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honourable porte and maiestie that remayned in Marius, nat withstandynge that he was out of honorable apparaile, and was in garmentes torne and filthie, he thought that in his visage appiered the terrible bataile wherein Marius vainquisshed his countray men; he therfore all tremblyng, as constrayned by feare, dyd lette falle out of his hande the swerde wherewith he shulde haue slayne Marius, and leuyng hym untouched, fledde out of the place. The cause of his feare reported to the people, they meued with reuerence, afterwarde studied and deuised howe they moughte delyuer Marius from the malice of Scilla.
In Augustus, emperour of Rome, was a natiue maiestie. For, as Suetonius writeth, from his cien proceded rayes or beames, whiche perced the eien of the beholders. The same emperour spake seldome openly, but out of a comentaric, that is to say, that he had before prouided and writen, to the intente that he wolde speke no more ne lasse than he had purposed."
More ouer towarde the acquiring of maiestie, thre thinges be required to be in the oration of a man hauyng autoritie; that it be compendious, sententious, and delectable, hauyng also respecte to the tyme whan, the place where, and the persones to whom it is spoken. For the wordes perchance apte for a bankette or tyme of solace, be nat commendable in
• 'Oculos habuit claros ac nitidos, quibus etiam existimari volebat inesse quiddam divini vigoris; gaudebatque, si quis sibi acrius contuenti, quasi ad fulgorem Solis, vultum summitteret.'-Suet. Octavius, 79.
Sermones quoque cum singulis, atque etiam cum Liviâ suâ graviores, nonnisi scriptos, et è libello habebat, ne plus minusve loqueretur ex tempore.'— Ibid. 84.
Patrizi says: 'Regia oratio brevis, dilucida, et jucunda esse debet, cum verborum pondere et sententiarum gravitate.'-De Regno et Reg. Instit. lib. ii. tit. And Puttenham, who devotes a whole chapter to this subject, says: 'By reason of the sundry circumstances that man's affaires are, as it were, wrapt in, this decencie, comes to be very much alterable and subject to varietie, in so much as our speach asketh one maner of decencie, in respect of the person who speakes; another of his to whom it is spoken; another of whom we speake; another of what we speake, and in what place and time and to what purpose.'-Arte of Engl. Poesie, lib. iii. p. 220, ed. 1811.
tyme of consultation or seruice of god." That langage that in the chambre is tollerable, in place of iugement or great assembly is nothing commendable."
Of apparaile belongynge to a noble man, beinge a gouernour or great counsailour.
APPARAILE may be wel a parte of maiestie. For as ther hath bene euer a discrepance in vesture of youthe and age, men
'Non enim omnis fortuna, non omnis honos, non omnis auctoritas, non omnis dignitas, nec ætas, nec tempus, nec jocus, nec auditor omnis, eodem aut verborum genere tractandus est aut sententiarum, sed semper cogitandum est quid deceat.'— Patrizi, De Regno et Reg. lib. ii. tit. 10. Erasmus, in his hints on preaching, says: Jam ut magni refert, quas gemmas quo loco inseras, ita plurimum interest quod sententiæ genus ubi intertexas. Vitandum et illud ne præter decorum adhibeantur. Absurdum enim fuerit, si quis adolescentulo aut lenoni graves attribuat sententias, aut in re ludicrâ levique Stoicorum adhibeat paradoxa.'—Opera, tom. v. col. 1006, ed. 1704.
▸ Wilson has some amusing illustrations of the neglect of this precaution. 'In waightie causes graue woordes are thought moste nedeful, that the greatnesse of the matter maie the rather appere in the vehemencie of their talke. So likewise of other like order must be taken. Albeit some not onely doe not obserue this kind of aptnesse, but also thei doe fall into muche fondnes by usyng wordes out of place, and applying them to diuers matters without all discretion. As thus: an ignorant fellowe comming to a gentleman's place and seyng a great flocke of shepe in his pasture, said to the owner of them, "Nowe by my truth, sir, here is as goodly an audience of shepe as euer I sawe in my life." Who will not take this fellowe meeter to talke with shepe then speake among men? An other likewise, seyng an house faire builded, saied to his fellow thus: "Good lord, what a handsome phrase of buildyng is this?" There are good wordes euill used when thei are not well applied and spoken to good purpose. Therefore I wishe that suche untowarde speakyng maie giue us a good lesson to use our tongue warely, that our wordes and matter maie still agree together.'-Arte of Rhet. p. 168, ed. 1584.
• Puttenham must have had this passage in his mind when he wrote 'of Ornament,' for his language is almost identical. 'In the use of apparell there is no litle decency and undecencie to be perceiued, as well for the fashion as the stuffe, for it is comely that euery estate and vocation should be knowen by the differences of their habit a clarke from a lay man: a gentleman from a yeoman: a souldier
and women, and our lorde god ordayned the apparaile of preestis distincte from seculars, as it appiereth in holy scripture, also the gentiles had of auncient time sondry apparaile to sondry astates, as to the senate, and dignities called magistrates.a And what enormitie shulde it nowe be thought, and a thinge to laughe at, to se a iuge or sergeant at the lawe in a shorte cote, garded and pounced after the galyarde
rom a citizen, and the chiefe of euery degree from their inferiours, because in confusion and disorder there is no manner of decencie.-Arte of Eng. Poesie, lib. iii. P. 237, ed. 1811.
On comparing this chapter with the 38th chapter of Dugdale's Origines, the reader will not fail to observe the great similarity of language. It is probable, indeed, that Dugdale had studied The Governour, the work also of a lawyer, and if the following passage be collated with that in the text the probability appears to be reduced almost to a certainty. Dugdale says: "That peculiar and decent vestments have from great antiquity been used in religious services, we have the authority of God's sacred precept to Moses: Thou shalt make holy rayments for Aaron and his sons that are to minister unto me, that they may be for glory and beauty. And reason tells us that in places of Civil judicature it is not only proper that the Magistrate should be distinguished from others, but all possible care used that a venerable respect be had to his person and office. Hence was it that the most civilized people of the world did accordingly make it their practice-the Roman Senators having their vesture much different from that of the Gentry, viz. a garment bestudded with flourishings of purple silk in manner of broad Nayl; and the Consuls a solemn Robe of purple, by which they were known from other Magistrates and private men, with large embroydered works thereon, called Trabea, and in further honour of that their Consular dignity, xii Lictors, who bare their bundles of Rods and Axes before them, as also an Ivory Chair of State which was commonly carryed about for them in a Chariot, all which was done to draw a more awfull reverence to them than ordinary.'-Origines, p. 98, ed. 1671.
So Puttenham says: There is a decency of apparrel in respect of the place where it is to be used as in the Court to be richely apparrelled: in the country to weare more plain and homely garments. For who would not thinke it a ridiculous thing to see a Lady in her milke-house with a veluet gowne, and at a bridall in her cassock of mockado; a Gentleman of the Countrey among the bushes and briars goe in a pounced dublet and a paire of embrodered hosen, in the citie to weare a frise jerkin and a paire of leather breeches?'—Arte of Engl. Poesie, lib. iii. p. 238, ed. 1811. This was an age of sumptuary laws, and the Inns of Court made the most stringent regulations for the government of their members in the matter of dress. A few years later, viz. in 1554 the Benchers of the Middle Temple ordered 'that none of this Society should thenceforth wear any great Bryches in their Hoses, made after the Dutch, Spanish, or Almon (i.e. German) fashion, or Lawnde upon their Capps, or cut doublets, upon pain of iiis. ivd. forfaiture for the first default,
facion, or an apprentise of the lawe or pleder come to the barre with a millaine bonet or frenche hatte on his heed, sette
and the second time to be expelled the House.' And in 1557, general orders applying to all the Inns of Court were issued: "That none of the Companions, except Knights or Benchers, from the last day of September next, wear in their Doublets or Hoses any light colours, except scarlet and crimsons or wear any upper velvet Cap, or any Scarf or wings in their gowns, white Jerkyns, Buskins, or Velvet shoes, Double Cuffs on their shirts, feathers or ribbens on their Caps, upon pain to forfeit for the first default iiis. ivd., and the second expulsion without redemption.'Dugdale, Origines, pp. 191, 310.
This probably refers to the style of dress adopted by those who danced the 'gaillarde,' described in the first volume of this work, and which was of a lively character, for we are told: 'Aprez la pauane on dance coustumierement la gaillarde qui est legiere.'—Arbeau, Orchesographie, p. 33. In the very next year (1532) after the first appearance of The Governour, an Act of Parliament was passed 'for Reformacyon of Excesse in Apparayle,' which enacted that none but the King and members of the Royal Family should wear purple silk or cloth of gold tissue, and that no one who could not 'dispende' £100 per annum might wear any 'satene damaske silke chamlett or taffata in his gowne cote with sleves, or other uttermost apparell or garment, nor any maner of velvett otherwise than in sleveles jakettes, doublettes, coyfes, partelettes or purses, nor any furre wherof the like kynde groweth not within this realme of Englande, excepte foynes genettes, called Grey genettes and Bogye.' But it was expressly provided that the Act should not extende nor be hurtfull or prejudiciall to the Justices of the one Benche or the other, the Barons of the Kynges Eschequier, the Maister of the Rolles, Serjauntes at Lawe, the Masters of the Chauncerie, ne to any of the Counseill of the Quene, Prince, or Princesses, Apprentises of the Lawe, Recorders,' &c.; ‘ne to any utter Barrester of any of the Innes of Courte for wearing in any of his appareill suche silke and Furre' as was before limited for them that could dispend £20 per annum. 'Nor to any other student of the Innes of Courte or Chauncerye.' Servants and yeomen who could not dispende of freholde' 40 shillings per annum were prohibited from wearing their hoses 'garded or myxed with any other thing that may be sene on or thorough the utter parte of their hosen, but with the self same clothe onely;' nor any shirte or shirte bande, under or upper cappe, coiffe, bonnet or hatte garnysshed, myxte, made or wroughte with silke, gold, or silver.' The Act was to come into operation from the feast of the Purification of our Lady (2 Feb.) 1533.'
In the Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII. there are two or three entries relating to the purchase of 'Myllain bonets,' and the learned editor says: "What a Milan bonnet was does not exactly appear. In both instances they were bought for the king's fool.' The price charged to the king was eight shillings apiece. It is a curious fact that the tradesman of whom they were purchased is called in one instance Christopher Mylloner; and Sir Nicholas Nicolas says: A milloner of the 16th, was evidently a different sort of tradesman from the milliner of the 19th century,
full of plumes, poudred with spangles. So is there apparaile comely to euery astate and degree, and that whiche excedeth or lackethe, procureth reproche, in a noble man specially. For apparaile simple or scante, reprouethe hym of auarice." If it be alway exceding precious, and often tymes chaunged, as well in to charge as straunge and newe facions, it causeth him to be noted dissolute of maners."
for besides caps, bonnets, and gloves, he then sold knives, sheaths, girdles, jewels, &c.'-Ubi supra, p. 337. Is it not possible that the name of Mylloner was derived from the Myllayne bonnets which he sold? or because such trade was exercised specially by the Milanese? The Milan bonnets of the 16th century seems to have enjoyed the same sort of reputation as an article of commerce that those of Leghorn possessed in more modern times.
• So Patrizi says: 'Concludamus igitur maximam in Regibus Principibusque virtutem esse magnificentiam, à quâ quicumque abest, vix quippiam dignum laude agere potest, et in avaritiæ crimen facilè incurrit, detrectatoribusque obnoxius redditur.' -De Regno et Reg. Instit. lib. vii. tit. 11. Erasmus, however, considers frugality in a prince a sign of self-restraint. In aliis frugalitas aut mundicies vel inopiæ tribui potest vel parsimoniæ, si quis iniquius interpretetur. At eadem in Principe nihil aliud esse potest quàm temperantiæ documentum, cum is rebus modicè utitur, cui quantum libet, tantum suppetit.'-Instit. Prin. Christ. p. 23.
In vestitu mediocritatem servet, metiaturque se ad mensuram sui censûs. Ut enim turpe est sordidâ atque indecorâ veste uti, ita invidiosum nitidiore atque elegantiore, et præcipuè cum res familiaris minus suppetit, vel ubi æs alienum contractum est. Est etiam considerandum in vestitu, ut cultus concessus sit, et non discedat à consuetudine patriæ. Deceat personam, genus, ætatem, mores. Ut lauta vestis, quoad decet, dignitatem authoritatemque hominibus addit, sic muliebris et luxuriosa non corpus ornat, sed animum detegit.'-Patrizi, De Instit. Reipub. lib. v. tit. 10. Those about the Court, as usual, set the fashion and must be held responsible for their example. It was for this they incurred some years later Ascham's displeasure. If three or four great ones in court will needs outrage in apparel, in huge hose, in monstrous hats, in garish colours : let the prince proclaim, make laws, order, punish, command every gate in London daily to be watched; let all good men beside do every where what they can; surely the misorder of apparel in mean men abroad shall never be amended, except the greatest in court will order and mend themselves first.'-Works, vol. iii. p. 145, ed. 1864. Montaigne, at a still earlier period, invoked the assistance of Royalty itself to check the prevailing extravagance. 'Combien soubdainement viennent en honneur parmy nos armees les pourpoincts crasseux de chamois et de toile; et la polisseure et richesse des vestements à reproche et à mespris! Que les roys commencent à quitter ces despenses, ce sera faict en un mois, sans edict et sans ordonnance; nous irons touts aprez.'-Essais, tom. i. p. 433, ed. 1854.