first to endeavour to destroy all public faith and duty of those who administer the governall public property. What you mean by "all - ment is, to secure the existence of the state.

"This law of self-preservation supersedes See Vol. IV. P:

every other law; and, therefore, if a Scé Volt II. p. 024,

" tax upon the lands has this sanction, it

can be



“ stands in need of no other. The tax is, who, in speaking of this system, has ex. “ in that case, no breach of national faith; hausted his copious vocabulary of terms of

because, to constitute such breach, the teproach and contempt, and who, for four“ nation must want the will to fulfil its en- teen years opposed, in some way or other,

gagements, and, it never can be said every tax that was imposed for the support " to want the will, if it has already gone of this system ; that Mr. Sheridan should

far as it can go without producing its now become the partizan of the funds and “ own destruction as a state. Many other the advocate for public faith, is a circum.

arguments suggest themselves in support stance that would be sufficiently striking, * of this position ; but, if the case of ne- even though it were unaccompanied with “ cessity exists, what I have said already, the no less singular one of his having re“ Sir, sufficiently justifies the tax, and, if solved on this new line of conduct for the “ the necessity does not exist, all that can purpose of protecting the government a“ possibly be urged by the most ingenious gainst ine, who have heretofore made no “ reasoner, will fall far short of producing | inconsiderable exertions to stem that tor.

conviction."* _That the necessity does rent of anarchy, on the troubled waters of exist, I afterwards state. I state it, in

which Mr.Sheridan exhibited so conspicuous deed, in the passage, which you have a figure. The first montent that I touched garbled, and even in the very words, upon the subject of the finances, I was which you impute to me; for,' if “ the careful to guard against imputations, such co-existence of the monarchy and the funds as I foresaw that the hunters after popu. “ be no longer possib'e," then there exists an larity would have recourse to, and such as absolute necessity for the annihilation of the vou, in the present instance, have employed. funds; and, if that necessity does exist, I, therefore, explicitly stated, that I'did not then is the act of annihilation no breach of regard money as the principal source of public faith, much less is it “ the de. national strength, and that, so far from * struction of all public faith." The ne- desponding at the depreciation of public cessity, which I contend for, will, I think, credit, I was thoroughly convinced, that a hardly be denied by you, who was glad national bankruptcy would not disable us at a peace of which you could not be proud, froin maintaining our present dominions, because the nation was unable any longer and recovering all the honours, of which 10 bear the expenses

but, we had been stripped by a degrading and whether you allow of the necessity, or not, ignominious peace. “Conpled, therefore,” whether the necessity exist, or not, has said I, “ with this declaration, no statenothing to do with the charge against me, “ ment, no conclusion, of mine, however wherein you assert, that I ain seeking, in disadvantageous to the financial affairs of the annihilation of the national debt, the “ the country, can possibly be attributed “ destruction of all public faith,whereas, I " to a desire to create despondency in the have not only never proposed such de- “ hearts of the people, or to embarrass the struction, but have taken some pains to “ operations of government. I wish to show, that the measure which I


o convince the people, that they cannot, if would not be a breach of public faith, be- " they would, and that they ought not, if cause it is called for by absolute necessity. " they could, rely, for their safety, on the Whether, therefore, this necessity does or “ pecuniary credit of the state." does not exist, my principle is sound, and more recent uccasion I observed, that the my object honourable. I may have de- true way of convincing the enemy, that his ceived myself as to the resources of the na- war upon our finances would be useless, as tion, but I have protested against any mude to the success of his main design, was to of relief which should, in the smallest de- slate explicitly to the world, that we were gree, impair that faitli

, which you charge not at all afraid of the consequences of what me with an intention to destroy root and is calied national bankruptcy; “ for,” said branch.-Here I should dismiss this part of I, “ wliile we attempt to make people bemy subject, did I not think it necessary to “ lieve, that such an event cannot possibly say a few words as to the motive, to which happen, they will certainly think, that we you have chosen to ascribe my speculations “ regard it, it it should happen, as irretriego relative to the national debi. . That Mr. “ mble ruin and distractic:2; and, theretore, as Sheridan, whose attacks on the funding sys- we can never completely remove their tem were, for many years, as regular as ihe dot:bis, the best way is to set the bug-bear return of the seasuns; that Mr. Sheridan

of war;

On a

• See Vol. III. p. 918.

# Sce Vul III p. 3:4.

" at defiance." --Thus, Sir, in this, as Perfidious treason will they view with scorn in cvery other respect, my motives evident- They, now united, feel as Britons boro :

and dise as is die borrid scourge of war, ly are precisely the contrary of those, which

Which spreads its devastation wide and far, you have attributed to me. Ignorance of In self-defence shall Britons fear to die? this you cannot plead, because the passages Or will they sink to abject slavery? I have here referred to are not only in the

Or shall this happy isle again he curst, same work, but they make part of the very

Of all pernicious evils with the worst? same letters and essays, to which

Shall anarchy resume her mad career,

Again usurp her dicarl dominion here? alluded as the foundation of your charge ; Where ev'ry heart a patriot glow should feel, a charge brought forward from no very And ev'ry hand protect the public weal. laudable motives, totally unfounded in Shall Bricon's sons clare in Gallia's praise,

Dare bere the standard of revolt to raise ? truth, and supported by nothing but barber

Dare here evroil a rude rebellious band, shop rhetoric, by a sort of loose unprinci. To welcome Britain's foes on British land ! pled banter, intended to raise a laugh To welcome foes, whose rough infuriate mind amongst the ignorant, and to silence the Abhors the social order of mankind; voice of wisdom and of reason, purely by

Whose wild aggression o'er the world extends,

Whose protferd aid in devastation ends : volubility and noise.-I am, Sir, &c.

Whose friendly zeal, whose brotherly embrace, WM. COBBETT.

O’er empires by ensanguin'd steps we trace : Duke-street, Westm. Aug. 24, 1803.

With such allies can British hearts unite,
With fierce invaders of all public right?

Whose highest joy from wasteful ruin springs, An Address to the British People on the Sub. Subverting altars and de: hroniog kings: ject of the threatened Invasion : written

Who prowl abroad with more than savage rage, in the Neigbboarbood of Windsor.

The scourge and scorn of an enlighten'd age i

To blow the character of polish'd times, Britons prepare :--prepare to meet the foe,

With new, with hideous, and atrocious crimes : With bold defiance of the threaten'd blow.

Like fiends impell’d by murderous desire, The aim against th' existence of the throne To conquer with exterminating ire ; Involves designs subversive of your own.

Who smile at mercy, with contemptuous hate, Your welfare and the welfare of the state

Though captive thousands kneeling supplicate : Depend, for ever, on a common fate.

The refuge seek, where wounded numbers lie, For the firm spirit, which the state defends, Whose anguish claims the kindest sympathy, Protects yourselves, your families, your friends. (Their fellow soldiers, countrymen, and friends, 'Tis yours, with souls undaunted, to advance Devoted to their own delusive ends ;) To curb the daring insolence of France.

There, with dissenbled grace and art refin'd, Shall Gallia's arms dismay her art beguile

Raise the faint prospect of the sinking mind, The manly guardians of Britannia's isle.

And then, too horrid for the human soul !! Her hostile menace shall their vengeance rouse, Contive, by poison, to destroy the whole.* Victorious wreaths shall deck their valiant brows. Athiesis avow'd ou qualmish horrors rise

To dauni them from profanest enterprize ; When Rome's ambitious leader, Cæsar, came, Alike devout, as suits thcii impious plan, Incited by insatiate thirst of fame,

With Christian, Pagan, Jew, or Mussulman. The doubtful victory his legions gain'd

Debas's are nations, who have kiss'd the rnd, Was more by stratagem than arms obtain'd; Nor turn'd to vindicate themselves or God. And stratagem and aims alike had fail'd, Had concord 'mongst the British chiefs prevail'd. Go ask what honour, what portant gain

Has France, in friendship, tored on humbled Britons unite and fearless brave the shock,

Spain? Your Empire stands an adamantine rock.

Is now Helvetia's valiant race more free England and Scotland with Hibernia join'd, In trammeis yoked of Gallic liberty? May bid defiance to the world combin'd.

Co asli in Rome of that redoubted shade One by allegiance, language, social love,

Of pow's, which once the trembling world obey'd, And one in danger will chey ever prove.

How Papal dignity and sway advance No sep'rate int'rests now divide their cause, Beneath the pious auspices of France? The same their rights, their motives, and their

The frugal Belgium ask, whose golden hoard laws.

He consecrates to Gall's imperious lord. And quickly shall the rash invader know,

Does gainiui commerce now unshackled thrive? The foc to one is deem'd a common foe;

His own courageous spirit still survive? Encroaching on their native shores shall learn That spirit, which, with indignation fir'd, Their hearts alike with indignation burn.

With digoity and fortitude inspir’d, The sanguinary crime, the fuul disgrace,

Brav'd the proud pow'r of bigotry and Spain, Which damns i he fame of Ireland's ruder race, And burst á vengetul tyrant's galling chain, Springs from misguided zeal in ruffian souls, Now siuks appalla and crouching courts the Lut not the nation's character controuis,

For genuine worth and honour's nicest sense, Whose ruclul aid enslaves its native land.
Intrepid courage without vain pretence.
And loyalty with highest grace of mind
Are in Hibernia's polish'a suns combin'i.

* Sir Robert Wilson's History of the British

Expedition to Egypt, p. 74, 75, 76, 77. + Sce Vol. Ill. p. 949.

Shall Britons thus their boasted triumphs prize, Whom science owns as patron and as friend,
Resign their fame, their honour compromise? Whose grandest schemes to gen’ral welfare tend;
Supioely shrink, when focs cheir coasts besiege, Bencath whose shield unequall'd commerce thrives
And yield as vassals to a foreign liege?

And pure religion e'en at court survives;
The freedom purchas'd with their fathers' blood To him is ever due his regal state,
Full oft a direful conflict has withstood,

And subject minds his sceptie consecrate;
And Gall's insulting menace shall appear,

To him his people boundless ofl'rings bring An object more of folly ilian of fear.

A willing tribute to a patriot King.

Aw'd by the retrospect of former times, Lo! yonder stately pile, august domain,

When e'en tbe Crown has sanction's basest Whose tow'ring turrets crown the fertile plain,

crimes, Its hallow'd sciie from Edward's birth rever'd Would British hearts, in homage to the throne, Itselt by Edward in his greatness rear'd;

A grateful sense of its protection own; Greatness, which oply lofty minds can own,

And equally to threat'ning tyrants prove, Whose virtues, prov'd in conquest, grace the The Throne protected by the people's love.

throne. Such our third Edward prov'd, and such his Son,

The dastard slave, who would their minds suborn, And fame immortal by their conquests won ;

Shall feel their hatred and receive their scorn ; For Britons then with martial ardour fir’d,

Their King, their country, wives and children To mightiest deeds of enterprize aspir’d.

claim, By valour urg'd they boldly dar'd advance

And those attach'd by Friendship's sacred Dame; Pursuing conquest in the heart of France.

And all the interests of social life, Nor threats alarmid, nor numbers rous'd their A firm forbearance from domestic strife; fears,

But, ií a hostile band approach their coast, To ralour yielded Crecy and Poictiers ;

Let it be then the manly Britons' boast, At Agiacourt, when Henry led the field,

We spurn the threat of merciless defeat, Tras valour made e'en ten-fold numbers yield;

We seck no shelter, flee to no retreat, And later times may Britain proudly boast,

But bravely here defend the gen'ral good, Till to the mem'ry Marib'rougla's name be lost;

'Till the last drop shall fall or British blood. 'Till we forget the glory of the brave,

Regis et Parria Amator. And cease to sigh o'er Abercromby's grave.

Oxford, August 2d, 1803.
Is then our native prowess sunk so low
That Briton's fear invasion from their foe?

Shall all their laurels, in an instant, fade,

Order of His Britannic Majesty, in Council, for granting Touch'd by the flimsy breath of gascooade?

reprisals against the Ligurian and Italian Republics. Assail'd in fam's Eliza's splendid reign,

Dared, August 17, 1803. Hor impotent the vaunted fleets of Spain?

At the Court at St. James's, the 17th of August, How impotent was Flaace, whose thund'ring 1903, present the King's Most Excellent Majesty in boast,

Council.-Whereas in the countries styling them. Great Hawke aveng'd on Gall's securest coast ? selves the Ligurian and Italian Republics, measures How impotent was

France, when Nelson bore of hostility have been adopted against his Majesty's Eternal trophies from th' Egyptian shore?

subjects; and whereas the said countries cannot buc And still shall Britain's navies rule the main, be considered as absolutely dependent on, and under And still unsullied glory shall attain.

the controul of the government of France ; his Træ to themselves shall Britons strike the blow Majesty is pleased, by and with the advice of his Of sure destruction on their threat'ning foe: Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, For his is not the cool delib'rate threat,

that general reprisals be granted against the ships, The sage design of men in council met:

gools, and subjects of the said countries styling 'Tis not the firm defiance of the great,

themselves the Ligurian and Italian Republics, so But petulance arising from deteat :

that as well his Majesty's fleets and ships, as also A restless tyrant's mad and braggart dare,

all other ships and vessels that shall be commisFrom disappointment, perfidy, despair.

sioned, by letters of marque, or general reprisals, Howe'er his tribe affect their fate to brave,

or otherwise, by his Majesty's Commissioners for For Britain's ruia 'though they wildly save, executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great. Her ever circling seas and wooden walls,

Britain, shall and may lawfully seize all ships, vesShall still defy the tyrade till he falls.

sels, and goods belonging to the persons inhabiting

the countries styling themselves the Ligurian and Yon regal dome + rever'd from Edward's name, Italian Republics, and bring the same to judgment Still boasts a Monarch of exalted fame;

in any of the Courts of Admiralty within his Ma• Mild and benevolent his kingly sway,

jesty's dominions; and, to that end, his Majesty's His upright mind unconscious of dismay;

Advocate General, and the Advocate of the Admin His life the model of what life should be,

ralty, are forthwith to prepare the draft of a comHis rule the stately rule of majesty.

mission, and present the same to his Majesty at

this Board, authorising the Commissioners' for A Monarch urg'd by no ambitious views,

executing the Office of Lord High Admiral, or any Who zealously 2 pation's good pursues,

person or persons by then empowered and appointed, 'Though firm in its defence the sword to draw, to issue forth and grant letters of marque and reYet never violates establish'd law,

prisals to any of his Majesty's subjects, or others On peaceful arts, with calm delight, intent, whom the said commissioners shall deem fitiy Who ne'er by rapine secks aggrandisement;

qualified in that behalf, for the apprehending, seizing,

and taking the ships, vessels, and goods belonging • Windsor Castle,

to the persons inhabiting the countries styling them. t Windsor Castle.

selves the Ligurian and Itaijan Republics ; and that


such powers and clauses be inserted in the said State.--I am further to acquaint your lordship, that commission as have been usual, and are according the inconvenience which must unavoidably arise to former precedents ; and his Majesty's said Ad. from carrying the volunteer system to an unlimited vocate General, with the Advocate of the Admiralty, extent, has determined his Majesty not to authorize, are also forth with to prepare the draft of a com. at present, any additional Volunteer Corps to be mission, and present the same to his Majesty at this raised in any County where the number of effective Board, authorising the said Commissioners for exe- members of these corps, including the yeomanty, cuting the Office of Lord High Admiral to will and re- shall exceed the amount of six times the Miliva, quire of the High Court of Admiralty of Great Britain, exclusive of the Supplementary quota, making in and the Lieutenant and Judge of the said Court, the county of

men, and in providing that his Surrogate or Surrogates, as also the several number, your lordship will avail yourself of your Courts of Admiralty within his Majesty's dominions own knowledge and experience, with a view 10 which shall be duly címmissionated to take cog- such a selection as may be best suited to local nizance of, and judicially proceed upon all and all considerations.- But in the event of the effective manner of captures, seizures, prizes, and reprisals numbers of the corps alrearly recommended by your of all ships and goods that are or shall be made, lordship, having arrived at -, you will postand to hear and determine the same, and according pone the communication of any further offers, until to the course of Admiralty, and the laws of nations, his Majesty shall be pleased to signify his intention to adjudge and condemn all such ships, vessels, and to increase the volunteer force in the County under goods as shall belong to the persons inhabiting the your lordship's charge. I have the honour to be, &c. countries styling themselves the Ligurian and Italian

HOBART. Republics ; and that such powers and authorities be To His Majesty's Licutenant inserted in the said commission as have been usual, of the County of and are according to former precedents ; and they are likewise to prepare and lay before his Majesty at Plan of a Volunteer Naval Armament for the Protecthis Board a draft of such instructions as may be tion of the Coast, transmitted to the Lords Licutproper to be sent to the said several Courts of Ad- nants of the Maritime Counties by Lord Hobari. miralty in his Majesty's foreign governments and A regular establishment for the inrolment of scaplantations for their guidance herein; as also another faring persons under the denomination of Sea Fendraft of instructions for such ships as shall be com- cibles, having been formed by the Board of Admimissiunated for the purposes aforementioned. - ralty, upon the line of coast more immediately opFrom the Court at St. James's, the seventeenth day posed to the enemy, it is thought adviseable that of August, one thousand eight hundred and three

should be taken for a further exten. Portland, P. --Chatham.-Castlereagh.-Hobart.- sion of that system, and for rendering the services Hawkesbury.-C. F. Greville, V. C.

of that description of Volunteers availablc, as well for the naval detence of the county, as for the

purpose of manaing the batteries upon the coast. DOMESTIC OFFICIAL PAPERS. With this view, it is proposed, first, That it be Circular Letter from Lord Hobart, to the Lords Lieu

recommended to the Lords Lieutenants of the Maritenant of Coun ies, autkorizing the Suspension of miralis in obtaining the inrolment of all sea-taring

time Counties to co-operate with the Board of Adsome of the Clauses of the General Arming Bill, and directing the Number of Volunteer Corps, to be

men, not applicable to the service of the navy, upon raised by cach Parish. Dated Downing Strat, August

their respective coasts, under the general denomina18, 1803.

tion of Sea Fencibles, Secondly, That it be reMy Lord,—The zeal, loyalty, and public spirit,

commended to the principal sca-port towns to equip, which continue to be manitested in every part of

at their own expense, a certain number of arned the kingdom, having had the effect of producing

vessels and hulks, to be stationed for the better voluntary ofters of service to so considerable an

security and protection of such ports, and to be amount as to render it unnecessary for his Majesty

appropriated to, and manned by Sea Fencibles, who to order and direct the Lieutenant, or Deputy Lieu

shall take charge of them, and be exercised on tenants of the County of

board at the guns as often as may be required.

to cause the persons comprised in the first, second, and third

Thirdly, That where the proportion of Sea Fencibles, classes of persons enrolled for military service, in

which any place can furnish, is greater than such conformity to the provisions of the Act of the 43d

place can find shippin; to employ; and likewise Geo. III. cap. 90, or any, or either of them, to be

where any place is capable of providing men, but trained and exercised in the use of arms; I am to

unable to procure vessels ; in both these cases vesinform your lordship, that it is his Majesty's pleasure

sels shall be furnished by government. Fourthly, to suspend for the present such of the provisions of

That as colliers and coasting vessels are well adapted the act as require the men enrolled for military ser.

to be armed as gan-boa:s, it be recommended to the vice to be trained and exercised, subject, neverthe

principal merchants a id owners in every pore in this less (conformably to the 53d clause of the said act)

kingdom, to fit * their vesselss of that description to such conditions as to the number of effective

with slides between decks, and loop-holes in the men to be constanly existing in the Volunteer Corps

combings of their hatchways, for close quarters ; of the County, and to such other rules and regula.

these vessels to carry two guns forward, and iwo aft

, tious as to exercise and muster, or inspection by

to fight on either side, as well as fore and alt. Fifthly, general or other officers, as to his Majesty shall

That when the vessels are reported ready, guns and seem necessary. In order, however, to enable his

amnmunition shall be put on board by governmeni, Majesty, if he shall judge it advisable, at a future

free of expense to the owners ; the masters giving period, to resort to the clauses respecting the training

a receipt and voucher to return them when deand exercise, your lordship must be aware of the

manded, and to keep a regular account of the ex. absolute necessity of carrying into execution those

penditure of the stores. Sixthly, That these vess. Is provisions of the act which relate to the enrolment in the several districts and parishes, and to the refurns which are to be made to the Secretary of lated under 54).

* The expense of such fitting has been calcu«

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